• Title, Summary, Keyword: reflux

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A Comparative Study of Sepiae Os, Arcae Concha, Ostreae Concha and Esomeprazole in a Mouse Model of Reflux Esophagitis (역류성 식도염 생쥐 모델에서 해표초, 와릉자, 모려와 Esomeprazole의 치료효과에 대한 비교 연구)

  • Song, Chang-Hun;Baek, Tae-Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.92-105
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: This aim of this study is to compare the reflux esophagitis improvement effects of Sepiae Os, Arcae Concha, Ostreae Concha, and Proton Pump Inhibitor(esomeprazole) through rat experiments. Methods: NO production inhibitory effect was measured by NO production amount and iNOS mRNA expression level in cell lines. iNOS, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $p-I{\kappa}B$, and serotonin were compared using immunohistochemistry at the rat reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis connection external form, lower esophageal sphincter, and gap were observed and an esophageal inflammatory indicator, IL-6 activity was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: NO production and iNOS mRNA expression was showed concentration dependent decrease in cell lines treated with Sepiae OS, Arcae Concha, and Ostreae Concha at the experiments of cell lines. In the suppression of iNOS and $p-I{\kappa}B$ at the rat reflux esophagitis, Sepiae Os treat group(SOT) and Ostreae Concha treat group(OCT) were more effective. In the increase of serotonin at the rat reflux esophagitis, ACT, MT and OCT were more effective. Damage of lower esophageal sphincter, and gap between esophageal keratin and mucosa were observed less at the SOT, ACT, OCT. In the suppression of IL-6 at the rat reflux esophagitis, SOT and OCT were more effective than GE and, SOT was more effective than MT significantly. Conclusions: The anti-inflammatory effect was the best in the SOT and lower esophageal sphincter muscle contraction was the best in the ACT at the rat reflux esophagitis. Sepiae OS was more effective than esomeprazole in the suppression of iNOS, $TNF-{\alpha}$, and IL-6.

Acute Epididymitis due to Urinary Reflux into Seminal Vesicle : A Case Report (요도정낭 역류로 인한 급성 부고환염 1례)

  • Yu Je-Yun;Jung Wu-Cheul;Kong Mi-Hee;Kim Young-Soo;Pai Ki-Soo
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.106-111
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    • 2003
  • We experienced a 4-month-old boy presenting with fever and painful scrotal swelling. Diagnostic work-up showed the presence of urinary tract infection and concurrent acute epididymitis. On the voiding cystourethrography, vesicoureteral reflux and urinary reflux through the ejaculatory duct and the seminal vesicle were detected without obvious urethral obstruction. In general, urinary reflux into the seminal vesicle can take place with obstructive lesions of the urethra and may cause epididymitis in infants. We report a case of urinary reflux without urethral obstruction with a brief review of related literatures.

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Protective Effect of ECQ on Rat Reflux Esophagitis Model

  • Jang, Hyeon-Soon;Han, Jeong Hoon;Jeong, Jun Yeong;Sohn, Uy Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to determine the protective effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extracts containing quercetin-3-${\beta}$ -D-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on experimental reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced by surgical procedure. The rats were divided into seven groups, namely normal group, control group, ECQ (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) group and omeprazole (30 mg/kg) group. ECQ and omeprazole groups received intraduodenal administration. The Rats were starved for 24 hours before the experiments, but were freely allowed to drink water. ECQ group attenuated the gross esophagitis significantly compared to that treated with omeprazole in a dose-dependent manner. ECQ decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the gastric pH, which are similar to those of omeprazole group. In addition, ECQ inhibited the acid output effectively in reflux esophagitis. Significantly increased amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the mucosal depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) were observed in the reflux esophagitis. ECQ administration attenuated the decrement of the GSH levels and affected the MDA levels and MPO activity. These results suggest that the ECQ has a protective effect which may be attributed to its multiple effects including anti-secretory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions on reflux esophagitis in rats.

Dogma of Extraesophaghgeal Reflux (식도 외 역류의 도그마)

  • Park, Il-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 2016
  • Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) disease is an extraoesophageal variant of gastro-esophageal reflux disease that can affect the larynx and pharynx. LPR is associated with symptoms of laryngeal irritation such as throat clearing, coughing, and hoarseness. The main diagnostic methods currently used are laryngoscopy and pH monitoring. The most common laryngoscopic signs are redness and swelling of the throat. However, these findings are not specific of LPR and may be related to other causes or can even be found in healthy individuals. Furthermore, the role of pH monitoring in the diagnosis of LPR is controversial. A therapeutic trial with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been suggested to be cost-effective and useful for the diagnosis of LPR. However, the recommendations of PPI therapy for patients with a suspicion of LPR are based on the results of uncontrolled studies, and high placebo response rates suggest a much more complex and multifactorial pathophysiology of LPR than simple acid reflux. Laryngoscopy and pH monitoring have failed as reliable tests for the diagnosis of LPR. Empirical therapy with PPIs is widely accepted as a diagnostic test and for the treatment of LPR. However, further research is needed to develop a definitive diagnostic test for LPR.

