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The Aspects of Type-Combination of 'Otter Legend' in 『the Joseon tale』 and recognition of the Qing Dynasty and the Joseon Dynasty (가린-미하일로프스키의 『조선설화』에 나타난 '수달 전설'의 결합 양상과 청에 대한 인식)

  • Ha, Eun-ha
    • Journal of Korean Classical Literature and Education
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    • no.37
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    • pp.253-281
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this paper is to analyze the meaning of of "Nikolai Garin - Mikhailovsky's the "Joseon tale". talks about the origins of the Joseon Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty. In this paper, we revealed the features of the form of "Otter Legend". And analyzed the confrontation between Nurhachi's family and Yi Seong-gye's family shown in the story. The result is as follows. is complex tale. The start of is 'the typr of Yaraeja'. Next is the story of Myoung-Dang. Myoung-Dang is deep in the water. also has anecdotes of Jeong, Chung-shin. rearranged at least three stories or more. transformed each type of stories, communing the different patterns of stories with different logic. The basic logic of the transformation was to maximize the confrontation between the NuruhachI and Yi Seong-gye clans, the origins of Manchuria and the Chosun Dynasty. As a result, the sacredness of Nurhachi's Family, the origin of the Qing Dynasty, was expanded. On the other hand, Yi Seong-gye s Family was less extraordinary than Nurhachi's Family. Also, the ability of the person is also inferior. This is not the yearning for the Qing Dynasty. This is because the Qing Dynasty and the Joseon have the same pedigree. shows that the Qing Dynasty's experiences should be shared since the Qing Dynasty was born of another clan of Joseon. This is a new perception of Qing Dynasty. This is similar to the interpretation that dragged the Qing Dynasty's history into the Joseon's ethnographic historical point of view.

Study on the Educational Plan to Enhance Intercultural Abilities Using the Oral Folktales of Immigrants who Mov ed to Korea (이주민 구술 설화를 활용한 상호문화능력 신장의 교육 방안연구)

  • Kim, Jeong-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Classical Literature and Education
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    • no.38
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    • pp.201-238
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    • 2018
  • As a way of enhancing the intercultural ability needed for diverse cultural eras, this study focuses on the "narration" of the Italian education scholar Maddalena De Carlo in order to determine the "diverse values" created by the "symbolic representation" based on the folktales narrated by immigrants living in Korea. Through this, it specifically presents educational elements and contents that can raise relative sensitivity. The authors of this paper have connected, empathized, and communicated with people of various cultures in order to go beyond Carlo's discussion. The paper discusses the expansion of cultural sensitivity as an element of education through narrative topics using the folktales of immigrant narrators in Korea. It also recognizes the limitations of a desire for a homogeneous union within an intercultural society and thus formulates educational contents for creating a relationship with heterogeneous ideas through the elimination of communication barriers through heterogeneity and a consideration of the surface and the back. This is systemized in six steps. Step 1: Listening to oral folktales of immigrants, Step 2: Finding heterogeneous motifs imprinted in the immigrants' memories, Step 3: Understanding the meaning of the opposing qualities symbolized by heterogeneous motifs, Step 4: Creating narrative topics containing the key motifs, Step 5: Generating the value of symbolic representation as a narrative topic, and Step 6: Expanding the value of life into a cultural symbol. In Chapter 3, this study focuses on educational contents using immigrants' folktales by applying these six steps. The class contents include the recognition of the limitations of desire for a homogeneous union within an intercultural society and the consideration of how to create a relationship with heterogeneous ideas through the elimination of communication barriers through heterogeneity and consideration of the surface and the back. This paper then compares the Indonesian folktale, The Inverted Ship Mountain and the Mom's Mountain, with the world-famous Oedipus myth, to determine what the symbolic representation of these heterogeneous motifs is. In Step 6, when the symbolic system is culturally extended, the incestuous desire that appears in the "inverted ship" is interpreted as a fixation that was created when the character sought to unite with homogenous idea. The Cambodian folktale, The Girl and the Tiger, is a story that is reminiscent of the Korean folktale, The Old Man with a Lump. Through the motif in "Tiger," this paper generates a narrative topic that will enhance the students' intercultural abilities by culturally expanding their skills in how to relate with a heterogeneous being that is usually represented as an animal. The Vietnamese folktale, The Coconut Bowl, similar to the Korean folktale, GureongDeongDeong SinSeonBi, is a story that draws a variety of considerations about the surface and theback, and it shows readers how to build a relationship with a heterogeneous idea and how to develop and grow with such a relationship. Thus, if a narrative topic is generated and readers are able to empathize using an opposing feature formed by the core motif of the folktale, it becomes possible, through immigrant folklore, to construct a possibility of a new life through the formation of a relationship with an unfamiliar and heterogeneous culture.

