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A Study about Development of Environment Printing Technology and $CO_2$ (환경 인쇄 기술의 발전과 인쇄물의 $CO_2$ 발생량에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Mun-Hag
    • Journal of the Korean Printing Society
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.89-114
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    • 2012
  • For as to world, the concern about the environment problem is enhanced than any other time in the past because of being 21 century. And the environment problem is highlighted as the world-wide issue. The time of the environment problem intimidates the alive of the mankind and presence of an earth over the time. It becomes the essentiality not being selection in the personal living or the economical viewpoint now to prepare for the climatic modification. As to the company management, the green growth period which it excludes the environment management considering an environment, cannot carry on the company the continued management comes. That is, in the change center of the management paradigm, there is the environment management. Nearly, the greenhouse gas which the publication industry is the environmental toxic material like all industries is generated. The greenhouse gas is ejected in the process of running the manufacturing process and print shop of the various kinds material used as the raw material of the book. Particularly, the tree felling for getting the material of the paper is known to reach the direct influence on the global warming. This study does according to an object it considers and organizes the environment parameter based on this kind of fact as to the publication industry. And it is determined as the reference which is used as the basic materials preparing the case that carbon exhaust right transaction(CAP and TRADE) drawing are enforced in all industries and is sustainable the management of the publication industry and reduces the environmental risk among the company many risk management elements and plans and enforces the publication related policy that there is a value. In the printing publication industry, this study tried to inquire into elements discharging the environmental pollutant or the greenhouse gas. Additionally, in the printed publication production process, it tried to inquire into the effort for an environment-friendly and necessity at the printing paper and the printers ink, regarded as the element discharging the greenhouse gas all kinds of the printing materials, operation of the print shop and all kinds of the machines and recycle process, and etc. These considerations make these industrial field employees aware of the significance about a conservation and environmental protection. They try to give a help in the subsequent study producing quantitatively each environmental parameter emission of green house gas. This makes the calculation of the relative $CO_2$ output reproached ultimately possible. Meanwhile, in a sense, many research protects and improving an environment in connection with the contents of research at the printing publication industrial field is in progress. There will be the voluntary human face that it has to protect an environment but this can not do by the outside factor according to all kinds of environment related law and regulation. Anyway, because of acting on company management as the factor of oppression, the increase of this environment-related correspondence cost could know that the research that the environment loading relates with a procurement and development, environment management system introduction, quality control standard, including, normalizing including a material, and etc. through the part of the effort to reduce the cost low was actively in progress. As to the green growth era, as follows, this paper prescribed the subject and alternative of the print publication industry. It is surrounded by the firstly new digital environment and the generation of the subject. And secondly the printing industry is caused by the point of time when the green growth leaves by the topic which is largest in the global industry and it increases. The printing publication industry has to prepare the bridgehead for the environment-friendly green growth as the alternative for this resolution with first. The support blown in each industry becomes the obligation not being selection. Prestek in which the print publishing was exposed to spend many energies and which is known as the practice of the sustainable print publishing insisted that it mentioned importance of the green printing through the white pages in 2008 and a company had to be the green growth comprised through the environment-friendly activity. The core management for the sustainable printing publication industry presented from Presstack white pages is compacted to 4 words that it is a remove, reduce, recover, and recycle. Second, positively the digital printing(POD) system should be utilized. In the worldwide print out market, the digital printing area stops at the level of 10% or so but the change over and growth of the market of an analog-to-digital will increase rapidly in the future. As to the CEO Jeff Hayes of the Infoland, the offset print referred to that it of the traditional method got old and infirm with the minor phase of the new printing application like the customer to be wanted publication and the print of the digital method led the market. In conclusion, print publishers have to grasp well the market flow in the situation where a digitalization cannot be generalized and a support cannot avoid. And it keeps pace with the flow of the digital age and the recognition about the effort for the development and environment problem have to be raised. Particularly, the active green strategy is employed for the active green strategy.

