• Title, Summary, Keyword: reforming

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Methane Reforming Using Atmospheric Plasma Source (대기압 플라즈마를 이용한 메탄 개질 반응)

  • Lee, Dae-Hoon;Kim, Kwan-Tae;Cha, Min-Suk;Song, Young-Hoon;Kim, Dong-Hyeon
    • 한국연소학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.64-68
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    • 2005
  • Methane reforming processes to obtain hydrogen were investigated experimentally by using atmospheric plasma source. Among possible reforming processes, such as a $CO_2$ reforming(dry reforming), a partial oxidation (POx), a steam reforming(SR), and a steam reforming with oxygen(SRO or auto-thermal reforming), partial oxidation and the steam reforming with oxygen were considered. We choose a rotating arc plasma as an atmospheric plasma source, since it shows the best performances in our preliminary tests in terms of a methane conversion, a hydrogen production, and a power consumption. Then, the effects of a feeding flow-rate, an electrical power input to a plasma reaction, an $O_2/C$ ratio and a steam to carbon ratio in the case of SRO on the reforming characteristics were observed systematically. As results, at a certain condition almost 100% of methane conversion was obtained and we could achieve the same hydrogen production rate by consuming a half of electrical power which was used by the best results for other researchers.

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Atomization Effects of Diesel on Autothermal Reforming Reaction (디젤연료의 미립화에 따른 자열개질 반응특성에 관한 연구)

  • Bae, Joong-Myeon;Yoon, Sang-Ho;Kang, In-Yong
    • Journal of ILASS-Korea
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.234-243
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    • 2006
  • Diesel autothermal reforming (ATR) is a chemical process to produce hydrogen for fuel cell applications. Several previous studies were carried out to identify technical issues in diesel reforming. It is hard to vaporize diesel due to its high boiling points. Liquid droplets of diesel result in inhomogeneous fuel mixing with other reactants such as $O_2\;and\;H_2O$, which leads to reduce the reforming efficiency and make undesired coke in reactor. To solve the fuel delivery issue, we applied an ultrasonic device as a fuel injection system. Ultrasonic injector (UI) remarkably enhanced the reforming efficiency. This paper will present the reforming results using UI. And we will discuss about atomization effects of diesel on autothermal reforming reaction.

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Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells

  • Roh, Hyun-Seog;Jun, Ki-Won
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.153-156
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    • 2009
  • Low temperature methane steam reforming to produce $H_2$ for fuel cells has been calculated thermodynamically considering both heat loss of the reformer and unreacted $H_2$ in fuel cell stack. According to the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, it is possible to operate methane steam reforming at low temperatures. A scheme for the low temperature methane steam reforming to produce $H_2$ for fuel cells by burning both unconverted $CH_4$ and $H_2$ to supply the heat for steam methane reforming has been proposed. The calculated value of the heat balance temperature is strongly dependent upon the amount of unreacted $H_2$ and heat loss of the reformer. If unreacted $H_2$ increases, less methane is required because unreacted $H_2$ can be burned to supply the heat. As a consequence, it is suitable to increase the reaction temperature for getting higher $CH_4$ conversion and more $H_2$ for fuel cell stack. If heat loss increases from the reformer, it is necessary to supply more heat for the endothermic methane steam reforming reaction from burning unconverted $CH_4$, resulting in decreasing the reforming temperature. Experimentally, it has been confirmed that low temperature methane steam reforming is possible with stable activity.

Numerical Analysis of Steam-methane Reforming Reaction for Hydrogen Generation using Catalytic Combustion (촉매 연소를 열원으로 한 수증기-메탄개질반응 전산유체해석)

