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Legal status of Priave Transaction Regarding the Geostationary Satellite Orbit (지구정지궤도의 사적 거래의 국제법상 지위에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Hong Kyun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.239-272
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    • 2014
  • The rights and obligations of the Member States of ITU in the domain of international frequency management of the spectrum/orbit resource are incorporated in the Constitution and Convention of the ITU and in the Radio Regulations that complement them. These instruments contain the main principles and lay down the specific regulations governing the major elements such as rights and obligations of member administrations in obtaining access to the spectrum/orbit resource, as well as international recognition of these rights by recording frequency assignments and, as appropriate, any associated orbits, including the geostationary-satellite orbits used or intended to be used in the Master International Frequency Register (MIFR) Coordination is a further step in the process leading up to notification of the frequency assignments for recording in the MIFR. This procedure is a formal regulatory obligation both for an administration seeking to assign a frequency in its network and for an administration whose existing or planned services may be affected by that assignment. Regulatory problem lies in allowing administrations to fulfill their "bringing into use" duty for preserving his filing simply putting any satellites, whatever nationlity or technical specification may be, into filed orbit. This sort of regulatory lack may result in the emergence of the secondary market for satellite orbit. Within satellite orbit secondary market, the object of transaction may be the satellite itself, or the regulatory rights in rem, or the orbit registered in the MIFR. Recent case of selling the Koreasat belongs to the typical example of orbit transaction between private companies, the legality of which remains doubtedly controversial from the perspective of international space law as well as international transaction law. It must be noted, however, that the fact is the Koreasat 3 and its filed orbit is for sale.

H2AX Directly Interacts with BRCA1 and BARD1 via its NLS and BRCT Domain Respectively in vitro (H2AX의 BRCA1 NLS domain과 BARD1 BRCT domain 각각과의 in vitro 상호 결합)

  • Bae, Seung-Hee;Lee, Sun-Mi;Kim, Su-Mi;Choe, Tae-Boo;Kim, Cha-Soon;Seong, Ki-Moon;Jin, Young-Woo;An, Sung-Kwan
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.403-409
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    • 2009
  • H2AX, a crucial component of chromatin, is implicated in DNA repair, cell cycle check point and tumor suppression. The aim of this study was to identify direct binding partners of H2AX to regulate cellular responses to above mechanisms. Literature reviews and bioinformatical tools were attempted intensively to find binding partners of H2AX, which resulted in identifying two potential proteins, breast cancer-1 (BRCA1) and BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 (BARD1). Although it has been reported in vivo that BRCA1 co-localizes with H2AX at the site of DNA damage, their biochemical mechanism for H2AX were however only known that the complex monoubiquitinates histone monomers, including unphosphorylated H2AX in vitro. Therefore, it is important to know whether the complex directly interacts with H2AX, and also which regions of these are specifically mediated for the interaction. Using in vitro GST pull-down assay, we present here that BRCA1 and BARD1 directly bind to H2AX. Moreover, through combinational approaches of domain analysis, fragment clonings and in vitro binding assay, we revealed molecular details of the BRCA1-H2AX and BARD1-H2AX complex. These data provide the potential evidence that each of the BRCA1 nuclear localization signal (NLS) and BARD1 BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) repeat domain is the novel mediator of H2AX recognition.

A survey of eco-foodservice perception and satisfaction of elementary school parents in Jeju (제주지역 초등학생 학부모의 친환경급식에 대한 인식도 및 만족도 조사)

  • Jeong, Mi-Hui;Chae, In-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study analyzed the eco-foodservice perception and satisfaction of 344 elementary school parents in Jeju surveyed from February 1~12, 2010, with the aim of providing basic data for quality improvement of eco-foodservice in Jeju. Methods: The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, ${\chi}^2$-test, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficients, using the SPSS Win program (version 12.0). Results: Regarding awareness of eco-friendly food materials of subjects, average score was 3.52 points (out of 5 scales) and 'difference between eco-friendly and general agricultural products (3.76)' showed the highest score whereas 'assurance standard and label of eco-friendly agricultural products (3.31)' showed the lowest score. In terms of the recognition of eco-foodservice implementation, 75.0% of parents were aware of it. Regarding the eco-foodservice satisfaction of the subjects, average score was 3.88 points (out of 5 scales) and food safety (3.98 points) showed the highest score whereas food taste (3.70 points) showed the lowest score. The eco-foodservice perception of subjects showed positive correlation with their eco-foodservice satisfaction. Conclusion: It is necessary for the government and the local government to provide continuing education for school parents in order to enhance their perception of eco-friendly food materials. In addition, systematic and appropriate government support is needed in order to ensure internal stability of eco-foodservice.