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A Review of Making the Modern Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Reflux Disease: the Lyon Consensus (위식도 역류 질환의 최신 진단 진료지침: Lyon Consensus 소개)

  • Kim, Tae-oh;Jung, Hye-Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.74 no.6
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    • pp.321-325
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    • 2019
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is diagnosed according to the medical history or in response to proton pump inhibitor therapy. However, the need for further testing is always appropriate. The decisive evidence for the current diagnosis of GERD is severe erosive esophagitis of Los Angeles grade C or D, long-segment Barrett's mucosa or peptic strictures seen on endoscopy or an acid exposure time >6% on ambulatory pH or pH impedance monitoring. If ambulatory reflux monitoring correlates between reflux and the symptoms, then the diagnosis and treatment are certain. If it is difficult to clearly diagnose this malady as seen upon endoscopy and ph/pH impedance monitoring, then this review recommends the biopsy findings, motor evaluation and novel impedance metrics. Novel impedance metrics include the baseline impedance and the post reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index. Therefore, making a future GERD diagnosis should focus on defining the patient's phenotype. The phenotype is determined by the level of reflux exposure, clearance efficacy, anatomy of the esophageal gastric junction, and the psychological state of the patient. The purpose of this review is to clarify the diagnostic guideline for GERD according to several test methods.

Gastroesophageal Reflux in Peptic Ulcer Patients (소화성 궤양 환자에서 위식도 역류)

  • Suh, Joong-San;Kim, Jong-Hyeok;Chung, Moon-Kwan
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.302-308
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    • 1999
  • Background: It is well known fact to the patients of duodenal ulcer that their condition is frequently accompanied with reflux esophagitis. Therefore this condition is called an "acid-related disorder" because it is commonly associated with increased acidity. But there has been disputes on the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication in these two conditions and whether H. pylori infection may have a protective role in reflux esophagitis. Only few reports have dealt with the prevalence of reflux esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux in patients with peptic ulcer The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux and to analyze the pattern of the pathologic reflux in peptic ulcer patients. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 57 patients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal and/or gastric ulcer who all underwent 24hr ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. Results: The prevalance of gastroesophageal reflux in peptic ulcer patients was 54.2% and 54,5% in gastric ulcer, and 62.5% in duodenal ulcer, 50% in combined ulcer, respectively. The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in the control group was 22.7% Conclusion: We discovered significantly higher prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with peptic ulcer disease than in those without it. In conclusion, the presence or absence of gastroesophageal reflux must be considered in the setting of peptic ulcer disease management.

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A Family Screening of Patients with Vesicoureteral Reflux (방광 요관 역류 환아의 가족 선별 검사에 관한 연구)

  • Kang Hee;Kim Hyung Jin;Yoo Kee Hwan;Hong Young Sook;Lee Joo Won;Kim Soon Kyum
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Vesicoureteral reflux is the most commonly inherited disease detected in children with urinary tract infection. The incidence of vesicoureteral reflux among siblings of children with known vesicoureteral reflux is 8$\%$ to 45$\%$ according to different authors. Family screening of a patient with vesicoureteral reflux is important in order to prevent reflux nephropathy. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of vesicoureteral reflux in asymptomatic family of children with vesicoureteral reflux and the factors which influence the family history. Methods : The study group consisted of 27 families of patients with vesicoureteral reflux. The total number in the group were 79 persons. BUN, Cr, urineanalysis, voidingcystourethrography(VCUG) and 99mTc -dimercaptosuccinic acid(DMSA) renal scan were performed oil tile siblings. As for tile parents the same tests were performed except the VCUG. Results : The abnormality was detected in 7 of 27 families(25.9$\%$). Vesicoureteral reflux was detected in 5 of 20 siblings and renal scar ns detected in 3 of 32 parents. In children with vesicoureteral reflux, renal scar was detected in 24 of 32 children. Between the group with the abnormality in its family(Group A) and the group without the abnormality in its family(Group B), There was no difference of creatinine clearance between two groups. More renal scars were detected in group A according to the DMSA(A:100$\%$, B:75$\%$. t-test P<0.05). There was no difference of grade of VCUG between two groups. There was no difference between one site and both sites in two groups. In tile case of tile siblings with vesicoureteral reflux, there was high incidence of renal scar in a patient with vesicoureteral reflux according to the DMSA. Conclusion : It is important to screen vesicoureteral reflux and renal scar in case of urinary tract infection to prevent reflux nephropathy. This study implies that it is necessary to screen the family of a patient with vesicoureteral reflux especially with renal scar. (J, Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 5 : 36- 42, 2001)

