• Title, Summary, Keyword: red rice extract

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Relationship of Phenolic Compounds and Free-radical Scavenging Activity in Black and Red Rice Extract

  • Hu, Gao-Sheng;Xu, Kai-Xiu;Jeong, Soon Jae;Kim, Doh-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2010
  • Total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity were analyzed from rice samples collected in Korea, Japan and China. The results showed that the total phenolic content and free-radical scavenging activity differed significantly in these rice lines. The correlation between content and activity was subsequently investigated. The results showed that in black rice, anthocyanin was the major phenolic component and that both phenolic content and anthocyanin content were closely correlated with free-radical scavenging activity. Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) data showed that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside composed about 90% of the total anthocyanin content in black rice and in red rice. In the red rice extract, the total phenolic content produced a high correlation coefficient with antioxidant activity but correlated very poorly with the total anthocyanin content. The $OD_{458}$ and the $OD_{500}$ values which represent the proanthocyanidin content of the rice extract, produced high correlation coefficients with antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. These results suggest that the $OD_{458}$ and the $OD_{500}$ values can be used to evaluate the quality of red rice. In addition, based on the data obtained, a competitive accumulation model of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in black and red rice was proposed.

Anti-invasive Activity against Cancer Cells of Phytochemicals in Red Jasmine Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • Pintha, Komsak;Yodkeeree, Supachai;Pitchakarn, Pornsirit;Limtrakul, Pornngarm
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4601-4607
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    • 2014
  • Red rice contains pharmacological substances including phenolics, oryzanol, tocotrienol and tocopherol. Recently, red rice extract has been employed as a source of antioxidants for inhibition of tumor growth. This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-invasion effects of red rice extract fractions on cancer cells. It was found that at $100{\mu}g/ml$ of crude ethanolic extract (CEE), hexane fraction (Hex) and dichloromethane fraction (DCM) could reduce HT1080 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell invasion. Hex and DCM revealed higher potency levels than CEE, whereas an ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc) had no effect. Gelatin zymography revealed that Hex decreased the secretion and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and-9). In contrast, the DCM fraction exhibited slightly effect on MMPs secretion and had no effect on MMPs activity. Collagenase activity was significantly inhibited by the Hex and DCM fractions. High amounts of ${\gamma}$-oryzanol and ${\gamma}$-tocotrienol were found in the Hex and DCM fractions and demonstrated an anti-invasion property. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin was detected only in the CEE fraction and reduced MDA-MB-231 cells invasion property. These observations suggest that proanthocyanidin, ${\gamma}$-oryzanol and ${\gamma}$-tocotrienol in the red rice fractions might be responsible for the anti invasion activity. The red rice extract may have a potential to serve as a food-derived chemotherapeutic agent for cancer patients.

Radical Scavenging and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of Red Yeast Rice in Cholesterol Fed Rats

  • Suh, Hyung-Joo;Kim, Young-Soon;Chang, Un-Jae;Oh, Sung-Hoon;Bae, Song-Hwan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.204-209
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    • 2006
  • This study demonstrates that red yeast rice exhibits radical scavenging and antihypercholesterolemic activities in rats fed cholesterol. Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided to five dietary groups (normal, chol-control; and M-1, M-2 & M-3 administered 150, 300, and 500 mg/kg red yeast rice, respectively) and fed their respective diets for 4 weeks. No significant differences in food efficiency ratio (FER) were found among the five groups. The weight of perirenal fat pads decreased with increasing amounts of red yeast rice supplementation. There was a significant decrease in the levels of cholesterol in M-3 group fed red yeast rice with 500 mg/kg compared to those in the chol-control, M-1 and M-2 groups (p<0.05). Among the rats fed the cholesterol-enriched diet, all groups fed red yeast rice showed higher concentration of the HDL cholesterol, but lower concentration of the LDL cholesterol than those of the chol-control group. The scavenging activity of the methanol extract from red yeast rice was increased with increasing amounts of the extract. The glutathione content in the normal group and in the M-3 group were higher than that in the other groups. The M-3 group showed similar hepatic glutathione contents to those of the normal group. These results suggest that red yeast rice may be safe and effective for lowering serum levels of total and LDL-cholesterol, ratio of non-HDL/HDL, and severity of experimental atherosclerosis.

