• Title, Summary, Keyword: reddish brown precipitates

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Comparative Analysis of Heavy Metal Contamination, Mineral Composition and Spectral Characteristics of White, Reddish Brown and Mixed Precipitates Occurring at Osip Stream Drainage, Gangwondo, South Korea (강원도 오십천 수계에 분포하는 백색침전물, 적갈색침전물 및 혼합침전물의 중금속 오염, 광물조성 및 분광학적 특성의 비교분석)

  • Lim, Jeong Hwa;Yu, Jaehyung;Shin, Ji Hye;Koh, Sang-Mo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.13-28
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed precipitation environment, heavy metal contamination, and mineral composition of white, reddish brown and mixed precipitates occurring at the Osip stream drainage, Gangwondo. Furthermore, spectral characteristics of the precipitates associated with heavy metal contamination and mineral composition was investigated based on spectroscopic analysis. The pH range of the precipitates was 4.43-6.91 for white precipitates, 7.74-7.94 for reddish brown precipitates, and 7.59-7.9 for the mixed precipitates, respectively. XRF analysis revealed that these precipitates were contaminated with Ni, Cu, Zn, and As. The white precipitates showed high Al concentration compared to reddish brown precipitates as much as 3.3 times, and the reddish brown precipitates showed high Fe concentration compared to white precipitates as much as 15 times. XRD analysis identified that the mineral composition of the white participates was aluminocoquimbite, gibbsite, quartz, saponite, and illite, and that of reddish brown precipitates was aluminum isopropoxide, kaolinite, goethite, dolomite, pyrophyllite, magnetite, quartz, calcite, pyrope. The mineral composition of the mixed precipitates was quartz, albite, and calcite. The spectral characteristics of the precipitates was manifested by gibbsite, saponite, illite for white precipitates, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite for reddish brown precipitates, and albite for the mixed precipitates, respectively. The spectral reflectance of the precipitates decreased with increase in heavy metal contamination, and absorption depth of the precipitates indicated that the heavy metal ions were adsorbed to saponite and illite for white precipitates, and goethite and magnetite for reddish brown precipitates.

Heavy Metal Contamination, Mineral Composition and Spectral Characteristics of Reddish Brown Precipitation Occurring at Osip Stream Drainage, Gangwon-do (강원도 오십천 수계에서 발생하는 적갈색침전물의 중금속 오염, 광물조성 및 분광학적 특성)

  • Lim, Jeong Hwa;Yu, Jaehyung;Bae, Sungji;Koh, Sang-Mo;Park, Gyesoon
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.75-86
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    • 2018
  • This study analyzed precipitation environment, heavy metal concentration, mineral composition, and spectral characteristics associated with heavy metal concentration and mineral composition for the reddish brown precipitates occurred in the drainage of Dogye mining station. The pH of the reddish brown precipitates ranges from 7.59 to 7.94 resulting neutral. XRF analysis reveals that the precipitates has high Fe concentration, and contaminated with Ni, Cu, and Zn. Dolomite, calcite, goethite, magnetite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, quartz and aluminum isopropoxide were identified based on XRD analysis. As a result of spectral analysis associated with heavy metal contamination, visible reflectance increases and infrared reflectance decreases with a increase in heavy metal concentration. The spectral characteristics of the reddish brown precipitates is turned out to be manifested by goethite, magnetite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite and aluminum isopropoxide.

Anaysis of Fe in Seepage Water and Precipitates around a Hydrothermal Alteration Zone

  • Yun, Hyun-Seok;Moon, Seong-Woo;Lee, Jin-Kook;Jeong, Gyo-Cheol;Seo, Yong-Seok
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.345-351
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    • 2017
  • Acid drainage in civil engineering structures such as tunnels may lead to the deposition of precipitates that clog drainage channels and pipework. In evaluating acid drainage, the Fe content of water and precipitates, indicated by reddish brown coloration of rock surfaces, rivers, and soils, may be an important factor. In this study, acid drainage was evaluated by analyzing the Fe content of reddish brown seepage water that occurred in part of a tunnel. Geological investigations around the tunnel revealed a hydrothermal alteration zone cutting the bedrock, and cropping out in the upper parts of the tunnel. Analysis of drillcore revealed many fracture zones and veins. Inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometric analyses of water, precipitates, and soil samples, collected in the seepage water zone and around the tunnel, were conducted to evaluate acid drainage. The Fe content of seepage water in the tunnel was 0.030-0.333 mg/kg, which is 2-22 times higher than in local groundwater. The Fe content of precipitates in the tunnel was 165,403-301,051 mg/kg, similar to the 206,167-422,964 mg/kg content of drillcore from the hydrothermal alteration zone located above the tunnel. It is concluded that the seepage water is derived from Fe-containing acid drainage flowing in perforated tunnel drainpipes along the fracture zones and veins around the hydrothermal alteration zone.