Confucians Funeral Rituals during the mid-Joseon Dynasty Lee Mun Geon'Mourning beside His Mother's Grave (이문건 시묘살이를 통해 본 조선중기 유자(儒者)의 상례(喪禮) 고찰)

  • Cho, Eun-suk
    • Journal of Korean Classical Literature and Education
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    • no.33
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    • pp.153-184
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    • 2016
  • This study investigates the funeral rituals practiced by the Joseon Dynasty as recorded about Lee Mun Geon (1494~1567, a.k.a Mukjae), who mourned by the grave of his deceased mother, Ms. Shin (1463~1535), a woman whose family's origin was Goryeon. The study focuse on the rituals performed by Lee after his mother's death, his participation in the funeral, and his mourning specifically as an individual who has lost his parent. Reviewing Lee's mourning life beside the grave, the contents of diary belonging to a nobleman in the middle of Joseon Dynasty were studied aimsing to find out the meaning of rituals, the overall recognition accorded to death, and the filial duties that were carried out by the noblemen of the time. Although noblemen in the middle of Joseon Dynasty ceaselessly attempted to change the observance of funeral rituals through legislation, it was difficult to change the mindset of the people, who fllowed the deep-rooted traditions of long history. It must be acknowledged that the Joseon Dynasty had a different cultural background than that of China. There was a fundamental problem when they tried to adapt The Family Rituals of Zhu Xi, followed by the Chinese, to the Joseon society. Although The Family Rituals of Zhu Xi emphasized ancestral rites focusing on enshrining mortuary tablets and the importance of establishing the family shrine hundred times, noblemen in the mid-Joseon Dynasty period cared for their parents in the grave by mourning for them than by following such practice. The solemn memorial service held in front of the grave, and the annual ritual service on the death anniversary were far more important to the noblemen in the mid-Joseon Dynasty. Amid such contradictions, the noblemen accepted and performed the mourning rituals beside the grave of their parent. Human beings across the ages have always dwelt upon thoughts of the afterlife. Most people believe that they attain a state after the death of their physicalbody. If humans did not have such thoughts, they would not be bothered if death occurs on being hit by a car on the street. Thus, human beings often think of the ritual services related to death, although in different forms. Therefore, mourning by the grave of their parent held great significance among the noblemen of the Joseon Dynasty as a sign of their filial piety.

A Difference of Social Awareness between Northern and Southern Vietnam for Corporate Social Responsibility Activities (베트남 내 기업 CSR활동에 대한 사회인식 지역비교 : 북부 하노이와 남부 호치민을 중심으로)

  • JUNG, Hye young;TRAN, Thi thuy
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.159-212
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    • 2018
  • This paper is focused on analyzing the social environment of a rapidly changing on Vietnamese company. The key analysis of this study is on the change of perception in Vietnam and the regional difference of CSR acception. The social acceptance research of CSR is centered on the comparative analysis of Korean, Japanese and Chinese companies Social Activities in Vietnam. In addition, This paper seek to way of contribute to the sustainable development of Korean companies, and its harmonious cooperation with Vietnamese society through reviewing the CSR activities and direction of their CSR expectation. In the paper, linkage analysis was conducted with the results of the study on CSR value development process in Vietnam society and analysis of social responsibility values obtained from empirical studies. Through this, finally, we trying to search the value of social responsibility in Vietnam and its future directions. When we understand Vietnam's CSR, based on 'locality' of Vietnam, Northern and Southern can be understand on its different backgrounds. And it can be analyzed by their CSR characteristics of acception. As the result of this research, In the North, Foreign companies' CSR is understanded to be viewed from the corporate economic income and distribution. In the South, there is a strong tendency to understand CSR activities of foreign companies as marketing activities. On the whole, In northern Hanoi, there was a strong expectation in terms of 'employment improvement' and 'workers' working conditions'. In the South, there was a greater interest in improving the 'quality of life of residents' and 'consumer protection'. This is due to the influence of the economic system experienced during the process of different colonization, modernization and communization between the two regions. Since the Reform and Opening of Vietnam, Social Awareness of CSR seems that the regional differences were formed by the pace of economic development and the economic environment has played a role. In particular, the social acceptance of CSR values showed a slight difference in recognition between the North and South regions, but as both regions showed common hope for 'intervention in the role of government'. Therefore, Social Awareness of Vietnam's CSR is based on relation of 'government-society' formed from the 'Communitarianism'. As foreign investment flows more, CSR awareness and expectations in Vietnam's society will increase further. And the CSR expectations of local governments and stakeholder will be more complicated. It is time to check the needs of Vietnamese society in relation to locality of the social responsibility activities.

