• Title, Summary, Keyword: reforming

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Experiment of DME autothermal reforming with CGO-based catalysts (CGO 담지 귀금속 촉매를 이용한 DME 자열개질 특성 연구)

  • Choi, Seunghyeon;Bae, Joongmyeon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.158.2-158.2
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    • 2011
  • DME is acronym of dimethyl ether, which is spotlighted as an ideal fuel to produce hydrogen due to its high hydrogen/carbon ratio, high energy density and easiness to carry. In this research, we calculated thermodynamic hydrogen (or syngas) yield from DME autothermal reforming and compared to other fuels. The reforming efficiency was about 80% above $700^{\circ}C$. Lower OCR has higher reforming efficiency but, it requires additional heat supply since the reactions are endothermic. SCR has no significant effect on the reforming efficiency. The optimized condition is $700^{\circ}C$, SCR 1.5, OCR 0.45 without additional heat supply. Comparing to other commercial gaseous fuels (methane and propane), DME has higher selectivity of $H_2O$ and $CO_2$ than the others due to the oxygen atom in the molecule. To apply DME autothermal reforming to real system, a proper catalyst is required. Therefore, it is performed the experiment comparing various novel metal catalysts based on CGO. Experiments were performed at calculated condition. The composition of product was measured and reforming efficiency was calculated. The catalysts have similar efficiency at high temperature(${\sim}800^{\circ}C$) but, CGO-Ru has the highest efficiency at low temperature ($600^{\circ}C$).

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The developments of heavy hydrocarbon reformer for SOFC

  • Bae, Jung-Myeon
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.58.2-58.2
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    • 2012
  • Heavy hydrocarbon reforming is a core technology for "Dirty energy smart". Heavy hydrocarbons are components of fossil fuels, biomass, coke oven gas and etc. Heavy hydrocarbon reforming converts the fuels into $H_2$-rich syngas. And then $H_2$-rich syngas is used for the production of electricity, synthetic fuels and petrochemicals. Energy can be used efficiently and obtained from various sources by using $H_2$-rich syngas from heavy hydrocarbon reforming. Especially, the key point of "Dirty energy smart" is using "dirty fuel" which is wasted in an inefficient way. New energy conversion laboratory of KAIST has been researched diesel reforming for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) as a part of "Dirty energy smart". Diesel is heavy hydrocarbon fuels which has higher carbon number than natural gas, kerosene and gasoline. Diesel reforming has difficulties due to the evaporation of fuels and coke formation. Nevertheless, diesel reforming technology is directly applied to "Dirty fuel" because diesel has the similar chemical properties with "Dirty fuel". On the other hand, SOFC has advantages on high efficiency and wasted heat recovery. Nippon oil Co. of Japan recently commercializes 700We class SOFC system using city gas. Considering the market situation, the development of diesel reformer has a great ripple effect. SOFC system can be applied to auxiliary power unit and distributed power generation. In addition, "Dirty energy smart" can be realized by applying diesel reforming technology to "Dirty fuel". As well as material developments, multidirectional approaches are required to reform heavy hydrocarbon fuels and use $H_2$-rich gas in SOFC. Gd doped ceria (CGO, $Ce_{1-x}Gd_xO_{2-y}$) has been researched for not only electrolyte materials but also catalysts supports. In addition, catalysts infiltrated electrode over porous $La_{0.8}Sr_{0.2}Ga_{0.8}Mg_{0.2}O_3-{\delta}$ and catalyst deposition at three phase boundary are being investigated to improve the performance of SOFC. On the other hand, nozzle for diesel atomization and post-reforming for light-hydrocarbons removal are examples of solving material problems in multidirectional approaches. Likewise, multidirectional approaches are necessary to realize "Dirty energy smart" like reforming "Dirty fuel" for SOFC.

