• Title, Summary, Keyword: regulatory T cells

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Regulatory T Cells in B Cell Follicles

  • Chang, Jae-Hoon;Chung, Yeonseok
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.227-236
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    • 2014
  • Understanding germinal center reactions is crucial not only for the design of effective vaccines against infectious agents and malignant cells but also for the development of therapeutic intervention for the treatment of antibody-mediated immune disorders. Recent advances in this field have revealed specialized subsets of T cells necessary for the control of B cell responses in the follicle. These cells include follicular regulatory T cells and Qa-1-restricted cluster of differentiation $(CD)8^+$ regulatory T cells. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge related to the role of regulatory T cells in the B cell follicle.

Regulatory T Cells and Infectious Disease

  • Rouse, Barry T.;Sehrawat, Sharvan
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 2007
  • Various cell types that express regulatory function may influence the pathogenesis of most and perhaps all infections. Some regulatory cells are present at the time of infection whereas others are induced or activated in response to infection. The actual mechanisms by which different types of infections signal regulatory cell responses remain poorly understood. However a most likely mechanism is the creation of a microenvironment that permits the conversion of conventional T cells into cells with the same antigen specificity that have regulatory function. Some possible means by which this can occur are discussed. The relationship between regulatory cells and infections is complex especially with chronic situations. The outcome can either be of benefit to the host or damage the disease control process or in rare instances appears to be a component of a finely balanced relationship between the host and the infecting agent. Manipulating the regulatory cell responses to achieve a favorable outcome of infection remains an unfulfilled objective of therapeutic immunology.

Effects of APF and CsA on the number of regulatory T cells, NK T cells and gammadelta T cells in OVA-induced murine model of asthma (OVA로 유도된 천식 모델 생쥐에서 목천료자(木天蓼子)가 조절 T 세포, NK T 세포 및 gammadelta T 세포수 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seung-Hyung;Roh, Seong-Soo;Lee, Jang-Cheon;Seo, Young-Bae;Lee, Young-Cheol
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : To clarify the effects of Actinidia polygama and CsA on OVA-induced asthma model, we examined the influence of Actinidia polygama fructus extract (APF) and CsA on the number of regulatory T cells, NKT cells and ${\gamma}{\delta}$ T cells in murine model of asthma. Methods : All mice were immunized on two different days (21 days and 7 days before inhalational exposure) by i.p. injections of OVA in PBS. Seven days after the second sensitization, mice were exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin for 30 min/day on 3 days/week for 12 weeks and APF (400, 40 mg/kg) were orally administered 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Results : The suppressive effects of APF on asthma model were demonstrated by the increase the number of regulatory T cells, ${\gamma}{\delta}$ T cells and by reducing the number of NK T cells. Conclusion : These results indicate that APF has a deep inhibitory effect on airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in murine model of asthma by increase the number of regulatory T cells, and ${\gamma}{\delta}$ T cells and by reducing the number of NK T cells.

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Presence of Foxp3-expressing CD19(+)CD5(+) B Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Human CD19(+)CD5(+)Foxp3(+) Regulatory B Cell (Breg)

  • Noh, Joon-Yong;Choi, Wahn-Soo;Noh, Geun-Woong;Lee, Jae-Ho
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.247-249
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    • 2010
  • Foxp3 is a transcript factor for regulatory T cell development. Interestingly, Foxp3-expressing cells were identified in B cells, especially in CD19(+)CD5(+) B cells, while those were not examined in CD19(+)CD5(-) B cells. Foxp3-expressing CD5(+) B cells in this study were identified in human PBMCs and were found to consist of $8.5{\pm}3.5%$ of CD19(+)CD5(+) B cells. CD19(+)CD5(+)Foxp3(+) B cells showed spontaneous apoptosis. Rare CD19(+)CD5(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory B cell (Breg) population was unveiled in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and suggested as possible regulatory B cells (Breg) as regulatory T cells (Treg). The immunologic and the clinical relevant of Breg needs to be further investigated.

