Park, Kyung-Seok;Lee, Seong-Youn;Choi, Soo-Im;Kim, Hyun-Sik;Jeong, Se-Myong;An, Ki-Wan
Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
This research was conducted to investigate the consciousness of demander on National Forest Management System and to seek for solution to activate it by measuring the variables such as the extent of goal achievement on the system, the extent of importance on function of national forest, benefit for participation of the system, and the extent of importance on the system as well as the extent of demander recognition and intention of participation on the system like, Cooperative Forest Program and People's Forest Program. The target of this investigation is to categorize consumers of National Forest Management System (NFMS) into four types such as environmental organization that do not participate in the system, environmental organization that participate in the team, company to publish a white paper on environmental and local government. As a result, the intention of participation was showed in C Type (62.7%), among fields that respondents interested in participation were tree planting and forest tending (56.2%). However, the rest of the participants were reluctant participate in the NFMS due to more benefit (72.2%) of corporate social responsibility from other fields than those from the field utilizing forestry. If only, diverse facilities related to national forest and active supporting policy are provided by Korea Forest Service, social participation using forest resources would be considered. Although 61% among A Type recognized NFMS in advance, the prime reason for not utilizing are the problems with reserving place for participates in and the inconvenience to participate in on-site. Type D shows slightly high interest in People's Forest Program (3.69). Also, it shows high interest in Forest Recreation (4.15) and Forest Reports (3.90). Particularly, it indicates that GyeongGi-Do and GangWon-Do local government prefers Forest Experience, and Cheolla, ChungCheong and GyeongSang local government prefer Forest Reports. Based on the above study, we finally suggest that legal alignment of the system, and the provision of incentive for inducement of voluntary participation by Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and establishment of new exclusive nongovernmental organization be able to operate the system as the solution to activate NFMS in terms of the consumer.
The study, executed with Hallasan National Park, which deserves to be a typical ecotourism destination, aims to provide basic information on park management for early establishment of ecotourism in a national park by assessing its visitors' behavior and satisfaction with a nature trail established as a series of an environmental interpretation program. The questionnaire survey was conducted at Eorimok Square in the weekday and on the weekend for two months of August and September in 2006, and finally 144 valid samples were used for the analysis. As a result of the research, it revealed that the demographic characteristics of the visitors to Hallasan National Park tended to coincide with those of the visitors to other national parks In Korea. On the whole, it showed their low recognition level of nature trails built up in national parks and less experience in using them. However, the visitors' satisfaction level and intention of re-visit, and recommendation to others were comparatively higher after actually using the nature trail at the site of Hallasan National Park, which hints at the possibility of national parks' much weightier role as the ground for ecology education and the functional expansion of the environmental interpretation-related facilities and programs. As for the attributes having effects on users' satisfaction with a nature trail, substantial aspects such as accessibility, safety, uniqueness and interest in environmental interpretation, and educational quality as well as physical facility management were revealed to have equal effects on users' satisfaction level, so there still remain a lot of pending issues over the reality of national parks in the initial stage of ecotourism staying at the level of the introduction and establishment of the facilities for environmental interpretation. This research had surveyed visitors to Hallasan National Park and limited to the nature trail only. For more systematic and practical ecological management of a national park, the in-depth understanding of the attributes affecting satisfaction of ecotourists, including nature trails and other environmental interpretation programs, and more sophisticated measuring tools are needed.