An analysis of Korea-China FTA Service Chapters and Implications for Further Negotiations Strategy -With special focus on the Insurance Market- (한-중 FTA 서비스 분야의 분석에 따른 향후 추가협상에 대한 시사점 : 보험시장을 중심으로)

  • Hwang, Ki-sik;Choi, Shin-young;Kim, Se-jin
    • Journal of International Area Studies (JIAS)
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.217-244
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    • 2018
  • As Chinese insurance market grows rapidly due to market reforms, China got recognition as second-largest insurance market in the world in 2016. However Korean insurance companies have had difficulties to grow in Chinese insurance market despite Chinese participation in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the growth of chinese insurance market. The reason for the decline in Korean insurance companies is economic retaliation due to the deployment of THAAD in Korea. However, this is not a fundamental reason. The underlying cause of the effects of economic retaliation is the result of insufficient negotiations in Korea-China FTA services sector. In Service sector of Korea-China FTA, the level of concession between Korea and China differs greatly, when comparing China and South Korea's FTA. In addition, it has only been a few years since China collected the position of the WTO Doha Agenda, which currently deals with concessions on intellectual property rights and services. More important is that the Korea-China FTA service sector, as it stopped short of being protected by the most-favored-nation state treatment level when Korean insurance companies entered China. Further negotiations to supplement the weak points in the Korea-China FTA service sector were promised in December 2017, but international tensions over THAAD deployment made it impossible to hold such negotiations. However, due to changes in international affairs in 2018, the first additional negotiation was decided and held. This paper implicates strategies of further negotiation between Korea and China for service and investment chapter. Consequently, the aim of this paper suggests directions how to re-enter Chinese insurance market to Korean insurance companies.

The Life Experiences of the Deaf Elderly (농아노인의 생활 경험)

  • Park, Ina;Hwang, YoungHee;Kim, Hanho
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.525-540
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate what kind of experiences the deaf elderly would have in the course of life. It also aimed to promote the understanding of their living difficulties and culture among people with normal hearing and provide basic data to help them live with others as members of the community. Phenomenological qualitative research was conducted as part of the methodology. The subjects include seven deaf old people. Based on the results of in-depth interview and analysis, the life experiences of the deaf elderly were categorized into "unforgettable wounds," "life in the community," "life with the family," "marriage of the deaf elderly", and "living by adjusting to reality." First, the subcategories of "unforgettable wounds" include "receiving no treatment for fever," "damage by the Korean War," "alienation from the family," and "people's cold eyes." It turned out that the deaf elderly had led a life, suffering from the heart wounds that they could not forget. Second, the subcategories of "life in the community" include "inconvenience in life," "disadvantages in life," and "severed life." The deaf elderly were not only subjected to inconvenience and disadvantages in life, but also suffered loneliness, being cut off from the community. Third, the subcategories of "life with the family" include "not communicating with children," "being abandoned again," "being used by the family," "being lonely even with the family," and "wishing to live independently from the family." The deaf elderly were not supported by their families and were abandoned or used by them, leading a solitary life. Fourth, the subcategories of "marriage of the deaf elderly" include"send as a surrogate mother," "frequent remarriage and divorce," "lean on as a married couple." Deaf elderly form their own culture of the marriage and lean on each other. Finally, the subcategories of "living by adjusting to reality" include "getting help from neighbors," "behaving oneself right in life," "learning Hangul," "living by working," "living freely," "living by missing," and "controlling the impulse to end life," "resorting to religion." The deaf elderly made the most alienated and vulnerable group with no access to benefits due to their limitations as a linguistic and social minority, but they made efforts to form their own culture and adjust to reality for themselves. Based on those findings, the study made the following proposals: first, there is a need for practical approaches to heal the ineffaceable wounds in the hearts of deaf elderly. Second, there is a need for policies to help them experience no inconvenience and disadvantages as members of community and communicate with people with normal hearing. Third, there should be practical approaches to enable them to get recognition and support from their families and share love with them. Finally, there should be practical policy approaches to help people with normal hearing understand the culture of deaf elderly and assist the deaf elderly to receive supports from the community and live with others within the community.