Production of Pigment by Liquid Culture and Monacolin K in Red Mold Rice by Solid State Fermentation of Monascus ruber Strains (Monascus ruber의 액체배양을 통한 색소 생산 및 고체발효를 통한 홍국쌀의 monacolin K 생산 특성)

  • Park, Youn-Je
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.400-407
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    • 2013
  • The growth characteristics and production of color pigments by Monascus strains were investigated during liquid culture, and production of monacolin K in red mold rice was carried out by solid state fermentation. Four different Monascus ruber strains were cultured in potato dextrose yeast extract broth (PDYB) media at $25^{\circ}C$ for 15 days. The high producing strain for red pigment was not corresponded to the strain for yellow pigment. Production of red pigment was high in the strain causing the fast pH change in culture broth. Production of monacolin K in red mold rice by solid state fermentation was influenced by a combination of wet cell weight and spore density in inoculum by liquid culture. Most strains showed the high production of monacolin K in red mold rice, when submerged fermentation was carried out for 5 days as inoculum for solid state fermentation. These results suggest that submerged fermentation period of inoculum have an effect on the production of monacolin K in red mold rice by solid state fermentation, and monacolin K in red mold rice could be increased by controlling the condition of submerged fermentation for inoculum.

Effect of seed priming on germination and sprouting vigor of colored rice

  • Lee, Ki Bong;Shin, Jong Hee;Kim, Sang Kuk;Kim, Se Jong;Ryu, Su Noh
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.312-312
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    • 2017
  • The study was conducted to select optimal materials for promoting germination rate, high sprouting vigor by priming treatment using PEG 6000 (water potential -0.5 to 2.0 Mpa) and Azolla extracts (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0%) extracted by ethanol, distilled, and/or hot water in colored rice cultivars. Each rice seed (three black rice cultivars and two red rice cultivars) was soaked 24 and 48 hr including untreated control. In black rice, Joseongheugchal rice cultivar, azolla ethanol extract (0.1%) induced highest germination rate, germination speed was taken to 5 days in distilled water and to 3days in Azolla extracts extracted hot water. Otherwise, degree of bacterial inhibition (number of colony, $10^3cfu$) in dry seed, water soaking for 24hr, soaking with fungicide for 24hr and 48hr, soaking with fungicide and aeration for 24hr and 48 hr was 22, 500, 95, and 0.46, respectively. In order to minimize fungal inhibition, a method can be chosen to combination of soaking fungicide and aeration for 48 hr. In seed priming treatments using growth pouch, seed soaking with fungicide did not affect change of germination percentage and germination speed, it delayed only 2 or 4day in the Joseongheugchal rice cultivar. It differs from rice cultivars and priming materials, Azolla extract(0.1 to 1%) promotes seed germination percentage in the Ilpum, Hongjinju, and Joseonghuegchal, in addition, germination in Jeogjinju cultivar was only promoted by PEG solution(10 to 20%), otherwise, it showed much lower or inhibited on the germination in Heugjinju and Sinmyungheugchal rice cultivars. In a paddy field trial, seedling establishment rate by applying PEG6000 and azolla extract did not show significantly statistical difference. When it compared with untreated control, seedling establishment rate was increased over 50% in priming treatments. Interestingly, seedling establishment rate under azolla extract (0.1%) extracted with ethanol was promoted over 2.5 times compared to the control in a black rice, Joseongheugchal and red rice, Jeogjinju.

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Anti-inflammatory effects of proanthocyanidin-rich red rice extract via suppression of MAPK, AP-1 and NF-κB pathways in Raw 264.7 macrophages

  • Limtrakul, Pornngarm;Yodkeeree, Supachai;Pitchakarn, Pornsiri;Punfa, Wanisa
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.251-258
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several pharmacological properties of red rice extract have been reported including anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and reduced cancer cell invasion. This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of red rice extract on the production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages. MATERIALS/METHODS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ and interleukin-6 were determined by ELISA and cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was evaluated using western blot analysis. In addition, the signaling pathway controlling the inflammatory cascade such as nuclear factor kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$), activator proteins-1 (AP-1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was determined. RESULTS: Our results showed that red rice polar extract fraction (RR-P), but not non-polar extract fraction, inhibited interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, and nitric oxide production in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 cells. RR-P also reduced the expression of inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, activation of AP-1 and $NF-{\kappa}B$ transcription factor in the nucleus was abrogated by RR-P. RR-P inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK signaling responsible for the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Based on chemical analysis, high amounts of proanthocyanidin and catechins were detected in the RR-P fraction. However, only proanthocyanidin reduced $NF-{\kappa}B$ and AP-1 activation in LPS-activated Raw 264.7 cells. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of RR-P may stem from the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators via suppression of the AP-1, $NF-{\kappa}B$, and MAPKs pathways.