Management of Vascular Injuries to the Extremities after Trauma (외상 후 사지 혈관손상의 치료)

  • Kim, Han Yong;Park, Jae Hong;Kim, Myoung Young;Hwang, Sang Won
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2009
  • Background: Vascular injuries to the extremities are potentially devastating and they can lead to limb loss and mortality if they are not appropriately managed. The vascular trauma caused by traffic and industrial accidents has recently increased according to the developing industry and transport system in Korea. Early recognition and treatment of these injuries are mandatory to achieve satisfactory outcomes. Material and Method: We retrospective reviewed 43 patients with vascular injuries that were due to blunt and penetrating trauma and they underwent emergency operations from January of 1998 to December of 2006. Result: There were 38 men and 5 women patients with a mean age of $42.0{\pm}16.8$ years (range: 17~77). The cause of vascular injuries were 28 traffic accidents (65%), 6 industrial accidents (14%), 6 glass injuries (14%) and 3 knife injuries (7%). The average time from admission to the operating room was $319.0{\pm}482.2$ minutes (range: 27~2,400 minutes). The average time from admission to discharge was $53.1{\pm}56.0$ days (range: 2~265 days). The anatomic injuries included the femoral artery in 16 cases (37%), the popliteal artery in 8 cases (19%), the brachial artery in 8 cases (19%), and the subclavian and axillary arteries in 7 cases (16%). The associated injuries were 23 bone fractures (53%), 18 muscle injuries (42%) 5 nerve injuries (12%) and 11 vein injuries (26%). The operation methods were 20 end to end anastomoses (46%), 16 interposition grafts (36%), 2 repairs with using patches (5%) and 5 others (12%). The number of amputations and cases of mortality were 3 cases (7%) and 4 cases (9%), respectively. Conclusion: Minimizing ischemia is an important factor for maximizing salvage of extremities. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can reduce the amputation and mortality rates.

Research on Occupational Stress of the Some Local Workers and Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (일부지역 근로자의 직무스트레스와 측두하악장애에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jung-Hwa;Park, Eui-Jung;Choi, Jung-Mi
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2009
  • Aimed at office workers at their height of Temporomandibular joint disorder(TMD), organized self-filling questionnaires were distributed from January 7 to 26, 2008 to 216 workers in the fields of service, office work, and production in D metropolitan city, to get a proper recognition about prevention and treatment of TMD by observing how strongly occupational stress influence on them. The findings of the study were as follows: 1. For subjective symptoms of joint noise as TMD, occasional was 45.8% and often 12.0%, while for joint dislocation often was 12.0%. 41.2% said they feel pains while chewing, while 24.1% said they occasionally feel pains while not chewing. 2.8% said they often experience mouth-opening disorder. 2. For joint noise, answers were significantly different according to their ages, while 30's are at their height (P < 0.05). For joint dislocation, the shorter they worked the more they have it, so less than a year worker was 37.9%, while less than 3 years 31.0%, and less than 5 years 20.7%. For work type, daytime workers have more dislocation, 58.6%, than shift-workers 34.5% (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). For pains while chewing, the shorter they worked, the more they experienced, which is the same as mouth-opening disorder (P < 0.01). 3. Workers with mouth-opening disorder have much stress on occupational autonomy (P < 0.05) and workers with dislocation and pains while chewing have much stress on relation trouble (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Workers with highly occupational insecurity has much trouble on dislocation and pains while chewing, while workers with dislocation have significantly much stress on unproper compensation (P < 0.05). 4. For who have joint dislocation, they have much stress on relation-trouble, occupational disorder, and un-proper compensation (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Workers with pains while not chewing showed significant difference about occupational insecurity and relation troubles (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Who have mouth-opening disorder showed significant difference about occupational autonomy (P < 0.05).

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Subjective Oral Health Behaviors and Recognition of Childcare Teacher With and Without Oral Health Education (보육교사의 구강보건교육경험유무에 따른 구강보건행태 및 인지도)

  • Jang, Kyeung-Ae;Seong, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the Influence of the experience of Childcare Teacher about oral health education on oral health behaviors. For this, Questionnairs to be self-filled up about experience of oral health education were carried out to 267 childcare teachers who are working in nurseries in Geongnam province. The date was analysed using the SPSS 12.0 program. The obtained result were as follows. Among the respondents who are not under stress of oral health. 8.1% respondents had the oral health education and 7.7% others didn't have it. For toothbrushing methods, it was found that 25.3% used manual toothbrushing with experience in dental education(up and down toothbrushing monement) and 35.4% used semi automatic toothbrushing(rotational movement). 37.1% respondents had experiences in oral health education, 69.7% respondents were instructed in the oral health at public health center, and 61.6% respondents were instructed in the oral health a theory(toothbrushing guidance). Among the respondents who answered that oral health education should be necessary, 83.4% of those have already had oral health education where as 73.8% respondents have not had the education. 67.7% of the respondents who want to participate in the oral health education is corresponding to those with experience in dental education, 66.1% respondents with no education feel the necessity of the oral health education.