Image analysis of Specialized Vocational high school recognized by middle school student (중학생이 인식하는 특성화 고등학교 이미지 분석)

  • Kim, Yeong-Hun;Kim, Tae-Hoon
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.114-135
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to provide base line data for right concept and identity establishment of Specialized Vocational high school, to identify recognition of Specialized Vocational high school, to analyze image of Specialized Vocational high school recognized by middle school student. The population was all middle school third year students in Korea. Using random sampling technique, 50 classes of 61 schools were sampled for the study. A survey questionnaire used Semantic Differential(SD) suggested by Osgood(1957). SD consisted of a number of adjective pairs, finally, this study used 11 adjective pairs to have validity. 1,198 out of 1,441 questionnaire were returned (a return rate of 83.14%), among which 935 were used for the analysis after data cleaning. An alpha level of 0.05 was established a prior for determining significance. All data analysis was accomplished using the SPSS 20.0 Win. Based on the finding of the study, the major results of the this study were as follows : 1. Higher average is female students' image of Specialized Vocational high school than male students' that, but, The difference between the two samples was not statistically significant. 2. It was only 20% that receive career education of Vocational high school. It is necessary to accomplish and expand career education of Specialized Vocational high school for proper career education from middle school, to realize career exploration and decide one's career path based on one's specialty. 3. They have positive images who hope for going on to the Specialized Vocational high school of education than the others. 4. It is necessary to accomplish and expand career education of Specialized Vocational high school for proper career education from middle school, to realize career exploration and decide one's career path based on one's specialty, because the result was statistically significant. 5. They have the more possitive image of Specialized Vocational high school, the more know it, totally.

Perception by Teachers and Students about Teaching & Learning Support System of the school of Rural Areas in Korea (전원학교 교수학습지원시스템에 대한 교사와 학생들의 인식)

  • Oh, Dong-Kyu
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.183-204
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    • 2012
  • This study was to analysis perception about Teaching & Learning Support System of the school of Rural Areas in Korea. In order to accomplish the study purpose, the study conducted a research through Web Survey method and examined their recognition. Major findings of this study were as follows: First, Student was satisfied with TLSS of the school of Rural Areas in Korea. Students would like to 'using e-learning with Electronic board and Tablet PC' among program contents. But the system' utilization was low. However, 90% of the students wanted that teacher usually using the FASTEL. Second, Teacher satisfaction was lower compared to the students is relatively. Teachers prefer 'various after school program' to 'using e-learning with Electronic board and Tablet PC'. However, learning effective of using FASTEL system was a 73.8% of teachers are effective is aware and had. Third, 35% Students recognized that are using the pastel system, frequently, On the other hand, the teachers are 60% and to recognize that there was. The reason doesn't the system to good use is slow wireless. Still, e-learning classroom infrastructure for satisfaction was high. Fourth, Teachers recognized students and the pastel system interaction than other e-learning system high. FASTEL System used in the most uncomfortable things on e-learning classroom Wireless Internet phenomena and lost content lacking, in order, I was told. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve to include Wireless Internet speed improvements and various content added support, easy-to-use instructional tools Add support order selected.