Variation of antioxidant activity in Korea-native weedy rice germplasm

  • Cho, Ei Ei;Kim, Ji-Young;Chung, Nam-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.278-278
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    • 2017
  • Brown rice grains are increasingly attended by consumers due to their potential health benefits of antioxidant capacity. Therefore, this research was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of brown rice in Korea-native weedy rice germplasm. Two hundred and twenty one accessions of weedy rice used in this study were received from the National Agrobiodiversity Center of RDA, and were regenerated in the experimental field of Chonbuk National University. The sampled seeds were extracted using methanol and the extracts were analyzed using the 1, 1-dipheny-2-picrylhydrasyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay for antioxidant capacity determination. Among the all germplasm, the samples of seed coat in red colour, white colour, red -white mixing colour and brown colour were 171 (81%), 26 (12%), 12 (6%) and 2 (1%), respectively. The antioxidant activity values of all samples were varied in the range from 22.31% to 95.53 % and mean value was 82.09%. Depend on the seed coat colour, the average antioxidant activity of the extract of weedy rice seeds indicated that the following order in seed coat colour: red colour (89.11%) > the red-white mixing colour (70.67%) > brown colour (53.16%) > white colour (45.99%). The antioxidant activity of red coloured weedy rice were significantly higher than those of the others. It is suggested that Korea-native weedy rice accessions with high antioxidant activity could be developed as a potential functional food material by further research of component analysis.

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A Study on Changes in the Cooking Process of Red Beans Used to Prepare Bab in Cooking Books Written during Last 100 Years (팥을 이용한 밥의 조리과정 변화 연구 - 근대 이후 조리서를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Kyung-Ran
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.678-686
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the cooking process of red beans used to prepare Bab (cooked rice) in cooking books published from late 19th century to the present. There are 3 different types of Bab that use red beans; Jungdeungbab, Patbab and Patsura, and cooking process vary between different cooking books. For making Jungdeungbab, one method is to cook the red beans in the water first, and then only the water, after draining the cooked red beans, is used to cook rice. The other method is to smash the cooked red beans and collect the water that passes through the smashed red beans to cook the rice. For Patbab, 2 cooking methods were found. One is to cook the whole red beans first and then to add them to the rice for cooking. Another method is to break the red beans into two pieces and mix them with rice and cook them together. Patsura is the red bean used to prepare the Bab offered to Kings during the Chosun dynasty(1392~1910). The cooking process of Patsura is similar to both Jundeungbab and Patbab. In Ijogungjeongyoritonggo(1957), the cooking method of Patsura is similar to that of Patbab; breaking red beans into two pieces and then mixing them with rice and cooking them together. Another method, which is similar to Jungdeungbab, is found in Ijogungjeongyoritonggo(1957) and Hangukyoribaekguasajeon(1976). In Ijogungjeongyoritonggo(1957), the cooking method is to cook the red beans first and then squeeze them after putting them into a sack and then using the extract to cook rice. In Hangukyoribaekguasajeon(1976), the red bean is prepared by first cooking red beans in water, and then only the water, after draining the cooked red bean, is used to cook rice. In further studies, the cooking procedures used in the previous period of the late 19th century should be examined.

The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014

  • Choi, Hak Joo;Kim, Eun A;Kim, Dong Hee;Shin, Kwang-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 2014
  • A ${\beta}$-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, $F_2$, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside $F_2$ and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract ${\rightarrow}Rd{\rightarrow}F_2{\rightarrow}$ compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively.

Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death by Red Pericarp Rice (Jakwangchalbyeo) Extracts

  • Chi, Hee-Youn;Lee, Chang-Ho;Kim, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Sun-Lim;Chung, Ill-Min
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.534-542
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    • 2006
  • The effects of ethanol fractions of three different rice grain extracts, Jakwangchalbyeo, Hwasunchalbyeo, and Ilpumbyeo, on apoptotic cell death in the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line were investigated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] cell viability assay. One hundred mg/mL Jakwangchalbyeo extract significantly reduced cell viability to 69.5, 57.2, and 46.1% within 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses were also performed to characterize the cell death pattern caused by treatment with the rice grain extracts. Apoptotic cell death was clearly observed with time after treatment with the Jakwangchalbyeo extract. In Western blotting analysis, degradation of the 116 kDa poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) molecule was observed with concomitant formation of an 89 kDa product 24, 48, and 72 hr after treating cells with the Jakwangchalbyeo extract. This indicates that an apoptotic process caused cell death in these cells. In conclusion, red-pericarp Jakwangchalbyeo extract induced apoptotic cell death in H4IIE cells to a larger extent than the other rice extracts.