Kim, Eunhee;Jeon, Ju Hee;Lee, Won Uk;Kim, So Young;Kim, Eun Ryoung
Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to review our recent experiences with deep neck abscesses in children and adolescents and to provide helpful information in treatment and diagnosis by comparing them with those in other available literatures. Methods : Medical records of 36 children and adolescents admitted for deep neck abscess at two hospitals from January 2000 to October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Results : Male to female ratio was 1.4 : 1 and the mean age was 6.5 years. Painful neck swelling and fever were the most frequent symptoms in patients under thirteen years of age whereas trismus and headache were frequent symptoms in patients over fourteen years of age. Submandibular space was the most common site of deep neck abscess in patients under thirteen years of age, whereas peritonsillar space was the most common site in patients over fourteen years of age. The results of bacterial cultures were positive in 61.5% of drained cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly identified bacteria in 6 patients (37.5%) and 5 of them were under 2 years of age. Twenty six patients received surgical drainage while the others were treated with antibiotics only. There were no statistically significant differences in the durations of admission, fever after admission, and antibiotic treatment between surgical and medical treatment groups. Conclusion : The common sites of deep neck abscess, associated symptoms, and causative organisms were different between children and adolescents. As there were no differences in durations of admission, fever, or antibiotics treatments between surgical and medical treatment groups, surgical drainage may be avoided by early recognition and suspicion. However, if there is no improvement of symptoms or size of abscesses within 48-72 hours of antibiotic treatment, surgical drainage should be considered.
The rapid urbanization and increase in population due to industrialization have led to the extension of cities and the reduction in naturality as a necessity. Now, it is the biggest threat to virtuous circle of ecosystem. With the expansion of common recognition that this ecological crisis would be accompanied by the crisis of mankind, many countries all around the world are conducting researches to indicate the optimum consumption level of individual as an index in addition to cross-national environmental indicators such as ESI, EPI and SDI, by measuring environmental consumption of state, local government or individual, and comparing each region. Based on this background, this research was carried out to estimate the environmental capacity of 23 local government in Gyeongsangbuk-do. The result of EF estimation showed that EF value necessary for life per head in Gyeongsangbuk-do was 0.9534, and it showed an ecological deficit of 25.3 percent when analyzing it in consideration of the ecological capacity. Also, among the local governments in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Youngduk-gun displayed the highest EF, and Ulleung-gun displayed the lowest EF. But when analyzing the ecological deficit in consideration of the ecological capacity of each region, Gumi-city showed the greatest ecological deficit, and Youngyang-gun showed the biggest ecological capacity. The environmental capacity estimated in this study is to digitize the ecological capacity and ecological deficit of each local government in Gyeongsangbuk-do. The estimated optimum environmental capacity of each local government suggests the scale of environmental preservation and proper development and furthermore, could be used as fundamental data for persuading members of each local government when selecting a location of development facility or preservation area.
This study was conducted with 418 adults 20 years or older, all of whom lived in Daegu and Gyeongbuk. According to a survey, the number of females was greater than that of males (40.7%) by 59.3%, and that for ages 30 years was the highest. The preference for Korean traditional drinks was relatively high at 51.8%, and the frequency of drinking Korean traditional drinks was 39.0%. The adults answered that they had these beverages on special days such as holidays, ritual days, and birthdays. Among the reasons for drinking a traditional beverage 'good taste' scored the highest with 27.0% of respondents, followed by 'Korean traditional food' with 24.4%. The recognition of Korean traditional drinks was high in the order of Sikhe, Soojunggwa, Cha, and Hwachae. The preference for Sikhe was the highest. The group who agreed that it was important to develop a Korean functional traditional drink was 11.5% higher than that of the negative group, as 13.4% 'agreed a lot' and 41.1% 'agreed'. Consumer awareness toward traditional drink functionality was generally positive, with 3.5 points or higher on average, and awareness of the nutritional supplementation, diabetes control, the recuperative effects of the drinks were also high. Among Korean traditional drinks Sikhe was the highest with regard to intention to purchase. As a result, the popularization of traditional Korean drinks was based on three factors: quality oriented image, popularity oriented image, and product attribute-oriented image. These factors significantly influenced the preference for and purchase of Korean functional traditional drinks.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
