• Title, Summary, Keyword: reheating

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A Numerical Study on the Efficiency of an Industrial Furnace for Oxygen Combustion Conditions (산소부화용 공업로의 운전조건이 열효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kang-Min;Lee, Yeon-Kyung;Ahn, Seok-Gi;Kim, Gyu-Bo;Yoo, In;Jeon, Chung-Hwan
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2015
  • After a reheating furnace installation, the modification of the size and the heat capacity is very difficult. Therefore, the development of design package tool is required for the computation on the correct specifications before the design and the installation. Prior to development of the design tool, a module that calculates the amount of heat loss of each part according to the specifications for determining the thermal efficiency of a continuous heating furnace was developed and applied to the oxy-fuel industrial furnace. Through this, the effects of fuel type, oxygen fraction and recirculation on the efficiency of the furnace of which the output is 110Ton/hour were analyzed. In oxy-fuel combustion condition, the efficiency was 15% higher than air combustion conditions. With the using COG(Coke Oven Gas) instead of LNG, the efficiency was slightly increased. In the air combustion condition, the efficiency was increased about 33% with the preheated air. But, in oxy-fuel condition, the amount of exhaust gas was reduced, so the efficiency was increased about 7%.

Lipid Oxidation in Roasted fish Meat III. Changes in Heme Compounds in Roasted and/or Reheated Dark Muscled Fish (어육의 배소에 의한 지질산화에 관한 연구 III. 적색육어의 배소 및 재가열에 의한 heme 화합물의 변화)

  • CHO Ho-Sung;LEE Kang-Ho;JOO Dong-Sik;KIM Gyeong-Eup;LIM Sang-Sun;LEE Jong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.483-488
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    • 1998
  • In order to elucidate the effect of heme compounds on lipid oxidation in roasted and/or reheated mackerel and pacific saury, changes in myoglobin, metmyoglobin, total iron, nonheme iron and heme iron content were measured. Throughout the steps of roasting, heating and reheating, myoglobin content was decteased more rapidly roasted at $180^{\circ}C$ for 20 min in fillet samples than those roasted at $200^{\circ}C$ for 15 min or $220^{\circ}C$ for 10 min. When the skinless samples were roasted at $180^{\circ}C$ for 20 min, about $38\%$ of myoglobin in raw meat were remained. The skinless fillet roasted at the lower temperature resulted the higher level of metmyoglobin due to the reduced myoglobin. Regardless of roasted temperature and time, total iron content was retained the level of raw meat throughout processing. 2 times of nonheme iron content was noted in the skinless fillet samples roasted at $180^{\circ}C$ for 20 min. All samples, heme iron content was decreased much lower by roasted temperature and in absence of skin on fillet. It was decreased about $33\%$ when roasted at $180^{\circ}C$ for 20 min in the skinless fillet in case of pacific saury.

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Risk Factor Analysis for Preventing Foodborne Illness in Restaurants and the Development of Food Safety Training Materials (레스토랑 식중독 예방을 위한 위해 요소 규명 및 위생교육 매체 개발)

  • Park, Sung-Hee;Noh, Jae-Min;Chang, Hye-Ja;Kang, Young-Jae;Kwak, Tong-Kyung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.589-600
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    • 2007
  • Recently, with the rapid expansion of the franchise restaurants, ensuring food safety has become essential for restaurant growth. Consequently, the need for food safety training and related material is in increasing demand. In this study, we identified potentially hazardous risk factors for ensuring food safety in restaurants through a food safety monitoring tool, and developed training materials for restaurant employees based on the results. The surveyed restaurants, consisting of 6 Korean restaurants and 1 Japanese restaurant were located in Seoul. Their average check was 15,500 won, ranging from 9,000 to 23,000 won. The range of their total space was 297.5 to $1322.4m^2$, and the amount of kitchen space per total area ranged from 4.4 to 30 percent. The mean score for food safety management performance was 57 out of 100 points, with a range of 51 to 73 points. For risk factor analysis, the most frequently cited sanitary violations involved the handwashing methods/handwashing facilities supplies (7.5%), receiving activities (7.5%), checking and recording of frozen/refrigerated foods temperature (0%), holding foods off the floor (0%), washing of fruits and vegetables (42%), planning and supervising facility cleaning and maintaining programs of facilities (50%), pest control (13%), and toilet equipped/cleaned (13%). Base on these results, the main points that were addressed in the hygiene training of restaurant employees included 4 principles and 8 concepts. The four principles consisted of personal hygiene, prevention of food contamination, time/temperature control, and refrigerator storage. The eight concepts included: (1) personal hygiene and cleanliness with proper handwashing, (2) approved food source and receiving management (3) refrigerator and freezer control, (4) storage management, (5) labeling, (6) prevention of food contamination, (7) cooking and reheating control, and (8) cleaning, sanitation, and plumbing control. Finally, a hygiene training manual and poster leaflets were developed as a food safety training materials for restaurants employees.

Analysis of Critical Control Points through Field Assessment of Sanitation Management Practices in Foodservice Establishments (현장실사를 통한 급식유헝별 위생관리실태 분석)

  • Kwak Tong-Kyung;Lee Kyung-Mi;Chang Hye-Ja;Kang Yong-Jae;Hong Wan-Soo;Moon Hye-Kyung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.290-300
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    • 2005
  • Increased sanitation management of foodservice establishments is required because most of the reported foodborne-disease outbreaks were in the foodservice industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the important control points for good sanitation. In this study, we inspected twenty foodservice establishments in Seoul, Kyunggi, Kyungnam with a self-developed monitoring tool. These foodservice establishments included secondary schools, universities, and industries. Six of them had appointed as the HACCP-certified establishments from the Korea Food and Drug Administration. The inspection was conducted from June to August in 2002. The inspection tool consisted of nine dimensions and sixty-five items. The dimensions were 'personal sanitation', 'supply of raw food', 'food storage', 'handling of raw food and ready-to-eat', 'cleaning and sterilization', 'waste control', 'pest control', and 'control of establishment and equipment' The highest possible score of this inspection tool is 105 points. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SPSS Package(11.0) for descriptive analysis Kruskal-Wallis. The score for the secondary schools (83.6 points) was higher than for the others and number of in compliance item was 50.9 on average. Therefore, we concluded that the secondary schools' sanitation condition was good. The foodservice establishments acquired HACCP certification was 89.7 points, which was significantly higher than that of establishments not applying foodservices in total score. Instituting the HACCP system in a foodservice is very effective for sanitation management. Many out of the compliance observations were found in the dimensions of 'waste control', 'control of establishment and equipment', and 'supply of raw food' 'Clean condition of refrigerator' item was $65\%$ out of the compliance that was the highest percent in this study. 'Notify and observance of heating/reheating temperature' was $45\%$ out of compliance. Items which were over $30\%$ out of compliance were 'sterilization of knifes and chopping boards in cooking', 'education of workers', 'maintain refrigerator temperature blow $5^{\circ}C$', and 'countermeasure of infection workers' In the results, most of the foodservice establishments were poorly managed in temperature control and cross-contamination. The important control points revealed in this study were preventing contamination, cooking temperature compliance, management of raw food and refrigerator. Therefore foodservice establishments should pay attention to education and training about important control points. The systematic sanitation management monitoring tool developed in this study can be effectively applied for conducting self-inspection and improving the sanitary conditions of their own foodservice operations.