Lew Seung Kug's Recognition on Relations between Juhng-yaug and History of Korean Thoughts (도원 류승국의 정역(正易)과 한국사상사의 상호 매개적 인식)

  • Yi, Suhngyohng
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.50
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    • pp.201-234
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    • 2016
  • This thesis examined interpreting methodology of Do Won Lew Seung Kug(1923~2011) is based on the principle of Juhng-yaug. His lifelong academic aim was searching for the theory that enables global community to co-exist peacefully through humanitarianism that leads to reconciliation and mutual benefits. The research of the history of Korean thoughts provided him with the clue for his theory. According to Do Won, Korean thoughts pursue the Juhng-yaug's value of 'Yin and Yang accordance' rather than the I-Ching's value of 'suppress Yin and elevate Yang'. He furthermore asserts the concept of the middle (中), which harmonizes the two extremes by human beings as main agents, has been consistently observed from the action of divination during the ancient period through Juhng-yaug in the late 19th century. Do Won identifies 'human maturity that integrates the extremely conflicting insistences and values and seeks to be reconciled' as the basic character of Korean thoughts. He explains 'Hongikingan[弘益人間, becoming beneficial to the human world] is the idea that embraces the conflicting values symbolized by heaven and the earth. He also illuminates that Choe Chi Won(崔致遠)'s created Poongliu Do by integrating heterogeneity among Confucianism, Buddhim, and Daoism and it was attainable through the various works of mature human beings. Both Toe Gye' s philosophy of Ingeuk(人極, the Great Ultimate of Person) and the concept of Innaecheon(人乃天, Human Being right is Heaven) of Donghak are excellent examples of Humanitarianism that sublate two extremes. In Korea, the prototype of this thought has penetrated its entire history in the various circumstances of the period. The grand finale is Juhng-yaug of which the pursued values are 'Yin and Yang accordance' and mature humanitarianism revealed by the thoughts of the Person of the Central Ultimate (皇極人,至人) and Central Ultimate (皇極). Therefore, Humanitarianism in Korean thoughts clearly makes its appearance by the time of Juhng-yaug and it functions as a keyword to illuminate the entire history of Korean thoughts in reverse.

The Possibility of Making a Play out of Jindo Ssitgimgut through the Pantomime Empty Hands (무언극 <빈손>을 통해 본 진도씻김굿의 연극화 가능성)

  • Kim, Mi-kyung
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.18
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    • pp.171-199
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    • 2009
  • This paper started with my effort to find connections between Empty Hands, which was put on the stage at the Mime House in Chuncheon, Gangwon Province, and Jindo Ssitgimgut. The mimist Yu Jin-gyu(58) adopted so many elements from Jindo Ssitgimgut for his performance that I felt that it was the pantomime version of Jindo Ssitgimgut. Of course, the pantomime took the form of gut based on shamanism in terms of story. Watching the pantomime, I once again saw the possibility of developing Korea's cultural archetypes into cultural contents. Helen Lannaghan, the art director of London International Mime Festival of 2005, saw his performance at the conference of Chuncheon International Mime Festival and invited it to the London International Mime Festival praising that it's full of Korean elements, minimalist, and modern at the same time. In fact, Empty Hands, which boasts great harmony among the Korean objet, Oriental thoughts, Samulnori, and Western contemporary mime, was invited to many foreign festivals including the Mimos International Mime Festival in 2000, Polish International Mime Festival in 2001, Mongol's International Mime Festival in 2002, and Belgium's International Mime Festival in 2003. In addition, it's recognized for its artistic values and had a chance to shine in another international setting at the London International Mime Festival whose reputations have been worldwide. All those achievements are the result of Yu's constant effort to reflect Korean elements through his movements. What I saw in his pantomime was the possibility that plays based on Korea's cultural archetypes such as Jindo Ssitgimgut could play an important role as a global content of performance culture. Pursuing the possibility further, I analyzed the factors that brought the worldwide recognition to Empty Hands and searched for the ways to create solid storytelling with Jindo Ssitgimgut and make a huge hit on the international stage. It should be noted once more that the pantomime Empty Hands launched Korea's unique performance culture to the world stage by making great use of the traditional Korean cultural contents.