The Role of Regulatory T Cells in Cancer

  • Ha, Tai-You
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.209-235
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    • 2009
  • There has been an explosion of literature focusing on the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in cancer immunity. It is becoming increasingly clear that Treg cells play an active and significant role in the progression of cancer, and have an important role in suppressing tumor-specific immunity. Thus, there is a clear rationale for developing clinical strategies to diminish their regulatory influences, with the ultimate goal of augmenting antitimor immunity. Therefore, manipulation of Treg cells represent new strategies for cancer treatment. In this Review, I will summarize and review the explosive recent studies demonstrating that Treg cells are increased in patients with malignancies and restoration of antitumor immunity in mice and humans by depletion or reduction of Treg cells. In addition, I will discuss both the prognostic value of Treg cells in tumor progression in tumor-bearing hosts and the rationale for strategies for therapeutic vaccination and immunotherapeutic targeting of Treg cells with drugs and microRNA.

Research on the Effect of Gardeniae Fructus on Regulatory T Cell Stimulation (조절 T세포에 미치는 치자(梔子)의 효과)

  • Seo, San;Jung, Hee-Jae;Jung, Sung-Ki
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.189-200
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : Regulatory T cells can reduce inflammation and allergic reactions through their inhibitory functions. Gardeniae Fructus(GF) is a Heat-clearing herb used in traditional Korean medicine, and a wide range of studies on its antiinflammatory effects are being carried out. The authors investigated the effect that Gardeniae Fructus has on regulatory T cells. Methods : The authors screened 14 herbs for their effects on regulatory T cells. 100mg of each herb were separately dissolved in 1ml of sterile saline and the supernatant was harvested after 10 minutes of centrifuge at 15,000 rpm. The supernatant was filtered through a 0.2 ${\mu}m$ syringe filter, and the resulting stock was refrigerated at $4^{\circ}C$. The stock was diluted before testing and used at a final concentration of $0.01{\mu}g/ml$. CD4+CD25+ T cells from healthy BALB/c spleens were used as natural regulatory T cells (nTreg), and CD4+CD25- T cells were used as reactive T cells. CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells were activated with anti-CD3e ($10{\mu}g/m{\ell}$)/anti-CD28 ($1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$) and cultured. IL-10 from supernatant of the culture medium was measured by IL-10 cytokine ELISA. The percentages, cell numbers, phenotype and function of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells were determined by flow cytometry. Results : Gardeniae Fructus was shown to be the most potent herb among the 14 herbs tested for suppressing CD4+CD25- reactive T cell proliferation by stimulating CD4+CD25+ natural regulatory T cells. Gardeniae Fructus induces IL-10 secretion increase by stimulating CD4+CD25+ natural regulatory T cells, and indirectly suppresses CD4+CD25- reactive T cell proliferation through increasing CD25 (IL-2 receptor $\alpha$) expression and thus promoting bonding with IL-2. Gardeniae Fructus did not directly affect CD4+CD25- reactive T cell proliferation. Conclusions : Gardeniae Fructus suppressed reactive T cell proliferation through inducing increases in IL-10 secretion and CD25 (IL-2 receptor $\alpha$) expression.

PLZF+ Innate T Cells Support the TGF-β-Dependent Generation of Activated/Memory-Like Regulatory T Cells

