• Title, Summary, Keyword: reflux

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Urinary Tract Infection Following Voiding Cystourethrography (배뇨 방광 요도 조영술 시행 후 발생하는 요로 감염에 대한 고찰)

  • Ryu, Jung-Min;Ahn, Yo-Han;Lee, So-Hee;Choi, Hyun-Jin;Lee, Beom-Hee;Kang, Hee-Gyung;Ha, Il-Soo;Cheong, Hae-Il;Choi, Yong
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Voiding cystourethrography(VCUG) is required to detect vesicoureteral reflux(VUR), which may manifest as urinary tract infection(UTI) in children. It is well known that VCUG can cause UTI(post-VCUG UTI). In this study, risk factors for post-VCUG UTI and the preventive effect of antibiotics against this complication of VCUG were explored. Methods : Medical records of 284 patients who underwent VCUG at our hospital in 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of post-VCUG UTI and risk factors for post-VCUG UTI, and the impact of antibiotic use on prevention of post-VCUG UTI were evaluated. According to antibiotics usage, we divided the enrolled patients into 4 groups of noantibiotics group, prophylactic antibiotics group(prophylactic antibiotics having been used before), antibiotics-for-VCUG group(antibiotics added for VCUG) and antibiotics-for-treatment group(treatment dose of antibiotics). Results : Seven of 284 children(2.5%) developed UTI after they underwent VCUG. Highgrade(grade$\geq$III) VUR was the only statistically significant risk factor(odds ratio[OR] 6.266, P=0.026) for post-VCUG UTI, while sex, age, and other anomalies of urinary system were not significant. Five post-VCUG UTI cases belonged to prophylactic antibiotics group. Antibiotics use (three groups using antibiotics vs. no-antibiotics group) or addition of antibiotics for VCUG (antibiotics-for-VCUG vs. other groups) did not have any effect on prevention of post-VCUG UTI. Conclusion : The risk factor for post-VCUG UTI was high-grade VUR. Antibiotics use did not prevent post-VCUG UTI in this study.

Changes in Major Constituents by Extracting of Acanthopanax koreanum Root with Water and Ethanol Solution (탐라오가피 뿌리의 에탄올 추출 중에 유용성분의 변화)

  • Yang, Young-Taek;Lim, Ja-Hun;Kim, Jong-Hyun;Ko, Kyung-Soo;Koh, Jeong-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.421-426
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    • 2008
  • In older to prepare functional food materials from Acanthopanax koreanum, changes of major constituents by extracting with water and ethanol were investigated Extracting 300 g of below 0.5 cm size dried sample in 7.5 L of water or $30{\sim}95%$ ethanol for 9 hr at $100^{\circ}C$ were carried out pH during extraction was between 4.0 and 6.5. Color b-value of extracts was increased according to lower ethanol concentration and longer extraction time. Color a-value and b-value was increased more in stem than in root Extracts were increased rapidly within $2{\sim}3\;hr$. The extract in $30{\sim}70%$ ethanol was $0.84{\sim}1.34%(w/v)$ with root Main free sugar of extracts was sucrose in root. The eleutherosides were extracted rapidly within 3 hr, moreover were increased in water or $30{\sim}70%$ ethanol more than 95% ethanol concentration. Extraction of acanthoic acid from root was more affected on ethanol concentration than extracted time, moreover it was detected only trace by extracting with water. Furthermore, acanthoic acid was extracted rapidly within 2 hr in $50{\sim}70%$ ethanol, and was extracted 3 times higher with 70% ethanol than with 30% ethanol. The content of acanthoic acid in residue after extraction was affected largely by extraction solvents. The extraction efficiency in 70, 50 and 35% of ethanol concentration was about 95, 90 and 35% respectively. The eleutherosides were extracted to 95% with water or nature of water and ethanol. Therefore, the reflux extraction in $40{\sim}70%$ ethanol concentration for $3{\sim}5\;hr$ was adequate for extraction of functional materials from Acanthopanax koreanum.

Isolation of Isoflavones and Soyasaponins from the Germ of Soybean (콩 배아로 부터 Isoflavone과 Soyasaponin의 동시 분리)

