• Title, Summary, Keyword: research evaluation

Search Result 20,667, Processing Time 0.075 seconds

Potential for Dependence on Lisdexamfetamine - In vivo and In vitro Aspects

  • Yun, Jaesuk;Lee, Kwang-Wook;Eom, Jang-Hyeon;Kim, Young-Hoon;Shin, Jisoon;Han, Kyoungmoon;Park, Hye-Kyung;Kim, Hyung Soo;Cha, Hye Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.25 no.6
    • /
    • pp.659-664
    • /
    • 2017
  • Although lisdexamfetamine is used as a recreational drug, little research exists regarding its potential for dependence or its precise mechanisms of action. This study aims to evaluate the psychoactivity and dependence profile of lisdexamfetamine using conditioned place preference and self-administration paradigms in rodents. Additionally, biochemical techniques are used to assess alterations in the dopamine levels in striatal synaptosomes following administration of lisdexamfetamine. Lisdexamfetamine increased both conditioned place preference and self-administration. Moreover, after administration of the lisdexamfetamine, dopamine levels in the striatal synaptosomes were significantly increased. Although some modifications should be made to the analytical methods, performing high performance liquid chromatography studies on synaptosomes can aid in predicting dependence liability when studying new psychoactive substances in the future. Collectively, lisdexamfetamine has potential for dependence possible via dopaminergic pathway.

Dependence Potential of the Synthetic Cannabinoids JWH-073, JWH-081, and JWH-210: In Vivo and In Vitro Approaches

  • Cha, Hye Jin;Lee, Kwang-Wook;Song, Min-Ji;Hyeon, Yang-Jin;Hwang, Ji-Young;Jang, Choon-Gon;Ahn, Joon-Ik;Jeon, Seol-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Uk;Kim, Young-Hoon;Seong, Won-Keun;Kang, Hoil;Yoo, Han Sang;Jeong, Ho-Sang
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.363-369
    • /
    • 2014
  • Synthetic cannabinoids (CBs) such as the JWH series have caused social problems concerning their abuse liability. Because the JWH series produces euphoric and hallucinogenic effects, they have been distributed illegally under street names such as "Spice" and "Smoke". Many countries including Korea have started to schedule some of the JWH series compounds as controlled substances, but there are a number of JWH series chemicals that remain uncontrolled by law. In this study, three synthetic CBs with different binding affinities to the $CB_1$ receptor (JWH-073, 081, and 210) and ${\Delta}^9$-tetrahydrocannabinol (${\Delta}^9$-THC) were evaluated for their potential for psychological dependence. The conditioned place preference test (unbiased method) and self-administration test (fixed ratio of 1) using rodents were conducted. $K_i$ values of the three synthetic cannabinoids were calculated as supplementary data using a receptor binding assay and overexpressed $CB_1$ protein membranes to compare dependence potential with $CB_1$ receptor binding affinity. All mice administered JWH-073, 081, or 210 showed significantly increased time spent at unpreferred space in a dose-dependence manner in the conditioned place preference test. In contrast, all tested substances except ${\Delta}^9$-THC showed aversion phenomenon at high doses in the conditioned place preference test. The order of affinity to the $CB_1$ receptor in the receptor binding assay was JWH-210 > JWH-081 >> JWH-073, which was in agreement with the results from the conditioned place preference test. However, no change in self-administration was observed. These findings suggest the possibility to predict dependence potential of synthetic CBs through a receptor binding assay at the screening level.

Dependence Potential of Tramadol: Behavioral Pharmacology in Rodents

  • Cha, Hye Jin;Song, Min Ji;Lee, Kwang-Wook;Kim, Eun Jung;Kim, Young-Hoon;Lee, Yunje;Seong, Won-Keun;Hong, Sa-Ik;Jang, Choon-Gon;Yoo, Han Sang;Jeong, Ho-Sang
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.22 no.6
    • /
    • pp.558-562
    • /
    • 2014
  • Tramadol is an opioid analgesic agent that has been the subject of a series of case reports suggesting potential for misuse or abuse. However, it is not a controlled substance and is not generally considered addictive in Korea. In this study, we examined the dependence potential and abuse liability of tramadol as well as its effect on the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in rodents. In animal behavioral tests, tramadol did not show any positive effects on the experimental animals in climbing, jumping, and head twitch tests. However, in the conditioned place preference and self-administration tests, the experimental animals showed significant positive responses. Taken together, tramadol affected the neurological systems related to abuse liability and has the potential to lead psychological dependence.

Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified foods (GMOs)

  • Lee, Jung-Hyun;Yoon, Won-Ki;Han, Sang-Bae;Yun, Si-On;Park, Sun-Hong;Lee, Hyun-Ju;Yoon, Pyung-Seop;Moon, Jae-Sun;Kim, Hyung-Chin;Kim, Hwan-Mook
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.267.1-267
    • /
    • 2002
  • The potential allergenicity of the transgene products in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). has been an important issue. As a part of the risk assessment of GMOs. we investigated the physicochemical stability and the immunogenicity of food allergens to determine their allergenicity. We have systematically evaluated the stability of food allergens in the gastrointestinal tract by using simple models of gastric (Stimulated gastric fluid) and intestinal (Stimulated intestinal fluid) digestion. (omitted)

  • PDF

SAFETY EVALUATION OF SUNSCREENS (I) ; CORRELATION BETWEEN SUN PROTECTION FACTOR AND SKIN IRRITATION

  • Suh, Soo-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Won;Park, Ju-Young;Seo, Kyung-Won;Park, Chang-Won;Kim, Kyu-Bong;Kim, Kwang-Jin;Kim, Jong-Min;Lee, Sun-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.138-138
    • /
    • 2002
  • In recent years, the safety of sunscreens has been challenged based on the reports of its adverse effect on users; dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, photoallergic contact dermatitis. To investigate a correlation between sun protection factor (SPF) and the safety of sunscreens, we measured in vitro SPF index using homosalate as a standard and examined the toxicity tests on cosmetics; primary and cumulative skin irritation tests, ocular irritation test, and skin sensitization test.(omitted)

  • PDF