  • Lee, Jeongseop;Lee, Kanghoon;Yu, Sangseok;Ahn, Kookyoung;Kang, Sanggyu
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2013
  • A steam reformer is a chemical reactor to produce high purity hydrogen from fossil fuel. In the steam reformer, since endothermic steam reforming is heated by exothermic combustion of fossil fuel, the heat transfer between two reaction zones dominates conversion of fossil fuel to hydrogen. Steam Reforming is complex chemical reaction, mass and heat transfer due to the exothermic methane/air combustion reaction and the endothermic steam reforming reaction. Typically, a steam reformer employs burner to supply appropriate heat for endothermic steam reforming reaction which reduces system efficiency. In this study, the heat of steam reforming reaction is provided by anode-off gas combustion of stationary fuel cell. This paper presents a optimization of heat transfer effect and average temperature of cross-section using two-dimensional models of a coaxial cylindrical reactor, and analysis three-dimensional models of a coaxial cylindrical steam reformer with chemical reaction. Numerical analysis needs to dominant chemical reaction that are assumed as a Steam Reforming (SR) reaction, a Water-Gas Shift (WGS) reaction, and a Direct Steam Reforming(DSR) reaction. The major parameters of analysis are temperature, fuel conversion and heat flux in the coaxial reactor.

Design Parametric Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell and Hybrid Systems (PEM 연료전지 및 하이브리드 시스템의 설계변수 해석)

  • You, Byung-June;Lee, Young-Duk;Ahn, Kook-Young;Kim, Tong-Seop
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.448-456
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    • 2007
  • Performance of PEM fuel cell systems and hybrid systems combining a PEMFC with a gas turbine have been evaluated. Two different reforming methods(steam reforming and autothermal reforming) were considered. Performances of fuel cell systems with two reforming methods were compared and effects of various design parameters on the system performance were investigated. Configurations of PEM fuel cell systems with two reforming methods have been revised to accommodate a gas turbine, resulting in PEMFC/GT hybrid systems. Performance of the hybrid systems were analyzed and compared with those of PEM systems. Influences of major design parameters on the hybrid system performance were also investigated.

Experimental study on operation of diesel autothermal reformer for SOFC system (SOFC 시스템용 디젤 자열개질기 운전을 위한 기초 연구)

  • Yoon, Sang-Ho;Kang, In-Yong;Bae, Joong-Myeon
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2015-2020
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    • 2007
  • Diesel is an excellent candidate fuel for fuel cell applications due to its high hydrogen density and well-established infrastructure. But, it is hard to guarantee desirable performance of diesel reformer because diesel reforming has several problems such as sulfur poisoning of catalyst and carbon deposition. We have been focusing on diesel autothermal reforming(ATR) for substantial period. It is reported that ATR of diesel has several technical advantages such as relatively high efficiency and fuel conversion compared to steam reforming(SR) and partial oxidation(POX). In this paper, we investigate characteristics of diesel reforming under various ratios of reactants(oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio) for improvement of reforming performances(high reforming efficiency, high fuel conversion, low carbon deposition). We also exhibit calculated heat balance of autothermal reformer at each condition to help thermal management of SOFC system.

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Numerical Investigation on Combustion, Heat Transfer and Reforming Reaction for Methane Steam Reformer (메탄 수증기 개질반응기에서 연소, 열전달 및 개질반응 특성 연구)

  • Seo, Yong-Seog;Seo, Dong-Joo;Seo, Yu-Taek;Yoon, Wang-Lai
    • 한국연소학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study is to numerically investigate a compact reformer system currently under development and to design a better reforming system with more efficient heat transfer and reforming reactions. Numerical models were established separately for both the combustion part and the reforming reaction part. A comparison between the calculation results and experimental data showed that the concentration of the reformate at the exit of the reforming system was in good agreement with the measured data, but for the temperature at the exit little difference between them was found. After checking the validity of the numerical models, the heat transfer between the combustion gas and reforming catalysts was estimated and the behavior of the catalyst bed was investigated as a function of the operation parameters.

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NUMERICAL STUDY OF STREAM REFORMING IN PRECONVERTER FOR MCFC (MCFC용 프리컨버터 수증기 개질반응의 수치연구)

  • Byun, Do-Hyun;Sohn, Chang-Hyun
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.228-232
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, various operating parameters of stream reforming process from methane in preconverter for MCFC is studied by numerical method. Commercial code is used to simulated the porous catalyst with user subroutine to model three dominant chemical reactions which are Stream Reforming(SR), Water-Gas Shift(WGS), and Direct Stram Reforming(DSR). The hydrogen production is tested with different wall temperature, Gas Hourly Space Velocity(GHSV), and different reactor shapes.