  • Kim, Sun-Lim;Lee, Jae-Eun;Kim, Yul-Ho;Jung, Gun-Ho;Kim, Dea-Wook;Lee, Choon-Ki;Kim, Mi-Jung;Kim, Jung-Tae;Lee, Yu-Young;Hwang, Tae-Young;Lee, Kwang-Sik;Kim, Wook-Han;Kwon, Young-Up;Kim, Hong-Sig;Chung, Ill-Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.149-160
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    • 2013
  • The objective of present study was to simultaneously isolate of isoflavone and soyasaponin compounds from the germ of soybean seeds. Soy germ flours were defatted with hexane for 48h at room temperature, and methanolic extracts were prepared using reflux apparatus at $90^{\circ}C$ for 6h, two times. After extraction, extracts were separated with preparative RP-$C_{18}$ packing column ($125{\AA}$, $55-105{\mu}m$, $40{\times}150mm$), and collected 52 fractions were identified with TLC plate (Kieselgel 60 F-254) and HPLC, respectively. Among the identified isoflavone and soyasaponin fractions, isoflavone fractions were re-separated using a recycling HPLC with gel permeation column (Jaigel-W252, $20{\times}500mm$). Final fractions were air-dried, and the purified compounds of two isoflavones (ISF-1-1, ISF-1-2) and four soyasaponins (SAP-1, SAP-2, SAP-3, SAP-4) were obtained. Two isoflavone compounds (ISF-1-1, ISF-1-2) were acid-hydrolyzed for the identification of their aglycones, and confirmed by comparing with 12 types of isoflavone isomers. While the four kinds of soyasaponins were identified by using a micro Q-TOF mass spectrometer in the ESI positive mode with capillary voltage of 4.5kV, and dry temperature of $200^{\circ}C$. Base on the obtained results, it was conclude that ISF-1-1 is the mixture isomers of daidzin (43.4%), glycitin (47.0%), and genistin (9.6%), but ISF-1-2 is the single compound of genistin (99.8% <). On the other hand, soyasaponin SAP-1 is the mixture compounds of soyasaponin A-group (Aa, Ab, Ac, Ae, Af); SAP-2 is soyasaponin B-group (Ba, Bb, Bc) and E-group (Bd, Be); SAP-3 is soyasaponin B-group (Ba, Bb, Bc), E-group (Bd, Be), and DDMP-group (${\beta}g$); SAP-4 is soyasaponin B-group (Ba, Bb, Bc), E-group (Bd, Be), and DDMP-group (${\beta}g$, ${\beta}a$), respectively.

Differences in the Clinical Characteristics of Children with Urinary Tract Infections Based on the Results of $^{99m}Tc$-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Renal Scanning (요로감염 소아에서 입원 초기 시행한 DMSA 신 스캔 결과에 따른 임상양상의 차이에 대한 연구: DMSA 신 스캔의 임상적 의미)

  • Kim, Dong Ouk;Lee, Sang Min;Lee, Jeong Bong;Ko, Young Bin;Kim, Su Jin
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.110-116
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The $^{99m}Tc$-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan is used primarily for the diagnosis of renal scarring and acute pyelonephritis in children with urinary tract infections (UTI). This study aimed to evaluate clinical differences based on the positive or negative results of DMSA scans and kidney ultrasonography (US) in pediatric UTI. Method: We retrospectively reviewed 142 pediatric patients with UTI who were admitted to Myongji Hospital from January 2004 to December 2012. We performed a comparative analysis of clinical parameters such as age, sex, white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil count, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level, creatinine (Cr) level, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and durations of hospitalization and fever, grouped by the results of the DMSA scans and kidney US. Results: The mean age of the patients was $33.8{\pm}48.3$ months, and 78 (55%) were male. Fifty-two patients had abnormal DMSA findings, and 71 patients had abormal kidney US findings (test positive groups). In the DMSA scan positive group, there were significant differences in age, WBC counts, neutrophil counts, CRP level, BUN level, Cr level, hospitalization duration, number of abnormal findings on kidney US, and incidence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) compared with the scan negative group. The kidney US positive group had significant differences in age, neutrophil count, CRP level, BUN level, Cr level, hospitalization duration, number of abnormal findings on the DMSA scans, and more frequent VUR compared with the US negative group. Conclusion: Our data suggest that there were no major differences in clinical parameters based on the results of the DMSA scans compared with kidney US in pediatric UTI. However, as kidney US and DMSA scan were performed to predict VUR, the sensitivity and negative predictive value was increased.

Antioxidant, Physiological Activities, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Portulaca oleracea Extracts with Different Extraction Methods (추출방법에 따른 쇠비름의 항산화, 생리활성 및 Acetylcholinesterase 저해활성)