The Scope of Application of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act and Foreign Investment Act (북한의 외국인투자법과 대외경제중재법의 적용범위)

  • Jon, Woo-jung
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.91-120
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    • 2020
  • The Scope of Application of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act and Foreign Investment Act This article examines whether the Foreign Economic Arbitration Act and the Foreign Investment Act of North Korea apply to South Korean parties or companies. This article analyzes laws and agreements related to economic cooperation between South Korea and North Korea. Furthermore, this article compares and evaluates laws related to foreign investment and enacted in North Korea. Now, North Korea's door is closed due to economic sanctions against it, but it will be opened soon. Thus, this article prepares for the future opening of North Korea's markets. Is there a rule of laws in North Korea or just a ruler? Are there laws in North Korea? North Korea has enacted a number of legislation to attract foreign investors, referring to those Chinese laws. For example, North Korea enacted the Foreigner Investment Act, the Foreigner Company Act, the Foreign Investment Bank Act, the Foreign Economic Arbitration Act, the Foreign Economic Contract Act, the International Trade Act, and the Free Economy and Trade Zone Act, among others. Article 2 (2) of the Foreign Investment Law of North Korea states, "Foreign investors are corporations and individuals from other countries investing in our country." It is interpreted that South Korea is not included in the "other countries" of this definition. According to many mutual agreements signed by South Korea and North Korea, the relationship between the two Koreas is a special relation inside the Korean ethnic group. An arbitration between a South Korean party and a North Korean party has the characteristics of both domestic arbitrations and international arbitrations. If the South Korea and North Korea Commercial Arbitration Commission or the Kaesong Industrial Complex Arbitration Commission is not established, the possibility of arbitration by the Chosun International Trade Arbitration Commission, established under North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act, should be examined. There have been no cases where the Foreign Economic Arbitration Act is applied to disputes between parties of South Korea and North Korea. It might be possible to apply the Foreign Economic Arbitration Act by recognizing the "foreign factor" of a dispute between the South Korean party and North Korean party. It is necessary to raise legislative clarifications by revising the North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act as to whether Korean parties or companies are included in the scope of this Act's application. Even if it is interpreted that South Korean parties or companies are not included in the scope of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act, disputes between South Korean companies and North Korean companies can be resolved by foreign arbitration institutes such as CIETAC in China, HKIAC in Hong Kong, or SIAC in Singapore. Such arbitration awards could be enforced in North Korea pursuant to Article 64 of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act. This is because the arbitration awards of foreign arbitration institutes are included in the scope of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act. The matter is how to enforce the North Korean laws when a North Korean party or North Korean government does not abide by the laws or their contracts. It is essential for North Korea to join the New York Convention (Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards) and the ICSID Convention (Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States).

A Study on the Archival Basis of History by Simaqian and Herodotus (『사기』와 『역사』에 담긴 기록학의 기초 역사-인간[Homo Historicus], 사마천과 헤로도토스)

  • Oh, Hang Nyeong
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.65
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    • pp.365-396
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    • 2020
  • I examined the archival basis of two historians who wrote history books with the same title of 'History'; Simaqian of ancient China and Herodotus of Halikarnassos. I examined a prejudice to these two history books, a misunderstanding of them as an imagination rather than a history. How can an imagination become a history? First, I explained the common characteristics found in their compilation and writing of 'History.' Simaqian and Herodotus did their field-works in historical sites, gathered oral-histories, and arranged archives they collected. These two historians heavily engaged in archival works in terms of verifying authenticity and reliability of their sources on the basis of historical empiricism. There are some misunderstanding on their archival endeavor and on the very nature of archives and historical studies as empirical studies. Furthermore, this misunderstanding regarding them as literature came from a confusion over the concept of literature. The creativity of literature is not equal to the "fictitiousness" of history despite historical works sometimes may give us an impression by the way of describing and providing insight into a certain event(s) and a person(s). As Herodotus said, a recognition of the differences of each race and human is a departure of historical archiving of the valuable experiences of human-beings. By doing so, natural results of archival behaviors, preservation of the records, and consistent inquiry of historian-archivists become a humanistic passage overcoming the current wrong trends of historical studies confined to a narrow nation-history.