• Title, Summary, Keyword: reduction strategies

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Eco-friendly selection of ship emissions reduction strategies with emphasis on SOx and NOx emissions

  • Seddiek, Ibrahim S.;Elgohary, Mohamed M.
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.737-748
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    • 2014
  • Increasing amounts of ships exhaust gases emitted worldwide forced the International Maritime Organization to issue some restricted maritime legislation for reducing the adverse environmental impacts arising from such emissions. Consequently, ships emission reduction became one of the technical and economical challenges that facing the ships, operators. The present paper addresses the different strategies that can be used to reduce those emissions, especially nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The strategies included: applying reduction technologies onboard, using of alternative fuels, and follows one of fuel saving strategies. Using of selective catalytic reduction and sea water scrubbing appeared as the best reduction technologies onboard ships. Moreover, among the various proposed alternative fuels, natural gas, in its liquid state; has the priority to be used instead of conventional fuels. Applying one of those strategies is the matter of ship type and working area. As a numerical example, the proposed methods were investigated at a high-speed craft operating in the Red Sea area between Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results obtained are very satisfactory from the point of view of environment and economic issues, and reflected the importance of applying those strategies.

A Study on Strategy for Embodiment of Low Carbon City (저탄소도시 구현을 위한 전략수립에 관한 연구)

  • Baek, Cheong-Hoon;Park, Sang-Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Digital Architecture Interior Association
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.83-92
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to propose strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions on urban areas. This study is made up GHG emission estimation and emission prospect methods, setting of GHG reduction target, GHG reduction plan formulation and feasibility assessment. The significance of this study is as follows. First, this study provides the local government for the overall frame of low carbon strategies. Second, this study contribute to establishment of GHG emission reduction strategies in the local autonomy by providing GHG emission estimation and setting reduction target which is essential elements of reduction strategy. Third, we organize a reduction element for low carbon city embodiment and showed the way to assessment the reduction effect of these elements quantitatively.

Preventive and Risk Reduction Strategies for Women at High Risk of Developing Breast Cancer: a Review

  • Krishnamurthy, Arvind;Soundara, Viveka;Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.895-904
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    • 2016
  • Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive cancer among women. Many factors, both genetic and non-genetic, determine a woman's risk of developing breast cancer and several breast cancer risk prediction models have been proposed. It is vitally important to risk stratify patients as there are now effective preventive strategies available. All women need to be counseled regarding healthy lifestyle recommendations to decrease breast cancer risk. As such, management of these women requires healthcare professionals to be familiar with additional risk factors so that timely recommendations can be made on surveillance/risk-reducing strategies. Breast cancer risk reduction strategies can be better understood by encouraging the women at risk to participate in clinical trials to test new strategies for decreasing the risk. This article reviews the advances in the identification of women at high risk of developing breast cancer and also reviews the strategies available for breast cancer prevention.

Role of risk reduction strategies in shopping online for fashion products

  • Lee, Jung Eun;Lee, Kyu-Hye
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2013
  • Consumers' perception of risk plays a major role in how they make online purchase decisions. Since online shopping is perceived to be riskier than in-store shopping, consumers engage in a variety of risk reduction strategies such as searching online for alternative products and alternative e-tailers. This study examines the influence of risk involvement on risk reduction strategies and customer satisfaction. It discusses three aspects of risk reduction strategies: time spent in making a purchasing decision, searching for alternative e-tailers, and searching for alternative products. Data from 294 female shoppers who had experience in purchasing fashion products online was analyzed. This study found that risk involvement had a positive influence on the time spent in making decisions, while the influence of risk involvement on searching for alternative retailers and alternative products was not significant. However, consumer satisfaction was negatively related to search for alternative retailers and positively related to risk involvement. This study provides a better understanding of customers' risk involvement and risk reduction strategies in online shopping. This information would be beneficial for marketers and retailers to reduce customer perception of risks and to promote online sales.