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A Study for the Improvement Subjects of the Korean Dental Hygienists' Licensing Examination (치과위생사 국가시험 개선을 위한 조사연구)

  • Kim, Sook-Hyang;Jang, Jong-Hwa;Oh, Sang-Hwan
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the recognition for improvement of the Korean Dental Hygienists' Licensing Examination(KDHLE). The subjects were 1,048 dental hygienists were surveyed. either in person or through mail. Data was collected using a self administrated questionnaire from July 1 to July 20, 2008. The data were analysed with frequency and $x^2$-test using the SPSS 15.0 windows. For the inquiry where adequacy of subjects of the KDHLE regarding to evaluation of standard duty achievement ability in the real field was asked, 404(39.5%) answered 'Yes', and 680(66.9%) was answered 'Yes' for necessity of changing current subjects of the KDHLE. For the inquiry about the number of questions in the KDHLE, 353(34.6%) answered that current number of questions is 'Inappropriate' and advisable way of improving KDHLE subjects, 463 (45.4%) answered 'enhancing problem solving ability through unifying subjects', the highest of all. About practical examination methods, 647(67.3%) was answered 'Should be modified'. For methods of dental hygienist practical examination, 'clinical demonstration on patients' received the highest number of votes 628(63.6%). According to the above results, most of active dental hygienists at presence expect the alteration of current KDHLE and new items which are reliable for globalization by testing problem solving ability through unified subjects must be introduced.

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The Effect of Creative Problem-Solving Instruction Model on the Creativity and Environment-Awareness in Elementary Practical Arts Environmental Education (초등실과 환경단원의 창의적 문제해결수업이 아동의 창의성 및 환경의식에 미치는 효과)

  • 최청림;정미경
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.115-132
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is aimed at giving proof that helps the elementary practical arts education system accomplish as the effects are turned out experimentally. Two classes of the sixth grade of J elementary school in Dae-gu have been selected in order to be experimented. One was chosen as an experimental group, the other was done as a comparative group. The creative-problem-solving learning-model was applied to the experimental group, and the traditional way of teaching was applied to the comparative group. For four classes of the sixth grades, ‘chapter 8: Making with recycled materials’ was proceeded as the content. Then. tests about the way of environmental awareness and creativity were carried out twice. After that, the results of pre and after-test in the comparative and experiment groups were compared using the t-test method. Following the analysis of the data collected in this study. the following major observations were obtained: First, children who were educated the creative problem-solving in a practical arts education achieved higher scores than before. Therefore, it turns out that the CPS method is an effective way to improve the environmental awareness in children. It showed that it included lots of daily habits connected with daily life and it made the intention to carry out the environment-preservation stronger and children´s attitude towards the environment improved. Moreover, making with recycled materials was used to solve an environmental problem, affecting in a positive way in our life. It also made the positive recognition about the environment. Second. the application of the creative problem-solving class of the practical arts education can make positive results to children. It helped children to have more interest in the environment around them. Children´s fluency, flexibility and originality in their ideas were improved as much as possible while they were solving problems. Consequently, the application of the creative problem-solving class model of elementary practical arts environmental education lets children expand environment consciousness and creativity.

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The role of CD14 and Toll-like receptors on the release of MMP-B in the LPS recognition pathway (지질 다당질 인지경로에서 기질금속단백분해효소-8 분비에 대한 CD14와 Toll-like receptors의 역할 연구)

