• Title/Summary/Keyword: red ginseng

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Histological Characteristics of Normal and Inferior Parts in Korean Red Ginseng (정상홍삼과 불량홍삼의 조직학적 특성)

  • 이종원;김천석;채순용;양재원;도재호
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate a point of difference between normal and inferior Korean red ginseng (Naeback red ginseng = red ginseng with white part of clear boundary in phloem and/or xylem of ginseng body, saengnaeback red ginseng red ginseng with white part of indistinct boundary). White part with clear or indistinct boundary in center of ginseng body was observed in inferior red ginseng (naeback and saengnaeback red ginseng), and the differences in the internal color intensity was also found with naked eye. In hunter color values of normal and inferior parts of red ginseng in accordance with particle size, L value was increased with a diminishment in particle size, while a and b value were decreased. Absorbance at visible spectrum did not differ from water and 70% ethanol extract from normal and inferior parts of red ginseng, but absorbance in UV spectrum of extract from naeback part showed higher than those of normal and saengnaeback part. In comparison of intrastructure by electron microscope, the horizontal and vertical section of cortex and pith layer from normal part showed the very dense state, but small holes were found in naeback part of red ginseng by naked eye and electron microscope. The specific surface area of normal, naeback and saengnaeback part appeared 3.02, 3.33 and 6.55 ㎡/g, respectively. From above results, we consider saengnaeback red ginseng is red ginseng in the intermediate process which normal red ginseng changes to naeback red ginseng.

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Sensory and Mechanical Characteristics of the Lemon Red Ginseng-pyun prepared by different ratio of red ginseng (레몬홍삼과편의 홍삼 배합비에 따른 관능적.텍스쳐 특성)

  • Kim Eun-Mi
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to determine the sensory evaluation and mechanical characteristics of lemon red ginseng-pyun. Lemon red ginseng-pyun was made with lemon juice(21.4%), sweet potato starch(6.7%), water(53.3%), sugar(13.3%), honey(5.3%) and various concentrations of red ginseng powder(0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10%). The quality characteristics of the sample were estimated in terms of pH, color difference, texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation. The pH of lemon red ginseng-pyun showed no significant difference among the different ratios of red ginseng. With increasing red ginseng powder addition, the lightness was significantly(p<0.05) lower, and a value and b values were significantly(p<0.05) higher. In sensory evaluation, with increasing red ginseng powder addition, the color and bitter taste of lemon red ginseng-pyun were stronger, while clarity of the 10% added red ginseng was significantly(p<0.05) lower than that of the 0% added red ginseng. Elasticity, hardness, chewiness, softness. sweet taste and overall acceptability were not significantly different in any group. In texture profile analysis, chewiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and hardness were significantly(p<0.05) increased in the 10% added red ginseng but springiness was not significantly different in any group. Overall acceptability was related to texture, appearance, overall taste and sweet taste of lemon red ginseng-pyun. Therefore, development of lemon red ginseng-pyun with no sugar or artificial sweeteners is encouraged as a healthy diet for diabetes and hypertension patients, because red ginseng is defined as a functional foods.

Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Component on Lipolytic Action of Toxohormone-L from Cancerous Ascites Fluid (고려홍삼 성분이 암독소 호르몬-L의 체지방 분해작용에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성동;황우익
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.105-109
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    • 1995
  • This study was devised to observe the inhibitory effects of 3 kinds of petroleum ether extracts (percolation by petroleum ether) from Korean red ginseng, Chinese red ginseng and American white ginseng on a lipolytic action of Toxohormone-L which has been known as lipolytic and anorexigenic factors. Toxohormone-L was obtained by partial purification of the ascites fluid from mice which had been Inoculated with sarcoma-180. The yields of petroleum ether extract from Korean red ginseng, Chinese red ginseng and American white ginseng were 0.64, 0.47 and 0.58 and respectively, indicating that the yield of Korean red ginseng was the highest. In vitro, at the concentration of 2 mg /ml, the inhibition rate of lipolysis by the petroleum ether extract of Korean red ginseng, Chinese red ginseng and American white ginseng were 55.1, 50.0 and 44.9% respectively, and the total inhibitory activity per gram of ginseng material were 18, 12 and 13 unit respectively, indicating that the Korean red ginseng was the most effective in the inhibition of the lipolysis.