  • Kwon, Yu-Ri;Cho, Sung-Mook;Hwang, Seung-Pil;Kwon, Gi-Man;Kim, Jae-Won;Youn, Kwang-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2014
  • The physiological properties of 70% ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea with different extraction methods (reflux extraction, RE; autoclave extraction, AE; low temperature high pressure extraction, LTPE) were investigated. The freeze-dried powder yields of RE, AE, and LTPE were 33.78%, 30.80%, and 11.05%, respectively. The color values of L and b were higher in LTPE, and the chroma values were higher in AE and LTPE compared to RE. The total polyphenolics and proanthocyanidin contents in LTPE were significantly higher than in other extracts. The amount of substances related to flavonoids contents was highest in RE (4.30 mg/g), followed by AE (4.06 mg/g), and LTPE (4.00 mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging ability with a concentration of 500 mg% (w/v) were in the following order; LTPE (88.87%)> RE (83.84%)> AE (80.67%). Further, the reducing power, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and nitrite scavenging activity was observed in the same tendency as seen with the DPPH radical scavenging ability. However, the ferrous ion chelating activity of RE (85.45%) and AE (83.88%) was significantly higher than that of LTPE (75.60%). ${\alpha}$-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of RE and LTPE with a concentration of 100 mg% were significantly higher than AE. Xanthine oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of LTPE were higher than the other extracts. These results suggest that the extracts from Portulaca oleracea have the potential to act as functional materials, and components of Portulaca oleracea could be effective in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease, and may be used to develop various functional food products.

Clinical Significance of Extended-Spectrum ${\beta}$-Lactamase Producing $Escherichia$ $coli$ in Pediatric Patients with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection (발열성 소아 요로감염에서 Extended-Spectrum ${\beta}$-Lactamase 생성 $Escherichia$ $coli$의 임상적 의의)

  • Park, Cheol;Kim, Min-Sang;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Yim, Hyung-Eun;Yoo, Kee-Hwan;Hong, Young-Sook;Lee, Joo-Won
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The incidence of community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) due to extended-spectrum ${\beta}$-lactamase producing $Escherichia$ $coli$ (ESBL(+) $E.$ $coli$) has increased worldwide. ESBL causes resistance to various types of the newer ${\beta}$-lactam antibiotics, including the expanded spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams. We aimed to investigate the severity of UTI and associated genitourinary malformations in children with febrile UTI caused by ESBL(+) $E.$ $coli$. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 290 patients diagnosed as febrile UTI caused by $E.$ $coli$ between January 2008 and October 2010 at Korea University Medical center. We classified the patients into two groups with ESBL(+) and ESBL(-) $E.$ $coli$ group according to the sensitivity of urine culture. Fever duration, admission period, white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) in peripheral blood, the presence of hydronephrosis, cortical defects, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal scar were compared between the two groups. Results: Patients with ESBL(+) $E.$ $coli$ were 32, and those with ESBL(-) $E.$ $coli$ were 258. If we excluded those tested with a sterile urine bag, patients with ESBL(+) $E.$ $coli$ were 22, and those with ESBL(-) $E.$ $coli$ were 212. Whether the results of sterile urine bag tests were included or not, there was no significant difference in all parameters between the two groups statistically. Conclusion: Our data shows that ESBL(+) $E.$ $coli$ may not be related to the severity of UTI and associated genitourinary malformations.

Comparison of Antioxidant and Physiological Properties of Jerusalem Artichoke Leaves with Different Extraction Processes (추출방법에 따른 돼지감자 잎의 항산화 및 생리활성 비교)

  • Kim, Jae-Won;Kim, Jong-Kyoun;Song, In-Seong;Kwon, Eun-Sung;Youn, Kwang-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.68-75
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    • 2013
  • The physiological properties of water extracts from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) leaves (JAL) with different extraction processes (stirrer extraction, SE; reflux extraction, RE; autoclave extraction, AE; low temperature high pressure extraction, LTPE) were investigated. The freeze-dried powder yields of SE, RE, AE, and LTPE were 22.33%, 29.88%, 31.65, and 15.74%, respectively. AE showed the highest value of extract yield. The $a^*$ and $b^*$ values were higher in AE compared to other extracts. Total polyphenolics and flavonoids contents in AE was significantly higher than in other extracts. The amount of proanthocyanidin related substances were highest in LTPE (29.36 mg/g), followed by RE (21.57 mg/g), SE (20.35 mg/g), and AE (13.02 mg/g). The electron donating abilities of SE, RE, AE, and LTPE at a concentration of $500{\mu}g/mL$ (w/v) were 76.16%, 39.55%, 25.50%, and 12.59%, respectively. Reducing power for the four different processes was 1.79, 1.60, 1.51, and 1.17, respectively. Additionally the same tendency was observed with electron donating ability and reducing power for ABTS radical and nitrite scavenging abilities. AE and LTPE showed relatively high antioxidant activities. Alpha-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of LTPE at a concentration of $500{\mu}g/mL$ (w/v) were somewhat higher than other extracts. Additionally, there was significantly higher or little lower inhibitory activity compared to the control group. In conclusion, we provided experimental evidence that extracts of JAL have potential as functional materials, and component analysis of JAL could be used as new cosmeceuticals. Also, LTPE is the superior method for the enhancement of biological activity.