Characteristics of the Dalseong Acid Mine Drainage and the Role of Schwertmannite (달성폐광산 산성광산배수의 발달특징과 슈베르트마나이트의 역할)

  • Choo, Chang-Oh;Jeong, Gyo-Cheol;Lee, Jin-Kook
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.187-196
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    • 2007
  • The Dalseong acid mine drainage were studied focused on the characters of schwertmannite that controls geochemistry of the stream. Besides chemical analysis of stream water, particle size analysis, XRD SEM and TEM were performed on precipitates of streams and on wasted metalliferous ores. The AMD discharged from the abandoned mine reveals a decrease of pH and EC downward stream. Euhedral sulfur occurs as equigranular aggregates on the altered pyrite while fine acicula goethite coalesces to form cross, star, or starfish-like shapes. Water chemistry plotted on the Eh-pH diagram shows that schwertmannite and ferrihydrite are stable phases. Reddish brown precipitates consist of mostly schwertmannite with less goethite, whereas yellowish brown precipitates are composed of geothite with less schwertmannite. The particle size of precipitates ranges $d(0.1)\;0.861{\mu}m{\sim}3.769{\mu}m,\;d(0.5)\;3.984{\mu}m{\sim}15.255{\mu}m,\;and\;d(0.9)\;9.875{\mu}m{\sim}56.726{\mu}m$. Schwertmannite is characterized by equigranular spheric form. Pincushion or spicule with 100nm width and $200{\sim}300nm$length form on schwertmannite sphere with radial growth patterns. It is highly probable that reddish or yellowish brown precipitates formed in many AMDs may contain schwerhnannite. Because it can serve as sink for removing heavy elements by adsorption in AMD system, there is a need to correctly identify schwertmannite in precipitates and to characterize its phase stability.

Mineralogy of Ferrihydrite and Schwertmannite from the Acid Mine Drainage in the Donghae Coal Mine Area (동해탄광일대의 산성광산배수에서 침전된 페리하이드라이트와 슈워트마나이트에 대한 광물학적 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong-Jin;Kim, Soo-Jin
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2003
  • The ochreous precipitates, reddish brown and brownish yellow in color, are pre- cipitated in the stream bottom of acid mine drainage (AMD) in the Donghae coal mine area. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the reddish brown precipitate consists mainly of ferrihydrite with small amount of goethite, while the brownish yellow precipitate of schwertmannite. Thermal experiments show that ferrihydrite and schwertmannite partially convert to poorly-crystallized hematite at $400^{\circ}C$ and to well-crystallized hematite at $700^{\circ}C$.

Fe and Al Behaviors in Precipitates and Pollution Characteristics of Acid Mine Drainage from the Donghae Abandoned Coal Mine, Taebaek, Korea (태백시 동해폐탄광 산성광산배수의 오염현황과 하상퇴적물 내 철, 알루미늄의 거동특성)

  • Choo, Chang Oh;Park, Jung-Won;Lee, Jin Kook
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.579-598
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    • 2019
  • We investigated geochemical contaminants and Fe, Al behavior in precipitates of acid mine drainage (AMD) from the Donghae abandoned coal mine, Taebaek, Gangwon Province using aqueous chemical analyses, XRD, IR, and 27Al NMR, Our results showed that water chemistry changed with pH and Eh, and saturation indices of chemical species in the AMD. According to saturation calculated by visual MINTEQ, the AMD was saturated with various Fe-, Al-oxyhydroxide minerals. Reddish brown precipitates are composed of schwertmannite, ferrihydrite, and goethite, whereas whitish precipitates are composed mostly of alumimous minerals such as poorly crystallized basaluminite with trace Al13-Tridecamer. It is important to apply active treatment methods rather than simple storage pond and to control the precipitation and solubility of iron species and aluminous species for ensuring remediation and control for the AMD discharged from the Donghae abandoned coal mine.