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An Experimental Study on the Effect of Immunopotential and the Anticancer Effect of Red Ginseng Extract (한국 홍삼의 면역활성 및 항암효과에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 장성강;김주헌
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 1994
  • To evaluate the anticarcinogenic effect and its mechanism of red ginseng, the mice were treated with red ginseng and received subcutaneous Bl6 melanoma cell line injection on the back. Tumor incidence was same (100%) both in water and red ginseng-treated groups, but tumor production was delayed in red ginseng-treated group. Survival time was somewhat longer in red ginseng-treated group. The histopathological findings were similar in both groups, but lymphocytic infiltration around the tumor and melanin production in the tumor cells were prominent in the red ginseng-treated group. Flow cytometric analysis on T lymphocytes and natural killer cells revealed increased $T_H$/$T_S$ ratio and increased NK cells in red ginseng-treated group. These results suggest that the anticarcinogenic effect of red ginseng may be exerted by the increased cell-mediated immunity and natural killer cell activity.

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Quality Characteristics and Shelf-life of Rice Noodles Prepared with Red Ginseng Powder (홍삼 첨가에 따른 쌀국수의 품질특성과 저장성)

  • Kim, Eun-Mi
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.161-169
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to find out the quality characteristics of rice noodles by addition of red ginseng(0, 2, 6, 10%). The quality characteristics of the sample were estimated in terms of general composition, growth of microorganism and sensory evaluation. The results from this study were as follows. The protein, lipid and ash contents did not show significant difference in any of the groups. In dry rice noodles, moisture content significantly decreased in red ginseng groups but, in half-cooked rice noodles, moisture content significantly increased in 6 % and 10% red ginseng added groups(p<0.05). The microbial count showed less growth in red ginseng added groups after 3 months(p<0.05). According to sensory evaluation, surface color proved very good in the 10% red ginseng added group among the training panel while very good in the 2% red ginseng added group among consumers. Flavor was good in red ginseng added groups(p<0.05). Taste was very good in the 3% red ginseng added group. Appearance and overall quality were highest in the 2% and 6% red ginseng added groups(p<0.05). Therefore, rice noodles containing 2% or 6% red ginseng were most preferable and safe during 5 months and 6 days in dry and half-cooked noodles respectively.

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Quality Characteristics of Noodles with Red Ginseng Powder Added (홍삼분말 첨가량에 따른 국수의 품질특성)

  • Kim, Eun-Mi;Park, Hee-Kyung
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.170-180
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to find out the quality characteristics of Noodles by addition of red ginseng powder(0, 2, 4, 6, 8%). The quality characteristics of the sample were estimated in terms of general com-position, color difference, cookery characteristics(water absorption, volume of cooked noodles, turbidity), texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation. The protein, lipid, ash, Na and water binding capacity did not show significant difference in any of the groups. In red ginseng powder added groups, moisture contents, a and b values significantly increased but L value considerably decreased(p<0.05). The weight, volume, water absorption of the cooked noodles and turbidity of 8% of red ginseng powder added group were significantly higher than the control group(p<0.05). In texture profile analysis, adhesiveness, gumminess, hardness and springiness significantly decreased(p<0.05) with more red ginseng powder added. Chewiness and cohesiveness significantly(p<0.05) increased with the 4, 6, 8% of red ginseng powder added. In sensory evaluation, surface color was very good in the 8% red ginseng powder added group while taste and flavor of red ginseng were very good except the 8% red ginseng powder added group(p<0.05). Appearance and overall quality were highest in the 4% red ginseng powder added group(p<0.05). Therefore, noodles containing 4% red ginseng powder were most preferable.