  • Yang, Seung-Min;Kim, Tae-li;Seol, Yang-Jo;Lee, Yang-Moo;Ku, Young;Chung, Chong-Pyoung;Han, Soo-Boo;Rhyu, In-Chul
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.579-590
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    • 2006
  • 1. 연구배경 교원질 분해작용을 하는 호중구의 세포질 효소인 기질금속단백분해효소-8은 치주질환, 류마티스 관절염, 그리고 궤양결장염과 같은 염증성 질환에서 농도가 증가한다고 알려져 있다. 최근에는 A. actinomycetemcomitans의 leukotoxin이 사람호중구에서 기질금속단백분해효소-8의 분비를 유도하는 것이 보고되었다. 이 연구의 목적은 선천면역 체계에서 세포표면 항원무리14, Toll-like 수용기, 그리고 $NF-{\kappa}$ B경로를 통하여 A. actinomycetemcomitans의 지질다당질로 유도된 기질금속단백분해효소-8의 분비 여부와 세포기전을 알아보고자 하였다. 2. 연구재료 및 방법 건강한 개인 제공자(남자 13명, 여자 3명)로부터 얻은 개개인의 20ml 말초혈액을 제조사의 지침에 따라 호중구를 추출한 후 항세포표면 항원무리14와 함께 $4^{\circ}C$에서 30분간 전배양 한 후, $37^{\circ}C$에서 9시간 동안 배양시켰다. 추출한 호중구에 Toll-like 수용기 억제제 또는 $NF-{\kappa}$ B억제제인 TPCK를 첨가한 후 $37^{\circ}C$에서 1시간 동안 전배양하고 $37^{\circ}C$에서 9시간 동안 배양시켰다. 호중구에 세포뼈대 억제제인 cholchicine, nocodazole, demecolcine, 그리고 cytochalasin B를 A. actinomycetemcomitans의 지질다당질과 함께 $37^{\circ}C$에서 9시간 동안 배양시켰다. 기질금속단백분해효소-8 분비량은 효소면역측정법을 통해 결정하였다. 통계처리는 일원배치 분산분석법을 이용하였다(p<0.05). 3. 결과 A. actinomycetemcomitans 지질다당질은 기질금속단백분해효소-8의 분비를 증가시켰다. 기질금속단백분해효소-8의 분비는 항세포표면 항원무리14에 의해서 억제되었지만, 항 Toll-like 수용기2, 항 Toll-like 수용기4 항체는 억제시키지 못했다. $NF-{\kappa}$ B 억제제는 A. actinomycetemcomitans의 지질다당질로 유도된 $NF-{\kappa}$ B 결합 활성도와 기질금속단백분해효소-8 분비를 억제하였다. 미세섬유 중합반응 억제제는 A. actinomycetemcomitans의 지질다당질로 유도된 기질금속단백분해효소-8의 분비를 억제시켰으나, 미세관 중합반응억제제는 억제시키지 못했다. 4. 결론 위의 연구결과를 종합하여 볼 때, 기질금속단백분해효소-8은 A. actinomycetemcomitans의 지질다당질로 유도되며, 세포표면 항원무리-$NF-{\kappa}$ B 경로를 통하여 분비되고, 이 분비 과정은 미세섬유 계통이 관여하는 것으로 보인다.

The Yellow Sea Ecoregion Conservation Project : the Present Situation and its Implications (황해생태지역 보전사업 추진현황 및 시사점)

  • Kim, Gwang Tae;Choi, Young Rae;Jang, Ji Young;Kim, Woong-Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.337-348
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    • 2012
  • The Yellow Sea Ecoregion Conservation Project is a joint international project which is carried out under the purposes of conserving the habitats in the Yellow Sea Ecoregion and biodiversity from various threats that damage ecosystems, informing the importance and value of the Yellow Sea Ecoregion, and promoting the understanding and interests of Korea, China and Japan. Subsequent to the Yellow Sea Ecoregion Planning Programme which had been performed during the period from 2002 to 2006, the Yellow Sea Ecoregion Support Project has been performed over 7 years in total from 2007 to 2014. Panasonic is sponsoring the financing of the project, and the organizations in charge of the project by country are Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology for Korea and World Wide Fund for Nature branches for China and Japan. While the Yellow Sea Ecoregion Planning Programme was focused on the biological assessment and the selection of potential priority area by scientific review, the Yellow Sea Ecoregion Support Project is oriented toward practical activities targeting more diversified stakeholder. Especially, this project plans to support direct conservation activities in the region and participation and cooperation from local residents. The project plan is comprised of 3 phases. During the first period from 2008 to 2009, small grant projects were operated targeting 16 institutions of Korea and China, and for the second period from 2010 to 2012, one place each was selected as demonstration site for habitat conservation in Korea and China respectively and supported for three years to introduce the conservation method based on international standards such as the management of marine protected areas, ecosystem-based management and community-based management and simultaneously to develop habitat conservation activities suitable for national and regional characteristics. During the period from 2013 to 2014 which is the last phase, the project plans to distribute the performance of small grant projects and demonstration site activities through a series of forums among stakeholder. Through the activities described above, the recognition of general public on the conservation of the Yellow Sea Ecoregion was changed positively, and community-based management began to be reflected in the policies for the marine protected areas of central and local government.

Clinical Manifestations of Invasive Infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes in Children (소아에서 발생한 A군 연쇄구균에 의한 침습성 질환의 임상적 특성 분석)