This research focused on the process in which 'the same scenery' is recognized and represented as 'a different landscape' to determine the symbols and meaning of the scenery and landscape included in real-scenery landscape paintings of the 18th-19th centuries. As a result of analyzing the visual points, the content and expressions of 25 real-scenery landscape paintings of Chong Seok Jeong(叢石亭), it can be seen that the transmission of a kind of semiotic landscape on the basis of a specific symbol was accomplished naturally through imitation and representation for the purpose of the expression of Chong Seok Jeong-like idealized scenery. This shows that the unique images of Chong Seok Jeong have long been passed down after taking root as a unique benchmark The meaningful symbol of 'a strange Saseonbong(四仙峰)', which is broken by the spray after rising high, and 'a pine forest' have both been transmitted as being in the manner of Chong Seok Jeong. This has been equipped with the stereo-type scene by being a collective symbolization as the psycho-scenes in memory element of Chong Seok Jeong. Through the pictures of both Gyeomjae(謙齋) and Danweon(檀園), the process by which a specific painter's pictures become acculturated is highly interesting. The scenery expressed in these pictures was clearly that of a landscape of which its particularly emotions and remembrances were repainted through the experience of several places and original sketches. This can be explained as the concept in which the image from 'a specific scenery' gained through actual experience, that is, a personal feeling, has been expressed. The picture that was expressed as a different figure even at the same visual point for the same scenery is the result that was redefined through the scenery subject's recognition. Also, the modification of the scenery object can be colorful through meditation and Sachu(邪推: guessing with wicked doubt). The scenery recognized newly through adoption, omission and emphasis, it is 'the specific scenery' in the heart and is a figure having been more similar to 'a landscape' if the objective life reproduction before being acculturated is a figure similar to the scenery. So, the concept looks like being very persuasive that 'the nature with objectivity captured sensuously' simply is the scenery, and that 'the subjective phenomenon having acquired the cultural nature by being introspected in the method of aesthetic nostalgia is a landscape'.
Park, Won-Zei;Koo, Bon-Hak;Park, Mi-Ok;Kwon, Hyo-Jin
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
The aim of this study is to be able to understand the problems within the urban agriculture policy promoted by the Government and local autonomous entity base on the comparison of the consciousness of the urban agriculture between urban farmers and public officials and to inquire into the further revitalization scheme in the end. For this purpose, this study drew implications through studying latest trend and the legislation of domestic and foreign urban agriculture and then conducted a questionnaire survey of urban farmers and public officials. Because of this research, the revitalization schemes of urban agriculture are as follows: First, it's necessary to secure the usable arable land, such as the green roof, community garden, as well as urban agriculture park, etc. Second, it is necessary to establish the urban agriculture relations act suited for the actual circumstances of our country and to back up the legislation at an institutional, technological level in terms of a nation in order to secure the durability of urban agriculture. Third, it is advisable to make a proposal about the problems in time of activities for cultivation by forming a network between urban farmers and public officials and to prepare the plan for the active exchange of farming technologies. Fourth, it's necessary to activate the community gardens by supplying the education through cultivation method & its management method, and a variety of urban-agriculture-participation programs. Fifth, it is necessary to set up the specialized and practical education through an institute for landscape architecture. Sixth, it is necessary to induce the spontaneous participation in urban agriculture from urban farmers accompanied by the activities for promotion that are worth arousing urban farmers' interest. Lastly, it is also necessary to establish a legal basis of urban agricultural parks and facilities as well as to promote a search for multilateral policies and their practice so that the further urban agriculture can be stably continued within city boundaries.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
In this study, how much users of Hannamkeumbuk Keumbuk Mountains are aware of Baekdaegan and its attached mountain chains, a traditional geographic system, according to Sangyungpyo and basic data like the degree of awareness and use-behaviors, etc. have been studied. In addition, the environmental value of Hannamkeumbuk Keumbuk Mountains separating the central and the southern part of Korea among attached mountain ranges, secondary mountain chains, which act as an ecosystem buffer in the Baekdudaegan Range, has been estimated at the current amount of currency. In the questions of the perception of the traditional classification standard of mountain chains and Baekdudaegan, more than 70% of respondents answered that they had heard of or known them but 66.8% werenot aware of Hannamkeumbuk Keumbuk Mountains. While the awareness for Baekdudaegan is high, the perception of its attached mountain chains was very poor. DBDC responder system and CVM, which is used widely for the value estimate method of environment goods, were used. As the result, an additional benefit got when a person visits Hannamkeumbuk Keumbuk mountains was estimated as 5,813 won. It could find out that this amount was very low compared with 51,984 won, average visit cost. It judged that the reason was that damage of environmental conditions, the monotony of the trails and progress of indiscriminate environmental destruction, etc. The results of this study will offer a new perspective on public relations activities and resource conservation of Baekdudaegan and its attached mountain chains and estimate perceptions and efficient services for visitors to HannamKeumbuk Keumbuk Mountains. This study will act as data for basic planning and management to increase the mountains' value and to preserve them. Further studies are needed to make a frame of work division and management with various organizations so that the management of Hannamkeumbuk-Keumbuk Mountains may be properly established and their value may been hanced.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