  • Kang, Byung Hyun;Park, Hyo Jin;Park, Hi Jung;Lee, Jae-Il;Park, Seong Hoe;Jung, Kyeong Cheon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.468-476
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    • 2016
  • PLZF-expressing invariant natural killer T cells and CD4 T cells are unique subsets of innate T cells. Both are selected via thymocyte-thymocyte interaction, and they contribute to the generation of activated/memory-like CD4 and CD8 T cells in the thymus via the production of IL-4. Here, we investigated whether $PLZF^+$ innate T cells also affect the development and function of $Foxp3^+$ regulatory CD4 T cells. Flow cytometry analysis of the thymus and spleen from both CIITA transgenic C57BL/6 and wild-type BALB/c mice, which have abundant $PLZF^+$ CD4 T cells and invariant natural killer T cells, respectively, revealed that $Foxp3^+$ T cells in these mice exhibited a $CD103^+$ activated/memorylike phenotype. The frequency of $CD103^+$ regulatory T cells was considerably decreased in $PLZF^+$ cell-deficient $CIITA^{Tg}Plzf^{lu/lu}$ and $BALB/c.CD1d^{-/-}$ mice as well as in an IL-4-deficient background, such as in $CIITA^{Tg}IL-4^{-/-}$ and $BALB/c.IL-4^{-/-}$ mice, indicating that the acquisition of an activated/ memory-like phenotype was dependent on $PLZF^+$ innate T cells and IL-4. Using fetal thymic organ culture, we further demonstrated that IL-4 in concert with TGF-${\beta}$ enhanced the acquisition of the activated/memory-like phenotype of regulatory T cells. In functional aspects, the activated/ memory-like phenotype of Treg cells was directly related to their suppressive function; regulatory T cells of $CIITA^{Tg}PIV^{-/-}$ mice more efficiently suppressed ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation compared with their counterparts from wild-type mice. All of these findings suggest that $PLZF^+$ innate T cells also augmented the generation of activated/memory-like regulation via IL-4 production.

Regulatory T Cell Therapy for Autoimmune Disease

  • Ha, Tai-You
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.107-123
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    • 2008
  • It has now been well documented in a variety of models that T regulatory T cells (Treg cells) play a pivotal role in the maintenance of self-tolerance, T cell homeostasis, tumor, allergy, autoimmunity, allograft transplantation and control of microbial infection. Recently, Treg cell are isolated and can be expanded in vitro and in vivo, and their role is the subject of intensive investigation, particularly on the possible Treg cell therapy for various immune-mediated diseases. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that Treg cells can prevent or even cure a wide range of diseases, including tumor, allergic and autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, graft-versus-host disease. Currently, a large body of data in the literature has been emerging and provided evidence that clear understanding of Treg cell work will present definite opportunities for successful Treg cell immunotherapy for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. In this Review, I briefly discuss the biology of Treg cells, and summarize efforts to exploit Treg cell therapy for autoimmune diseases. This article also explores recent observations on pharmaceutical agents that abrogate or enhance the function of Treg cells for manipulation of Treg cells for therapeutic purpose.

Peripheral Generation of $CD4^+CD25^+Foxp3^+$ Regulatory T Cells

  • Kim, Byung-Seok;Park, Young-Jun;Kang, Chang-Yuil
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2007
  • [ $CD4^+CD25^+$ ] regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the lineage-specific marker Foxp3 represent an important regulatory T cell that is essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance. Although it was believed that Treg development is solely dependent on the thymus, accumulating evidence demonstrates that Tregs can also be induced in the periphery. Considering the various origins of peripherally developed $CD4^+CD25^+Foxp3^+$ regulatory T cells, it seems likely that multiple factors are involved in the peripheral generation of Tregs.

Comparison Analysis of Immune Cells between CT26 Tumor Bearing Mice and Normal Mice

  • Lee, Na Kyung;Kim, Hong Sung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.147-155
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    • 2014
  • It has well studied that immune cells are strongly related to tumor progression and tumor suppression. To identify the difference of immune cell between tumor bearing mice and normal mice, we examined systemically the immune cell of CT26 tumor bearing mice on 21 days after tumor cell administration. As previously reported, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells population of tumor bearing mice significantly decreased 38% and 30% on day 21 compared to that of normal mice, respectively. All subpopulation of CD4 and CD8+ T cell significantly decreased, except CD49b+ T cell subpopulation. But, myeloid cell population ($CD11b^{high}$ and all Gr-1+ subpopulation) of tumor bearing mice significantly increased on day 21. Especially, all subpopulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ cell of tumor bearing mice significantly increased on day 21. Also, Foxp3+$CD25^{high}$ CD4 T cell (regulatory T cells) population significantly increased on day 21. These results suggest that tumor can induce the decline of T lymphocyte and the expansion of myeloid cells and regulatory T cells, and provide the basic information for the study of tumor immunology.