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Predictive Efficacy of Radioisotope Voiding Cystography for Renal Outcome (방사성동위원소 배뇨방광촬영술의 신장예후 예측성능)

  • Kim, Seok-Ki;Lee, Dong-Soo;Kim, Kwang-Myeung;Choi, Whang;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.135-143
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: As vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) could lead to renal functional deterioration when combined with urinary tract infection, we need to decide whether operative anti-reflux treatment should be performed at the time of diagnosis of VUR. Predictive value of radioisotope voiding cystography (RIVCG) for renal outcome was tested. Materials and Methods: In 35 children (18 males, 17 females), radiologic voiding cystoure-thrography (VCU), RIVCG and DMSA scan were performed. Change in renal function was evaluated using the follow-up DMSA scan, ultrasonography, and clinical information. Discriminant analysis was performed using individual or integrated variables such as reflux amount and extent at each phase of voiding on RIVCG, in addition to age, gender and cortical defect on DMSA scan at the time of diagnosis. Discriminant function was composed and its performance was examined. Results: Reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase had a significant prognostic value. Total reflux amount was a composite variable to predict prognosis. Discriminant function composed of reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase showed better positive predictive value and specificity than conventional reflux grading. Conclusion: RIVCG could predict renal outcome by disclosing characteristic reflux pattern during various voiding phases.

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Clinical Significance of Intrarenal Reflux in Children withUrinary Tract Infection (요로감염 환아에서 신실질내 역류의 임상적 의의)

  • Lim, Beom-Taek;Lee, Hae-Sang;Pai, Ki-Soo
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.186-193
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Intrarenal reflux(IRR) is backflow of urine from the renal pelvis into the collecting ducts. IRR is the main cause of renal injury in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) which leads to renal scars, hypertension, proteinuria, and chronic renal failure. The purpose of our study was to investigate the characteristics of intrarenal reflux. Method : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 80 patients who were diagnosed as having grades of III-V VUR from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2006 in the department of pediatrics in Ajou University Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of IRR on voiding cystoureterogram and compared to each other for the possible factors associated with intrarenal reflux. Results : Among 80 VUR patients, IRR(+) group comprised 17(21.3%) patients and 27 renal units(23.2%) and revealed younger age, higher grade of VUR, and more proteinuria compared to IRR(-) group. There were no significant difference in gender, laboratory findings and the rate of resolution in VUR or defects on renal scan between two groups. Also, intrarenal reflux mostly corresponded to the same site of photon defects on DMSA scan. Conclusion : We suggest that intrarenal reflux tends to be associated with younger age, higher grade of reflux, more proteinuria with no difference in resolution rate of VUR when compared to the VUR patients without IRR. From this study, we were able to understand the characteristics of intrarenal reflux in children with urinary tract infection.

Antioxidant activity and phenolic acid content of Gynostemma pentaphyllum leaves according to extraction conditions

  • Ko, Hyun Min;Eom, Tae Kil;Kim, Ju-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2019
  • This study was intended to provide basic data for a health functional food study by exploring antioxidant activity of reflux extract according to the concentration of ethanol and the extract of ultrasonic waves extracted and reflux extracted under the same solvent conditions. In the same solvent condition, the reflux extract ($75.10{\pm}1.99mg$) showed a higher total phenol content than the ultrasonic wave extract ($51.74{\pm}2.28mg$). Flavonoids also had a higher reflux extract ($25.05{\pm}1.53mg$) than did ultrasonic extracts ($16.23{\pm}1.95mg$). Reflux extract according to ethanol concentration was found to have a higher phenol content than the 70% ethanol extract ($40.60{\pm}1.49mg$) in 60% ethanol extract. Flavonoid content was also similar to phenol content in reflux extract as determined by ethanol concentration from 60% ethanol ($25.05{\pm}1.53mg$) to 70% ethanol extract ($6.60{\pm}0.46mg$). In addition, the antioxidant activity (DPPH, TEAC, FRAP, ORAC) of the reflux extract in the same solvent conditions tended to be higher than that of ultrasonic extracts. Also, 60% ethanol extract had better antioxidant activity than 70% ethanol extract. However, an analysis of phenolic acid content through HPLC showed that the ultrasonic extract had a higher content in the same solvent condition than did the reflux extract. Not only the presence of phenolic acid, but also those of other compounds are believed to be attributed to the activity of antioxidants. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify this phenomenon.