This study was prompted by the recognition that the tenn "Community design" has recently been used in diverse practical fields without prior discussion about its underpinnings, a potentially problematic state of affairs. Based on these problems, this study studied the special quality about the concept of community design. Community design can be discussed from two perspectives. The first views community design as a design that concerns the community, an inhabited area populated with people who have common interests, at least in part because of geographic proximity to each other. The second sees community design as a movement that started in the 1960s and places a great importance on democratic decision making, communication, and collaboration. This study will focus on the latter. This branch of community design encompasses an advocacy planning approach, in which design professionals represent deprived communities in their resistance against comprehensive redevelopment. This was associated to the wider social protest movements of the mid and late 1960s. In the 1970s, this branch of community design was developed alongside community design centers, which provided local-level technical assistance to the communities on a number of issues, such as design and planning. The discussion about community design started in earnest from the early 1980s. A review of the literature m community design reveals several characteristics. First, community design deals with the relationship between the physical environment and several aspects of a region, including the social and cultural. Second, it involves community participation, which many scholars believe is the core of community design. Specifically, community design has been characterized by increased participation and democratic debate and decision making. The Third is about communication methods. Since the 1960s, diverse methods had been developed to promote communication effectively. Finally, community design must consider the relationship between designers, who typically value aesthetics and efficiency of form, and the needs of the community with which they are working. Indeed, some scholars believe that this relationship is generally contentious, although the designer can also be thought of as the facilitator of the community's needs. As community design practice becomes more prevalent, a review of the foundation of institution and policy and the role of experts is also needed. The community design movement bas been theorized ex post facto through diverse discussion that has sought to ascribe meaning and direction to its practice. In other words, the relationship between this theory and practice is cyclical. Therefore, this study can contribute to the virtuous circle.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
The outdoor space of an elementary school is the most familiar and most educational area for children. A paradigm shift in education has demanded a new role and direction for these outdoor spaces. The construction of children-friendly spaces, however, lags behind. The child-participatory design process is very meaningful at a time when many outdoor spaces have difficulties in reflecting the varied and specific demands of children. This study realized the necessity for a design that includes a child-participatory design process in construction the outdoor spaces of elementary schools. Through reference study and a theoretical approach of related laws, this study established a child-participatory design process model and applied it to Seoul Don-Am Elementary School. The design process included playing games and providing interesting tools to increase the participation of children in suggesting and presenting their opinions more freely. The design process of this study is described in five steps(eliciting interest in and recognition of the target space, Understanding children's expectations and the expressing thereof, Establishing factors for planning, Visualizing and arranging spaces, and Decision-making and building a final design plan). This process was applied to the planning and design of an outdoor space for Seoul Don-Am Elementary School. In this study, it is clear that the design of the participators and experts have a different purpose. Thus, the process of the design has more meaning than the final product. In addition, it is expected that an improvement in both tangible and intangible designs will be seen. Using a participatory design process, this study successfully improved the facilities and arrangement planning of an outdoor space. At the same time, it also enhanced the interest and participation of children in the process of creating the kind of school they desire. The significance of this study is that it has suggested an effective model to reflect the demands of children, the true users of the outdoor space, and the results were actually applied to elementary school outdoor planning and designing. This study enhanced the awareness of school members in the process of building the school's outdoor space.
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