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The Study on Methane Reforming by CO2 and Steam for Manufacture of Synthesis Gas (합성가스 제조를 위한 CO2/수증기에 의한 메탄 개질반응 연구)

  • Cho, Wonihl;Lee, Seung-Ho;Mo, Yong-Gi;Sin, Donggeun;Baek, Youngsoon
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.301-308
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    • 2004
  • The methane reforming with $CO_2$ and steam for manufacture of synthesis gas over $Ni/ZrO_2$ catalyst was investigated. Mixed reforming carried out $CO_2$ dry reforming with $O_2$ and steam for development of DME process in pilot plant. To improve a catalyst deactivation by coke formation, the mixed reforming added carbon dioxide and steam as a oxidizer of the methane reforming was suggested. The result of experiments over commercial catalyst in $CO_2$ dry reforming has shown that the catalyst activity decrease rapidly after 20 hours. In case of $NiO-MgO/Al_2O_3$ catalyst, the deactivation of 20 percent after 30 hours was occurred. The activity of Ni/C catalyst still was not decreased dramatically after 100 hours. The effect of $H_2$ reforming with steam over $Ni/CO_2$ catalyst obtained the optimal conversion of methane and carbon dioxide, and could be produced synthesis gas at ratio of $H_2/CO$ under 1.5.

Simulation for the Evaluation of Reforming Parameter Values of the Natural Gas Steam Reforming Process for a Small Scale Hydrogen-Fueling Station (소규모 수소 충전소용 천연가스 수증기 개질공정의 수치모사 및 공정 변수 값의 산정)

  • Lee, Deuk-Ki;Koo, Kee-Young;Seo, Dong-Joo;Seo, Yu-Taek;Roh, Hyun-Seog;Yoon, Wang-Lai
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.12-25
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    • 2007
  • Numerical simulation of the natural gas steam reforming process for on-site hydrogen production in a $H_2$ fueling station was conducted on the basis of process material and heat balances. The effects of reforming parameters on the process efficiency of hydrogen production were investigated, and set-point values of each of the parameters to minimize the sizes of unit process equipments and to secure a stable operability of the reforming process were suggested. S/C ratio of the reforming reactants was found to be a crucial parameter in the reforming process mostly governing both the hydrogen production efficiency and the stable operability of the process. The operation of the process was regarded to be stable if the feed water(WR) as a reforming reactant could evaporate completely to dry steam through HRSG. The optimum S/C ratio was 3.0 where the process efficiency of hydrogen production was maximized and the stable operability of the process was secured. The optimum feed rates of natural gas(NGR) and WR as reforming reactants and natural gas(NGB) as a burner fuel were also determined for the hydrogen production rate of $27\;Nm^3/h$.

Hydrogen Production from Methane Reforming Reactions over Ni/MgO Catalyst

  • Wen Sheng Dong;No, Hyeon Seok;Zhong Wen Liu;Jeon, Gi Won;Park, Sang Eon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1323-1327
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    • 2001
  • The catalyst Ni/MgO (Ni : 15 wt%) has been applied to methane reforming reactions, such as steam reforming of methane (SRM), partial oxidation of methane (POM), and oxy-steam reforming of methane (OSRM). It showed high activity and good stability in all the reforming reactions. Especially, it exhibited stable catalytic performance even in stoichiometric SRM (H2O/CH4 = 1). From TPR and H2 pulse chemisorption results, a strong interaction between NiO and MgO results in a high dispersion of Ni crystallite. Pulse reaction results revealed that both CH4 and O2 are activated on the surface of metallic Ni over the catalyst, and then surface carbon species react with adsorbed oxygen to produce CO.

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Steam Reforming of Methane in a Solar Concentrated Receiver Reactor (집광된 태양열을 반응기에서의 메탄 수증기개질 연구)

  • Kim, Ki-Man;Nam, Woo-Seok;Han, Gui-Young;Seo, Tae-Beom;Kang, Yong-Heack
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.172-175
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    • 2006
  • Steam reforming of methane using Xe-arc solar simulator was studied for converting solar radiation into energy foam that one can readily utilize. The Xe-arc lamp produce a spectrum similar to that of the sun. SiC ceramic foam, resist high temp.$(>900^{\circ}C)$, is used to catalytically active foam absorber, and to support of reforming catalyst. The catalyst on the surface of foam were directly irradiated with solar simulated xe-light in order to carry out the steam reforming of methane. The reactor was made of stainless steel and quartz window was located on a place of the xe-light irradiation and temperature was controlled using K-type thermocouple in contact with catalyst located inside the reactor. The result show that a possibility of solar reforming using catalytically active foam absorber is exist.