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Studies on Ginseng Vinegar (인삼식초에 관한연구)

  • 김승겸
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.447-454
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    • 1999
  • Ginseng-vinegars were produced by the fermentation of 5% ethanol solution contained ginseng, red ginseng, ginseng marc and red ginseng marc using Acetobacter aceti 3281 for 26 days at 35$^{\circ}C$. The ginseng and red ginseng vinegar contained 0.236mg/ml of total sugar 0.236mg/ml of reducing sugar and 0.05% of ethanol and 1.005 of specific gravity 8,58CFU of viable cell count 3,24 of pH and 5.11% of acidity. Whereas the vinegars produced using the water-extracted red ginseng marc and the ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc were consisted of total sugar was 1.27mg/ml and 1.60mg/ml reducing sugar was 0.077mg/ml and 0.725mg/ml specific gravity was 1.001 and 1.004 the number of viable cells was 8.51CFU/ml and 8.1CFU/ml pH was 2.81 and 2.89 acidity was 5.18% and 5.32% respectvely ethanol concentration was 0.05% in both cases. In five-grade scoring test of sensory evaluation, it was estimated favorable that each vinegar made by were-extracted red ginseng marc, ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc ginseng and red ginseng ginseng from 0.5 to 32% of water-and ethanol-extract red ginseng was extracted with 10% white vinegar for 30 days. The best sensory vinegars were obtained that ginseng of 0.4~1.6% above red glnsend of 0.8% water-extracted red ginseng marc of 0.8~1.6% and ethanol-extracted red ginseng marc of 0.4~1.6% added in 10% white vinegar respectively.

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The Mass Balance of Protopanaxtriol Ginsenosides in Red Ginseng Process (홍삼제조과정 중 파낙사트리올계 진세노사이드의 물질균형)

  • Lee, Sang Myung
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 2015
  • This mass balance study about ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in Red ginseng processed from Fresh ginseng is useful to understand that herbal material sources of ginseng and raw material consumption in Red ginseng preparations. In our results, total molar amounts of ginsenoside Rg1, Re and their converts in Fresh ginseng, Red ginseng, and Red ginseng extract are substantially the same. The molar amounts of ginsenoside Rg1, Re (4.324, 2.880 μmol/g) as starting materials in Fresh ginseng are kept constant as total molar amounts (sum of starting and converts) in Red ginseng (4.264, 2.596 μmol/g) and Red ginseng extract (3.389, 3.129 μmol/g). This result means that protopanaxtriol type ginsenosides and their characteristic converts are not destroyed or inflowing in Red ginseng process. Therefore, it is important for quality assurance of Red ginseng preparations that the ratio between ginsenosides Rg1, Re and these converts is kept constant.

Effects of Amino Acids and SLlgars on the Maillard Brou'nine Reactions during Extraction and Concentration of Red Ginseng (홍삼추출물 및 농축물의 마이야르 갈색화반응 촉진에 미치는 아미노산 및 당의 영향)

  • 이광승;최강주
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 1990
  • Browning intensity is a major factor to estimate the quality of red ginseng or red ginseng products. The Maillard type of browning reaction proceeds nonenzymatically during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. The present studies were carried out to investigate the effects of amino acids and sugars on the browning reaction during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. Red ginseng was pulverized to 115 mesh and then tenfold (v/w) of water was added to the powder to make the substrate of red ginseng. Solution (0.1 M) of fourteen amino acids and of folly silgars were added to the substrates of red ginseng powder and these were then extracted and concentrated to examine their browning intensities. Amino acids were more effective than sligars in acrelerating the browning reaction. Acceleration of the browning reaction in the concentrate was in the order of arginine> histidine>glycine>alanine>lysine phenyl alanine>aspartic acid>lelicine>threonine>gllitamic acid>tyrosine>valine>istleucine>methionine for amino acids, and was glucose>frlictose >silcrose, maltose for sugars.

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Equilibrium Relative Humidity (ERH) Relationships of Red Ginseng Products (홍삼제품의 저장습도와 흡습속도와의 관계)

  • 박길동;김우정;최진호;양재원;성현순
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1981
  • A study was designed to study the sorption characteristics of powder-type products of red ginseng such as red ginseng tea, red ginseng powder and spray 4ried powder of red ginseng extract The sorption rates and equilibrium moisture contents on these products were calculated at ova. a range of relative himidities and two different temperatures ($25^{\circ}C$ and 38$^{\circ}C$). Significant differences between these three products were found in water activities, sorption rates and the relationship between the ratio of %H2O/RH and moisture content The red ginseng tea required the most excessive drying to reach aw=0.4, followed by red ginseng power and spray dried powder of red ginseng extract Attempt was made to obtain equations which can predict sorption rate and moisture content of red ginseng products at given relative humidity and temperature after certain period of storage.

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