Inhibitory Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Aster glehni on Xanthine Oxidase and Content Determination of Bioactive Components Using HPLC-UV (섬쑥부쟁이 에탄올 추출물의 잔틴산화효소 저해 효능 및 HPLC-UV를 이용한 유효성분의 함량 분석)

  • Kang, Dong Hyeon;Han, Eun Hye;Jin, Changbae;Kim, Hyoung Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.11
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    • pp.1610-1616
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to establish an optimal extraction process and high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analytical method for determination of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-DCQA) as a part of materials standardization for the development of a xanthine oxidase inhibitor as a health functional food. The quantitative determination method of 3,5-DCQA as a marker compound was optimized by HPLC analysis using a Luna RP-18 column, and the correlation coefficient for the calibration curve showed good linearity of more than 0.9999 using a gradient eluent of water (1% acetic acid) and methanol as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and a detection wavelength of 320 nm. The HPLC-UV method was applied successfully to quantification of the marker compound (3,5-DCQA) in Aster glehni extracts after validation of the method with linearity, accuracy, and precision. Ethanolic extracts of A. glehni (AGEs) were evaluated by reflux extraction at 70 and $80^{\circ}C$ with 30, 50, 70, and 80% ethanol for 3, 4, 5, and 6 h, respectively. Among AGEs, 70% AGE at $70^{\circ}C$ showed the highest content of 3,5-DCQA of $52.59{\pm}3.45mg/100g$ A. glehni. Furthermore, AGEs were analyzed for their inhibitory activities on uric acid production by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. The 70% AGE at $70^{\circ}C$ showed the most potent inhibitory activity with $IC_{50}$ values of $77.01{\pm}3.13{\sim}89.96{\pm}3.08{\mu}g/mL$. The results suggest that standardization of 3,5-DCQA in AGEs using HPLC-UV analysis would be an acceptable method for the development of health functional foods.

Literary Investigation of Food-Therapy(食治方) Using Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) - Korean Medicine Literature in 1300's-1600's - (조(속미(粟米)·출미(秫米))를 이용한 식치방(食治方)의 문헌(文獻) 조사 -1300년대에서 1600년대 한국 의서(醫書)를 중심으로-)

  • Park, Soon-Ae;Choi, Mi-Ae;Kim, Mi-Lim
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.791-805
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    • 2015
  • Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) is a native Korean herbal medical food and a native millet, and Koreans have eaten it as a substitute for rice since ancient times. Foods using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) have been recorded not only in cookbooks but also in Korean traditional medical books several times. Therefore, the purposes of this study was to investigate Food-Therapy (食治) using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) recorded in the literature from 1300 to 1600 from early to mid-Joseon (朝鮮) and provide data required to develop menus for Yaksun (藥膳, herbal food). This study examined Food-Therapy using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) in 10 types of literatures from the 1300s to the 1600s. and is described in the literature a total of 63 times. According to classification by cooking method, porridge (粥) was most frequently mentioned in the literature at 27 times. The cooking method of Soup (湯) is described 11 times. Cooking methods such as porridge juice and soup are frequently used since those methods are digestive and absorptive. Other food ingredients described using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) are white leek (Allii Fistulosi Bulbus) ginger (Zingiber officinale), chicken egg, Allium chinense, sparrow (Passer montanus), rooster liver, Du-si, crucian carp (Carassius auratus L), and white broiler. Other medicinal herbs described with Setaria italica are Panax ginseng (人蔘), Poria cocos (茯笭), Angelica acutiloba (當歸), Ziziphus jujuba (大棗), Liriopeplatyphylla (麥門冬), and cinnamon (肉桂). Food-Therapy using Setaria italica L. Beauv was described as a prescription for stomach and spleen (脾胃), stomach reflux (反胃), defecation and urinary disorder (大小便難), cholera, deficiency syndrome (虛症), and tonification (補益). This focus on promoting health and preventing diseases by strengthening the stomach and spleen and improving defecation and urination using Food-Therapy when herbal medicine was rare.

Clinical Characteristics of Chronic Cough in Korea

  • An, Tai Joon;Kim, Jin Woo;Choi, Eun Young;Jang, Seung Hun;Lee, Hwa Young;Kang, Hye Seon;Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung;Lee, Jong Min;Kim, Sung-Kyung;Shin, Jong-Wook;Park, So Young;Rhee, Chin Kook;Moon, Ji-Yong;Kim, Yee Hyung;Lee, Hyun;Kim, Yong Hyun;Kim, Je Hyeong;Lee, Sang Haak;Kim, Deog Kyeom;Yoo, Kwang Ha;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Jung, Ki-Suck;Kim, Hui Jung;Yoon, Hyoung Kyu;Cough Study Group of the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.83 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2020
  • Background: Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines. Methods: This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, exsmokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines. Results: Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response. Conclusion: The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.