  • Yang, Nuri;Lee, Hyeon Seung;Choi, Jae Hong;Cho, Eun Young;Choi, Eun Hwa;Lee, Hoan Jong;Lee, Hyunju
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Streptococcus pyogenes is an important cause of invasive diseases in children. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of invasive infections due to S. pyogenes in children in Korea. Methods: A retrospective study of children under 18 years of age with invasive infections due to S. pyogenes at Seoul National University Children's Hospital between March 1992 and December 2012, and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between March 2003 and December 2012 was conducted. Demographic factors, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment, mortality and morbidity of all patients were reviewed. Results: A total of 30 among 36 cases identified as invasive disease due to S. pyogenes were available for review. There was a predominance for male subjects (male:female=2.75:1). The median age was 50 months (range 12 days to 15 years) and 53.3% were under 5 years of age. Skin and soft tissue infections (9/30, 30.0%), bacteremia without identified focus (4/30, 13.3%) and bone and joint infections (6/30, 20.0%) were the most frequent clinical presentations. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (3/30, 10.0%) pulmonary, abdomen and central nervous system infections (2/30, 6.7%) were also seen. There was a peak in number of patients in year 2012 (9/30, 30.0%). There were no cases of mortality. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance rates were low by 3.8% and 7.5%, respectively. Conclusion: We studied the clinical presentations of invasive infections due to S. pyogenes during the past 20 years in Korean children. The findings of this study help us understand the characteristics of the disease, enhancing early recognition and prompting adequate antibiotic therapy which is important in reducing morbidity and mortality.

A Study on the Characteristics of Descriptions of the Perspiration in "Hwangjenaegyeong(黃帝內經)" (황제내경(黃帝內經)에 보이는 한(汗)관련 서술(敍述)의 특징(特徵)에 대한 고찰(考察))

  • Lyu, Jeong-Ah;Jang, Woo-Chang;Baik, You-Sang;Jeong, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.205-223
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    • 2010
  • In Korean Traditional Medicine(abbreviated to K.T.M.), hyperhidrosis and anhidrosis are the targets of the medical treatment. Furthermore sweating appearance is also one of the important symptoms which explain a particular situation of the patient in K.T.M. And at "Sanghanron(傷寒論)" which is a traditional chief clinical bible written by Jang Gi(張機) later Han dynasty(漢代) in China made full use of the various kinds of diaphoresis[汗法] as a main medical treatment with purgation therapy[下法] and emetic therapy[吐法]. So the sweat in itself not only is the disease, but also is one of the symptoms explain a disease pattern. This thesis inquires into "Hwangjenaegyeong(黃帝內經)" referring to sweat which is the origin of recognition to the sweat in K.T.M. Some theses similar to this research had been made progresses and already reported, but most of them have classified the contents into biology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment after the model of western medical theory. In the aspect of comparative studying with other literature and clinic practical using, we found characteristics of referring to sweat in "Hwangjenaegyeong(黃帝內經)". And we classify the characteristics into some categories as follows. 1. There are some terms which make a title including sweat and symbolize the characteristics, for example sweat of soul[魄汗], sweat of death[絶汗], sweat of streaming[灌汗], sweat of weakness[白汗], sweat of sleep[寢汗], sweat of bright and heat[炅汗], sweat of kidney[腎汗], sweat of escaping[漉汗], cold sweat[寒汗], sweat on the head[頭汗], hyperhidrosis[多汗], heavy sweat[大汗]. But there aren't spontaneous sweat[自汗] or sweat like a thief[盜汗] which are the normal terms referring to sweat in history of K.T.M. And there are several descriptions about sweat appearance such as sweating in half of body[汗出偏沮], sweating in the rear end and thigh and knee[汗出尻陰股膝], hyperhidrosis in the neck and aversion to wind[頸多汗惡風], hyperhidrosis in the head and face and aversion to wind[頭面多汗惡風], cannot stopping the sweating under head[頭以下汗出不可止], make a person sweat to one's feet[令汗出至足], sweating like escaping[漯漯然汗出], sweating like soaking[汗出如浴], sweating become moist[汗出溱溱], hardly escaping sweat[汗大泄], escaping sweating[漉漉之汗], sweat moisten the pores [汗濡玄府], ceaseless sweating like pouring[汗注不休] sweating like pouring and vexation[汗注煩心], damp with sweat[汗汗然], sweating spontaneously[汗且自出], removal of fever with sweat drying[熱去汗稀]. That can be divided into sweat region and sweat form. 2. There are detailed explanations of the principle of perspirations caused by hot weather, hot food, hard working and meeting damp pathogen. 3. There are some explanations of the principle of removing fever due to the excessive heat from internal and external body through sweating by replenishing the body fluid. And many descriptions about overcoming the febrile disease by dropping temperature through sweating and many diaphoresis for curing. 4. There are some descriptions about five Jang organs perspirations and attachment of five mucous body fluid to five Jang organs. 5. There are pathogenic progresses after sweating affected by the Six Atmospheric Influences and water. And detailed explanations of disease mechanism a sweat leading to another disease. 6. There are descriptions about various sweat absent situations.