Risk Perceptions and Risk-reduction Strategies in Internet Apparel Shopping

  • Lee, Mi-Young
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.134-149
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    • 2005
  • Although Internet retailing is becoming a viable channel for apparel retailing, consumers are still reluctant to use Internet for apparel purchasing because at their concerns at Internet security and the difficulties at virtual shopping in unfamiliar shopping environment. The purpose at this study is to examine the nature at perceived risk associated with Internet apparel shopping and risk-reduction strategies used by Internet apparel shoppers. The data were collected via an online survey by a online research company. A total at 4,254 Internet users participated in this survey. Among these Internet users, 1,146 respondents had previous shopping experience in Internet shopping. Within this group, 195 were Internet apparel information seekers, and 589 were Internet apparel purchasers. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and t-test were used to analyze the data. The perceived risks and risk-reduction strategies used by Internet apparel no-interest shoppers, Internet apparel information seekers (browsers), moderate Internet apparel purchasers, heavy Internet apparel purchasers were examined and compared. The results indicated that these tour groups were significantly different in apparel related risk, performance risk, and privacy risk. Internet purchasers tend to perceive more apparel-related, performance, and privacy risks than others. The results also indicated that these tour groups were significantly different in their opinions of risk-reduction strategies.

Integrating Operation of Dispersed Generation to Automation Distribution Center for Distribution Network Reconfiguration

  • Park, Joon-Ho;Kim, Jae-Chul;Moon, Seung-Il
    • KIEE International Transactions on Power Engineering
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    • v.2A no.3
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2002
  • Due to the many attractive aspects of DG in the future power distribution system, distribution automation will be a center hub of integration of the distribution system and resources to satisfy the various needs of customers in a competitive and deregulated environment. In this paper, operation strategies are presented which use network reconfiguration of the automated distribution systems with DG as a real-time operation tool for loss reduction and service restoration from the view of distribution operation. The algorithms and operation strategies of an automated distribution system with DG are introduced to achieve the positive effects of DG in distribution systems. A simple case study shows the effectiveness of the proposed operation strategies.

Green Port Strategies for Reducing Air Pollution in Port of Incheon (대기오염 저감을 통한 인천항의 Green Port 전략)

  • Han, Chul-Hwan
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.281-304
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    • 2011
  • In the energy-climate era, pollution emissions from port activities have a significant issue in international shipping and port community. Thus international organization such as IMO and developed countries are seeking to develop various reduction strategies against air pollution. However Korea has recently conducted several studies concerning air pollution in port industry. The main purpose of the paper is to suggest emission reduction strategies for bulk terminal in Port of Incheon, which handles large amount bulk cargoes as a gateway for the metropolitan area. For this aim, the clean air strategies of the world major ports were considered and air pollution reduction strategies were suggested. The main findings of this paper are as follows. First, the emission reduction strategies for container terminal are should be integrated based on technologies changes, operational changes and market-based measures. Second, the emission reduction strategies for bulk terminal can be effective when use innovative measures during loading, unloading and storage process such as telescopic cascade trimming chute, snake sandwich equipment, dry fog system and dome structure. Finally, investigation on actual conditions of air pollution in Korean ports and development of environmental evaluation scheme for persisting monitoring should be conducted.

Analysis of Reduction Strategies for Air Pollutants Discharged from Emission Sources and their Impact on the Seoul Metropolitan Area

  • Lee, Woo-Keun;SunWoo, Young
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.14-18
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    • 2007
  • The Korean government enacted the "Special Law for Improving Air Quality of Metropolitan Area" in 2003. According to this plan, Korean government plan to lower the concentrations of $PM_{10}$ and $NO_x$ to $40{\mu}g/m^3$ and 22 ppb, respectively, by 2014. In this study, we analyze emission reduction strategies to lower their concentration. Emission reduction for the supply of mass energy and regenerative energy are compared with several scenarios. According to the results, 713 t/y of $NO_x$ and 165 t/y of $PM_{10}$ will be reduced by enhancing the number of households supplied by local heating and air conditioning. And also 5 t/y of $PM_{10}$ and 312 t/y of $NO_x$ will be reduced by replacing conventional energy with solar energy by 2014.

Characteristics of Cost Reduction Strategies at Pre-Construction Stages - Focused on Best Practice Cases - (시공이전단계 원가절감 전략의 특징에 관한 연구 - 모범적 성공사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Jung Hui-Ok;Kim Han-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute Of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • pp.616-619
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    • 2004
  • The term 'cost reduction' often carries a negative image in a sense of sacrifice of other management elements such as qualify, safety, client satisfaction, etc. However creative cost reduction approaches can achieve not only cost reduction itself but also value for money. The objective of this paper is to identify and discuss major characteristics of creative cost reduction strategies from best practice cases of Constructing Excellence.

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