• Title, Summary, Keyword: recognition

Search Result 18,510, Processing Time 0.084 seconds

Environmental and Ecological Consequences of Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Areas of the Korea Peninsula (한반도 연안 해역에서 해저 지하수 유출의 환경 생태학적 중요성)

  • KIM GUEBUEM;HWANG DONG-WOON;RYU JAE-WOONG;LEE YONG-WOO
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
    • /
    • v.10 no.4
    • /
    • pp.204-212
    • /
    • 2005
  • Recognition has emerged that nutrient inputs from the submarine discharge of fresh, brackish, and marine groundwaters into the coastal ocean are comparable to the inputs via river discharge. The coastal areas of the Korea peninsula and adjacent seas exhibit particular importance in the role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), in terms of the magnitude of SGD and associated continental material fluxes. For example, in the southern sea of Korea, SGD transports excess nutrients into the coastal regions and thus appears to influence ecosystem changes such as the outbreak of red tides. Around volcanic island, Jeju, which is composed of high permeability rocks, the amount of SGD is higher by orders of magnitude relative to the eastern coast of North America where extensive SGD studies have been conducted. In particular, nutrient discharge through SGD exerts a significant control on coastal ecosystem changes and results in benthic eutrophication in semi-enclosed Bang-du bay, Jeju. In the entire area of the Yellow Sea, tile submarine discharge of brackish groundwater and associated nutrients are found to rival the river discharges into the Yellow Sea, including those through Yangtze River, Han River, etc. In the eastern coast of the Korea peninsula, SGD is significantly higher during summer than winter due to high hydraulic gradients and due to wide distribution of high permeability sandy zones, faults, and fractures. On the other hand, in the estuarine water, downstream construction of the dam in the Nakdong River, SGD was highest when the river discharge was lowest (but water level of the dam was highest). This suggests that even though there is no visible freshwater discharge into this estuary, the discharge of chemical species is significant through SGD. On the basis of the results obtained from the coastal areas of the Korea peninsula, SGD is considered to be an important pathway of continental contaminants influencing tidal-flat ecosystems, red tides, and coral ecology. Thus, future costal management should pay great attention to the impact of SGD on coastal pollution and eutrophication.

Cognitive Dysfunction in non-hypoxemic COPD Patients (저산소증을 동반하지 않는 만성폐쇄성폐질환 환자에서의 인지기능장애)

  • Kim, Woo Jin;Han, Seon-Sook;Park, Myoung-Ok;Lee, Seung-Joon;Kim, Seong Jae;Lee, Jung Hie
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.62 no.5
    • /
    • pp.382-388
    • /
    • 2007
  • Background: The cognitive function is impaired in patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are conflicting results regarding the cognitive function in patients with non-hypoxemic COPD. COPD patients also have sleep disorders. This study examined the cognitive function in non-hypoxemic COPD patients, and nocturnal sleep was assessed in COPD patients with a cognitive dysfunction. Methods: Twenty-eight COPD patients (mean age, 70.7 years) with an oxygen saturation > 90%, and 33 healthy control subjects (mean age, 69.5 years) who had visited for a routine check-up were selected. The neurocognitive tests were performed using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K) Neuropsychological Battery. Results: The scores of the word list recall test (p=0.03) and the word list recognition test (p=0.006) in the COPD group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Nine patients showed a significantly impaired cognitive function. Seven of these underwent polysomnography, which revealed apnea-hypopnea indices ${\geq}$ five per hour in five patients. The median oxygen desaturation index and median limb movement index were 3.6/h and 38.6/h, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that the verbal memory function is impaired in non-hypoxemic COPD patients. Six out of seven COPD patients with an impaired cognitive function had sleep disorders of sleep apnea and/or periodic limb movements during sleep.

A cluster analysis of the audit result on quality management system in architectural design and engineering firms (설계 및 엔지니어링분야의 품질경영시스템 심사결과에 대한 유형분석)

  • Bae Dae-kwon;Kim Soo-Yoo;Kim Jae-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.120-128
    • /
    • 2005
  • ISO 9001, the quality management system issued by the International Organization for Standardization, is being used by architectural design and engineering firms in order to strengthen the capability of business activities through the implementation of the international and advanced quality management systems. However, there have been significant problems in stable implementation and settlement of ISO 9001 in construction industry, which seem to be caused by key employees' lack of proper recognition and comprehension. The purpose of this research, accordingly, is to find and analyze nonconformity results which were found when the third party registrars audited the conformity of companies' quality management systems for ISO 9001 certification especially in architectural design and engineering firms. For this purpose this research was conducted by a cluster analysis of 647 audit reports out of representative 15 architectural design and engineering firms that have been audited periodically from 1997 to 2003 by the third party registrars. The analysis showed that the most frequent problems were generated in the areas of $\ulcorner$Design and Development$\lrcorner$ , $\ulcorner$production and Service Provision$\lrcorner$ , and $\ulcorner$General requirements$\lrcorner$ of the quality management system. The following, the areas of $\ulcorner$Monitoring and Measurement$\lrcorner$ and $\ulcorner$purchasing$\lrcorner$ were also analyzed as main factors which caused frequent nonconformity results. This research also shows that the corrective actions for nonconformity results are closely connected with the whole management activities in architectural design and engineering firms. Consequently, corrective actions for disposition of nonconformities should be implemented more specifically in order to settle and activate the quality management systems in architectural design and engineering firms.