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Study on hydrocarbon reforming using microchannel catalysts (마이크로 채널을 이용한 탄화수소 연료개질에 관한 연구)

  • Bae, Gyu-Jong;Park, Joon-Geun;Bae, Joong-Myeon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.33-36
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    • 2007
  • Currently, many structured catalysts using microchannel are researched to apply to fuel reforming. In this paper, ceramic monolith and metal mesh as structured catalysts are investigated for catalytic autothermal reforming. When GHSV increases, each structured catalyst has better performances(hydrogen production, fuel conversion) than packed bed catalyst for autothermal reforming. The major causes seem to be the elevated heat and mass transfer, gas phase reaction and redistribution of packed bed due to high pressure drop.

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Analyzing Operational Efficiency of GTL Reforming Process by using Aspen Plus (Aspen Plus를 이용한 GTL Reforming 공정별 운전효율 비교)

  • Bae, Jihan;Kim, Yongheon;Kim, Jaeho
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.143-143
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    • 2010
  • GTL(Gas-to-Liquids)공정 중 합성가스 제조공정(Reforming Process)인 ATR(Auto-Thermal Reforming), SCR(Steam Carbon Reforming), POx(Partial Oxidation)의 시뮬레이션 연구를 수행하였다. Reforming 공정에서 생산된 합성가스는 GTL 합성유 제조공정인 FT(Fischer-Thropsch) 반응기로 주입되며, 합성유 생산에 최적의 효율을 보이는 H2/CO 비(합성가스에 포함된 반응물비)는 2.0으로 알려져 있다. FT공정은 합성가스를 원료로 고온 및 고압 반응을 거쳐 GTL 공정의 최종 생산품인 FT합성유를 제조하는 공정이다. 본 연구에서는 FT공정 효율 극대화를 위해 reforming 공정에서 생성되는 합성가스 내 H2/CO의 비를 2로 수렴토록 모사조건을 설정하였으며, 상기 조건을 만족하는 reforming 공정들의 운전 온도 및 feed 조성을 분석하고 비교하고자 한다. 현재 GTL 플랜트관련 산업계에 적용 혹은 주 연구대상인 reforming 공정으로는 ATR, SCR, POx 공정이 있다. ATR 공정은 $850{\sim}1100^{\circ}C$에서 메탄, 스팀 및 산소를 원료로 활용하여 H2 및 CO를 생산하는 공정으로 발열/흡열 반응이 상존하여 에너지 비용이 낮지만 공정구조 상 열회수설비 및 ASU(Air Separation Unit)이 필요하기에 CAPEX(초기설비 설치비용)가 높은 편이다. SCR공정은 CH4, Steam 및 CO2를 연료로 하기에 이산화탄소가 일정부분 포함된 가스전에도 적용이 가능하나 공정 운전 중 지속적으로 외부에서 열을 공급해야 하기에 에너지 투입비용이 높은편이며, 탄소침적의 문제가 있어 대용량 플랜트에는 적합하지 않다. POx공정은 약 $1,500^{\circ}C$의 고온에서 CH4가 O2에 의해 부분 산화되는 방식으로 촉매가 필요없어 설비비가 타 공정에 비해 저렴하나 생산가스의 H2/CO비가 다소 낮아 전체적인 GTL 공정효율이 저하되는 단점이 있다. 상기 세 공정은 GTL 산업계에서 실증 및 효율증대를 위해 주로 연구되는 공정이기에 본 연구의 분석대상으로 설정하였다. 본 연구에서는 상용공정모사기인 Aspen Plus를 활용하여 reforming 공정별로 FT합성공정의 최적 조건(H2/CO=2)을 만족하는 합성가스 생산조건 분석 및 비교를 수행할 예정이다. 운전조건인 공정 운전온도 및 feed 가스조성 등을 모사하기 위해 합성가스 reforming 공정을 모델링하고 공급유량 및 압력 등의 운전변수는 GTL국책과제 1단계 연구수행 결과를 토대로 선정하고자 한다. GTL공정의 경우, 설비의 운전조건이나 연료가스의 구성 및 유량에 따라 적합한 reforming 공정이 다르기에 본 시뮬레이션 결과를 향후 GTL 플랜트 공정모델 설계시 reforming 공정선정에 참고자료로 활용하고자 한다.

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