Petrological and Geological Safety Diagnosis of Multi-storied Stone Pagoda in the Daewonsa Temple, Sancheong, Korea (대원사 다층석탑의 지질학적 및 암석학적 안전진단)

  • 이찬희;서만철
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.355-368
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    • 2002
  • The multi-storied Daewonsa stone pagoda (Treasure No. 1112) in the Sancheong, Korea was studied on the basis of deterioration and geological safety diagnosis. The stone pagoda is composed mainly of granitic gneiss, partly fine-grained granitic gneiss, leucocratic gneiss, biotite granite and ceramics. Each rock of the pagoda is highly exfoliated and fractured along the edges. Some fractures in the main body and roof stones are treated by cement mortar. This pagoda is strongly covered with yellowish to reddish brown tarnish due to the amorphous precipitates of iron hydroxides. Dark grey crust by manganese hydroxides occur Partly, and some Part coated with white grey gypsum and calcite aggregates from the reaction of cement mortar and rain. As the main body, roof and upper part of the pagoda, the rocks are developed into the radial and linear cracks. Surface of this pagoda shows partly yellowish brown, blue and green patchs because of contamination by algae, lichen, moss and bracken. Besides, wall-rocks of the Daewonsa temple and rock aggregates in the Daewonsa valley are changed reddish brown color with the same as those of the pagoda color. It suggests that the rocks around the Daewonsa temple are highly in iron and manganese concentrations compared with the normal granitic gneiss which color change is natural phenomena owing to the oxidation reaction by rain or surface water with rocks. Therefore, for the attenuation of secondary contamination, whitening and reddishness, the possible conservation treatments are needed. Consisting rocks of the pagoda would be epoxy to reinforce the fracture systems for the structural stability on the basements.

Environmental Geochemistry and Heavy Matel Contamination of Ground and Surface Water, Soil and Sediment at the Kongjujuil Mine Creek, Korea (공주제일광산 수계에 분포하는 지하수, 지표수, 토양 및 퇴적물의 환경지구화학적 특성과 중금속 오염)

  • 이찬희
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.611-631
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    • 1999
  • Enviromental geochemisty and heary metal contamination at the Kongjueil mine creek were underaken on the basis of physicohemical properties and mineralogy for various kinds of water (surface, mine and ground water),soil, precipitate and sediment collected of April and December in 1998. Hydrgeochemical composition of the water samples are characterized by relatively significant enricant of Ca+Na, alkiali ions $NO_3$ and Cl inground and surfore water, wheras the mine waters are relatively eneripheral water of the mining creek have the characteristics of the (Ca+Mg)-$(HCO_3+SO_4)$type. The pH of the mine water is high acidity (3.24)and high EC (613$\mu$S/cm)compared with those of surface and ground water. The range of $\delta$D and $\delta^{18}O$ values (relative to SMOW) in the waters are shpwn in -50.2 to -61.6% and -7.0 to -8.6$\textperthousand$(d value=5.8 to 8.7). Using computer program, saturation index of albite, calcite, dolomite in mine water are nearly saturated. The gibbiste, kaolinite and smectite are superaturated in the surface and ground water, respectively. Calculated water-mineral reaction and stabilities suggest that weathing of silicate minerals may be stable kaolinite owing to the continuous water-rock reaction. Geochemical modeling showed that mostly toxic heavy metals may exist larfely in the from of metal-sulfate $(MSO_4\;^2)$and free metal $(M^{2+})$ in nmine water. These metals in the ground and surface water could be formed of $CO_3$ and OH complex ions. The average enrichment indices of water samples are 2.72 of the groundwater, 2.26 of the surface water and 14.15 of the acid mine water, normalizing by surface water composition at the non-mining creek, repectively. Characteristics of some major, minor and rate earth elements (Al/Na, K/Na, V/Ni, Cr/V, Ni/Co, La/Ce, Th/Yb, $La_N/Yb_N$, Co/Th, La/Sc and Sc/Th) in soil and sediment are revealed a narrow range and homogeneous compositions may be explained by acidic to intermediate igneous rocks. And these suggested that sediment source of host granitic gneiss colud be due to rocks of high grade metamorphism originated by sedimentary rocks. Maximum concentrations of environmentally toxic elements in sediment and soil are Fe=53.80 wt.% As=660, Cd=4, Cr=175, Cu=158, Mn=1010, Pb=2933, Sb=4 and Zn=3740 ppm, and extremely high concentrations are found are found in the subsurface soil near the ore dump and precipitates. Normalizing by composition of host granitic gneiss, the average enerichment indices are 3.72 of the sediments, 3.48 of the soils, 10.40 of the precipitates of acid mine drainage and 6.25 of the soils near the main adit. The level of enerichment was very severe in mining drainage sediments, while it was not so great in the soils. mineral composition of soil and sediment near the mining area were partly variable being composed of quartz, mica, feldspar, chlorite, vermiculite, bethierin and clay minerals. reddish variable being composed of quartz, mica, feldspar, chlorite, vermiculite, bethierin and clay minerals. Reddish brown precipitation mineral in the acid mine drainage identifies by schwertmanite. From the separated mineralgy, soil and sediment are composed of some pyrite, arsenopyite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, malachite, goethite and various kinds of hydroxied minerals.