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Operating Characteristics of LNG burner for Steam Reforming of Natural Gas (천연가스 수증기개질 반응용 LNG 버너의 운전 특성)

  • Shin, Jang-Sik;Park, Jong-Won;Yang, Hye-Kyong;Lee, Seung-Young;Song, Bong-Hyun;Shin, Seock-Jae
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.477-480
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    • 2006
  • In this study, we investigated operating characteristics of the LNG burner for steam methane reforming. The developed LNG burner and catalytic reactor to supply an efficient heat transfer between the combustion gas and catalyst got a good response of various operating load within 5-7 minute and high efficiency for steam methane reforming as a conversion of methane over 90%. We calculated the volume of catalyst for $1Nm^3/hr$ steam LNG reforming as $211cc/(Nm^3/hr\;H_2)$ and got the operating condition and design data of the burner and steam reforming for LNG.

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Study on dry reforming and partial oxidation of methane. (대기압 플라즈마를 이용한 메탄의 건식개질과 부분산화반응의 비교)

  • Hwang, Na-Kyung;Cha, Min-Suk;Lee, Dae-Hoon;Song, Young-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2892-2897
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    • 2008
  • Plasma techniques have been proposed to generate a hydrogen enrich gas to investigate a feasibility of plasma techniques on a fuel reforming, we considered a dry reforming and a partial oxidation with methane in the atmospheric pressure. For these experiments, we employed an arc jet plasma reactor. The effects of input power and oxidizer in each process were investigated by product analysis, including carbon monoxide, hydrogen, ethylene, propane, and acetylene as well as methane and carbon dioxide. In both processes, input electrical power activated the reactions significantly. The increased ratio of the carbon dioxide to methane in the dry reforming doesn't affect to a methane conversion, whereas increased ratio of oxidizer to methane in the partial oxidation was very effective for the reaction. Moreover, for a simultaneous treatment of methane and carbon dioxide, a feasibility of a dry reforming combined with partial oxidation also has been investigated.

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Study on carbon deposition in diesel autothermal reformer (디젤 자열개질기 내 탄소침적에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Sang-Ho;Kang, In-Yong;Bae, Joong-Myeon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.37-40
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    • 2007
  • Diesel autothermal reforming(ATR) is an effective method for hydrogen production. But, diesel ATR has several problems such as the sulfur poisoning of catalyst and carbon deposition during reforming reactor. Especially, carbon deposition is a severe problem, which causes rapid performance degradation, in the reforming reaction. Ethylene among the reformate gas is a carbon precursor. Effective decomposition of ethylene is an important issue. In this paper, we investigated the carbon deposition from ethylene in the reforming reaction for proper reaction condition of diesel ATR. We achieved relatively high performance of diesel ATR under $H_{2}O/C=0.8$, $O_{2}/C=3$ condition that was based on the experiment of ethylene reforming reaction.

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A Numerical Study on the Heat and Fluid Flow in Steam Reforming Reactor (수증기 개질 반응로에 대한 열유동 해석)

  • Han, Jeongok;Lee, Joongseong;Lee, Yeongcheol;Hong, Seongho;Hong, Sungkook;Dong, Sangkeun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2013
  • A numerical study on the heat and fluid flow has carried out for the design of the steam reforming reactor which consists of six reforming tubes and one burner. Reforming reaction calculation is coupled with the heat and fluid flow one. The burner type in the reforming reactor is chosen through the fluid flow calculation according to different type of burner structure. It is shown that the significant temperature gradient exists in the reforming reactor, affecting the component variation along the length of reforming tube. The component ratio of reforming gas is changed by the variation of SCR and GHSV.