Study on Internationality of Japanese Modern Print in the World Print (세계 현대 판화속의 일본 현대판화의 국제성 연구)

  • Kim, Seung-Yeon;Shin, Ji-Yeon
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.413-437
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    • 2014
  • As the public Japanese art, print can be said to have started from Ukiyo-e print of Edo period(江戶時代, 1603~1867). Ukiyo-e(浮世繪) print, which 3 persons jointly produce, henceforth has gradually declined since the meiji period(明治時代, 1868~1912) due to the development of new print technique and introduction of western art. Since then, during the daiso period(大正時代 1912~1926), creative print movement grew up. Creative print is, differently from Ukiyo-e print, to be produced by one person, from the original picture to print, focusing on creating the artist's own work by being the main agent of the work. During before and after 1900s, print was evaluated low in Japan, compared to western painting, sculpture, etc. Nevertheless, the facts that several Japanese print artists received awards from international exhibits since 1950s became a big topic internationally, which became an opportunity to hold Tokyo International Print Biennale in 1957 in Japan, the first international art festival. From then on, print was recognized as an art genre while new recognition on it was gradually accepted also in Japan. In 1970, a controversy on it arose, while the characteristic of print as a medium of modern art became strong, accordingly, a controversy on it arose. However, in 1980, it firmly established itself as an art genre by overcoming the crisis through various efforts in the dimension of print artists and university education. Since then, print artists who produce new works with completeness by applying traditional technique and modern expression mode emerged, and until now Japanese modern print art is highly recognized by the world through the continuous overseas activities, research on print art, and cultivation of young print artists. This research looked back on the historical process when Japanese modern print art was created, which represents Asia, and investigated the cause that it could have win an international fame.

An Analysis of 'Animation Education Standards' and Recommendations for Improvement (애니메이션 교육 표준 분석 및 개선점 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Woong;Park, Yoo-Shin
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.63-90
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to improve the standards for the animation education in '2011 Arts and Culture Education Standards: Cartoon and Animation'. Animation Education Standards has been developed by discussion about Arts and Culture Education, and by study of documents about animation, and by investigation about experimental recognition. And the study of domestic and foreign art education standards are reflected in these standards. These standards consist of seven categories reflecting various aspects of animation and each category is classified into five stages by age. This standard has two axes: seven categories by various aspects of animation and five stages by age, and it represents achievement requirement in animation learning. This study suggests that 'Animation Education Standards' has five features as below. First, it reflects the character of Animation as an independent subject. Second, it is studied on the basis of the framework of arts and culture education. Third, it provides basic achievement requirement, and it has no limitation in learning activities. Fourth, the achievement requirements of two or more categories can be applied simultaneously in real classroom; each category is set by themes of animation education. This study presents five methods to improve existing standard. First, independent standard for animation education must be developed. Second, categories must be established distinctly. Third, each categories and achievement requirement must reflect unique characteristic of animation. Fourth, the description of achievement requires must be systemized. Fifth, to help to adapt education standard, explanation about practical teaching and learning activities must be added. '2011 Art and Culture Education Standards: Cartoon and Animation' is important in that it is the first study that systemized animation education and presented pedagogical achievement requirements by suggesting achievement requirements for animation education by two axes -ages and categories. It will be very helpful in studying the animation education as a subject, and developing education programs, and teaching and learning in an actual class.

Fun of Animation-on the Correlation among the Perceptive fun, the Cognitive fun and the Psychological fun (애니메이션의 재미 - 감각적 재미, 인지적 재미, 심리적 재미의 상관관계)

  • Sung, Re-A
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.99-126
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    • 2013
  • This study is meant to be seeing how fun of animation works by reviewing it theoretically and coordinating it to suggest the structure which integrates fun of animation and validates the proposed fun model. After reviewing fun theoretically, the fun of animation could be able to coordinate that fun of animation is consist of perceptive fun, cognitive fun, and psychological fun. Perceptive fun is induced by visual, auditory and other sensory information and it is directly affected the image, sound, and movement. Cognitive fun can be obtained by reasoning and interpretation to mobilize their knowledge with sensuously perceived stimulation and it is directly affected the story. Psychological fun occurs when the audience see the animation. The psychological fun is the psychological emotional state when the audience watches animation by relieving psychological congestion. It consists of fun of unfamiliarity or identification. By suggesting research model and validating it how the perceptive fun, cognitive fun, and psychological fun affects each other, perceptive fun enhances cognitive fun and psychological fun. Although cognitive fun enhances psychological fun, cognitive fun enhances psychological fun twice than perceptive fun. Also when perceptive fun affects psychological fun, cognitive fun shows the indirect effect as a parameter. In conclusion, perceptive fun affects psychological fun directly and be enhanced through cognitive fun. Fun of animation can be experienced when perceptive fun caused by accepting sensory information of animation instantly, cognitive fun caused by interpretation and understanding sensory information of animation, and psychological fun caused by relieving psychological identity through recognition fuses and acts as one. An animation emphasized a certain element is difficult to be loved by the audience. In this reason, an harmonical combination among the elements of story, image, sound and movement are important to combinate harmoniously for a successful animation to make the audiences fun by arising funny emotions.