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Mineralogy of Precipitates and Geochemisty of Stream Receiving Mine Water in the Sambong Coal Mine (삼봉탄광 주변 수계에 대한 지화학적 특성 및 침전물에 대한 광물학적 연구)

  • Woo, Eum Sik;Kim, Young Hun;Kim, Jeong Jin
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.199-207
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    • 2016
  • One of the most significant environmental issues in abandoned coal mine is acidic drainage which gives rise to the many environmental problems that acidifying streams water, sedimentation of iron/aluminium hydroxide, and pollution of water and soil. Water and precipitate samples for experiments were collected from stream and bottom in the pit mouth of Sambong mine. Mine water shows pH range from 7.24 to 7.94 in winter and 3.87 to 5.73 in summer season. The EC shows range from 432 to $897{\mu}S/cm$ at the stream receiving mine water. The highest concentrations of cations such as Mg, Al, Ca, and Mn are showing 15.50, 4.56, 85.30, 12.76 mg/L in the pit mouth, respectively. The reddish brown precipitates (Munsell color 10R-5YR in winter and 2.5YR-5Y in summer) consist mainly of 2-line ferrihydrite and schwertmannite. The precipitates are characterized by rod or cylindrical forms, and coccus or sphere of 0.1 to $0.5{\mu}m$ in diameter.

Supergene Alteration of High-Ca Limestone from the Pungchon Formation (풍촌층 고품위 석회석의 표성변질)

  • Oh Sung Jin;Kim Kyong Jin;Noh Jin Hwan
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.135-144
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    • 2005
  • In the high-Ca limestone zone of the Pungchon Formation of the Lower Chosun Supergroup, cryptocrystalline alterations with reddish brown color occur as fissure-fillings or coatings, which was originated from the upper formation, i. e., the Hwajeol Formation. The precipitates result in degradation and contamination of the high-Ca limestone ore in grade and quality, showing characteristic occurrence and mineral composition typical of suggesting a supergene origin. Chalcedonic quartz, kaolinite, illite, goethite and hematite are constituting a characteristic authigenic mineral assemblage and, in places, smectite is less commonly included in the weathering product. In addition to these authigenic phases, some detrital minerals such as mica and orthoclase constituting relatively coarser grains are also rarely present in the supergene alterations. A rather complex clay facies consisting of kaolinite, illite and smectite in the alterations seems to correspond to the typical clay composition of the reported residual pedogenic soils by limestone weathering. The cryptocrystalline weathering product is partly altered to stilbite, a characteristic hydrothermal zeolite, in places, by the hydrothermal contact of late stage. The time of formation and infiltration of the supergene alterations seems to correspond to the stage just after the epithermal alteration of the Pungchon Limestone, i. e., an early Jurassic age. The supergene alteration, which may imply the stage of uplifting, weathering and erosion of the Chosun Supergroup, appears to have undergone at an oxygen-rich environment in descending water of meteoric origin by means of a chemical leaching and diffusion.