Automatic Text Extraction from News Video using Morphology and Text Shape (형태학과 문자의 모양을 이용한 뉴스 비디오에서의 자동 문자 추출)

  • Jang, In-Young;Ko, Byoung-Chul;Kim, Kil-Cheon;Byun, Hye-Ran
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.479-488
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    • 2002
  • In recent years the amount of digital video used has risen dramatically to keep pace with the increasing use of the Internet and consequently an automated method is needed for indexing digital video databases. Textual information, both superimposed and embedded scene texts, appearing in a digital video can be a crucial clue for helping the video indexing. In this paper, a new method is presented to extract both superimposed and embedded scene texts in a freeze-frame of news video. The algorithm is summarized in the following three steps. For the first step, a color image is converted into a gray-level image and applies contrast stretching to enhance the contrast of the input image. Then, a modified local adaptive thresholding is applied to the contrast-stretched image. The second step is divided into three processes: eliminating text-like components by applying erosion, dilation, and (OpenClose+CloseOpen)/2 morphological operations, maintaining text components using (OpenClose+CloseOpen)/2 operation with a new Geo-correction method, and subtracting two result images for eliminating false-positive components further. In the third filtering step, the characteristics of each component such as the ratio of the number of pixels in each candidate component to the number of its boundary pixels and the ratio of the minor to the major axis of each bounding box are used. Acceptable results have been obtained using the proposed method on 300 news images with a recognition rate of 93.6%. Also, my method indicates a good performance on all the various kinds of images by adjusting the size of the structuring element.

The confucian view of human being of Lee Je-ma and his spirits to apply Sasang Constitutional Medicine (이제마(李濟馬)의 유학적(儒學的) 인간관(人間觀)과 의학정신(醫學精神))

  • Song, Il-byung
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2000
  • 1. Objects of Research Dong-mu Lee Je-ma was tried to solve the diseases of human beings through Sasang Constitutional Medicine with new viewpoints on human beings and life compared with the existed medicine. So it was very important to understand his medical views in order to apply Sasang Constitutional Medicine in clinical treatment. In this paper, I tried to find his medical views on human beings, life, and diseases to get informations in clinical application. 2. Methods of Research It was researched as bibliologically with his writings such as "Dongyi Soose Bowon(東醫壽世保元)", "Dongyi Soose Bowon Sasang Chobongyun(東醫壽世保元四象草本卷)", "Dongmu Yugo(東武遺稿)", "Gyuk-chigo(格致藁)". 3. Results and Conclusions The conclusions were as follows. 1. "I Ching"'s recognition of Things is that based on Yin-yang theory, originated from Taoism, and aimed to 'the Fine point of Easiness and Simpleness(易簡之妙)'. On the other hand, Dong-mu's is that based on Sasang theory, originated from Confucianism and designed to developed 'the Fine point of Easiness and Simpleness' in view of Sasang(四象). 2. Dong-mu Lee Je-ma had devoted himself in his whole life to establishing new paradigm in the Confucianism, inventing new medicine and, furthermore, embodying the spirit of General health maintenance. 3. Dong-mu Lee Je-ma recognized 'the Fine point of Easiness and Simpleness' in view of Sasang and offered new viewpoint of human being through summarizing various existing viewpoints. 4. Dong-mu Lee Je-ma established new viewpoint of life span of human being through offering new ideas such as 'Inherent vitality(命脈實數)', 'Essential power of organ(臟의 本常之氣)' and 'Regimen in ordinary life(生息允補之道)'. 5. Dong-mu Lee Je-ma embodied 'the Fine point of Easiness and Simpleness' in medicine through offering, in a wide meaning, the spirit of the General health maintenance and the spirit of the Positive medical treatment.

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