Study on Public Awareness of establishing Marine Protected Areas - Case Study of Guimaras Province, Philippines using Contingent Valuation Method (해양보호구역의 설정에 대한 대중인식도 연구 - 조건부 가치측정법을 이용한 필리핀 기마라스주의 사례)

  • Kim, Tae-Goun
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
    • /
    • v.38 no.6
    • /
    • pp.663-672
    • /
    • 2014
  • In Korea and the Philippines, as well as all over the world, with the recognition of the importance of marine ecological resources, the marine protected areas(MPA) have been established and managed to protect and preserve these resources. While the number of marine protected areas for marine ecological resources protection has been increased, there is main problem that the most of MPAs do not achieve their intended management objectives. the effective management. Because of the positive and negative impacts on local communities and fishermen as direct stockholders, there has been ongoing debate on the pros and cons of implementing MPAs. Accordingly, this research conducted a case study of establishing Marine Protected Areas in Guimaras, Philippines because Philippines fisheries code of 1998 (Republic Act 8550), which is enacted to manage, conserve and protect fishery resources, obliged local governments to designate no less than 15% of jurisdictional municipal water as fisheries resource protection areas for a long time. To do this, a dichotomous-choice contingent-valuation survey was conducted in the two municipalities of Guimaras, Philippines to investigate public opinion in debates over MPAs and to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for MPAs to protect and conserve marine habitats for fishery resources. Because of the expected economic costs by prohibiting fishing activities within the establishing newMPA, 58.7% of respondents thought the costs should be compensated, but 91.4% respondents voted in favor of increasing MPAs for fisheries resources as a protective measure. Finally, with Contingent Valuation Method(CVM), the aggregate mean WTP (375.5ha) of San Lorenzo and Sibunag residents in Guimaras Province, Philippines for establishing the additional MPA in their municipality waters was estimated to $1,046,791. Therefore, these findings could be used as a valuable data for establishing effective management plan of MPAs in Korea.

CHANGE OF TASTE PREFERENCE AND TASTE BUD AFTER UNILATERAL LINGUAL NERVE TRANSECTION IN RAT (백서 편측 설신경 손상 후 미각 및 설유두의 변화에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Yoon-Tae;Jeon, Seung-Ho;Yeom, Hak-Ryol;Kang, Jin-Han;Ahn, Kang-Min;Kim, Sung-Min;Jahng, Jeong-Won;Park, Kyung-Pyo;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
    • /
    • v.31 no.6
    • /
    • pp.515-525
    • /
    • 2005
  • Purpose of study: Lingual nerve damage can be caused by surgery or trauma such as physical irriatation, radiation, chemotherapy, infection and viral infection. Once nerve damage occurred, patients sometimes complain taste change and loss of taste along with serious disturbance of tongue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of unilateral lingual nerve transection on taste as well as on the maintenance of taste buds. Materials & Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 220-250g received unilateral transection of lingual nerve, subjected to the preference test for various taste solutions (0.1M NaCl, 0.1M sucrose, 0.01M QHCl, or 0.01M HCl) with two bottle test paradigm at 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks after the operation. Tongue was fixed with 8% paraformaldehyde. After fixation, they were observed with scanning electron microscope(JSM-$840A^{(R)}$, JEOL, JAPAN) and counted the number of the dorsal surface of the fungiform papilla for changes of fungiform papilla. And, Fungiform papilla were obtained from coronal sections of the anterior tongue(cryosection). After cryosection, immunostaining with $G{\alpha}gust$(I-20)(Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA), $PLC{\beta}2$(Q-15)(Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA), and $T_1R_1$(Alpha Diagnostic International, USA) were done. Immunofluorescence of labeled taste bud cells was examined by confocal microscopy(F92-$300^{(R)}$, Olympus, JAPAN). Results: The preference score for salty and sweet tended to be higher in the operated rats with statistical significance, compared to the sham rats. Fungiform papilla counting were decreased after lingual nerve transaction. In 2 weeks, maximum differences occurred. Gustducin and $T_1R_1$ expressions of taste receptor in 2 and 4 weeks were decreased. $PLC{\beta}2$ were not expressed in both experimental and control group. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the taste recognition for sweet and salty taste changed by week 2 and 4 after unilateral lingual nerve transection. However, regeneration related taste was occurred in the presence of preserving mesoneurial tissue and the time was 6 weeks. Our results demonstrated that unilateral lingual nerve damage caused morphological and numerical change of fungiform papilla. It should be noted in our study that lingual nerve transection resulted in not only morphological and numerical change but also functional change of fungiform papillae.

Development and Application Effect of Design-based STEAM Program for Boosting the Career Consciousness of 5~6th Grade Elementary School Students for Natural Sciences and Engineering (이공계 진로의식 신장을 위한 초등 5~6학년용 설계기반 미래 유망직업 STEAM 프로그램 개발 및 적용 효과)

  • Lim, Yoo-Na;Min, Bu-Ja;Hong, Hoo-Jo
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
    • /
    • v.35 no.1
    • /
    • pp.73-84
    • /
    • 2015
  • In this research, two careers connectable with the contents of the curriculum of fifth to sixth grade elementary school students were selected among other promising future careers in biotechnology and medical engineering fields. 'Design-based promising future career STEAM program' was developed and its validity and effectiveness were verified. Reflecting recent issues, and complying with the STEAM standard (frame) instructional materials were developed through group deliberations for nine months, based on the achievement standards through an analysis of subject curriculum revised in 2009. This was prepared so that students are able to experience biotechnology and medical engineering related careers in a simulational form emphasized with creative design to make them prefer natural sciences and engineering careers and draw their interests and recognition of the relevant careers under the two disciplines. As a result of such application to STEAM Leader School students at the verification stage of the program, the contents and level of the program were verified suitable, receiving favorable reviews. And as a result of applying the developed program on other elementary school students, it was discovered that significant improvements were found in their career consciousness. Through this research, it was suggested that there is a need for a simplification of the curriculum content standards, a provision of 'standard for integration,' development of teachers' ability in reconstituting or organizing the STEAM and proceeding classes, continuous long-term support to see the effects of a policy or a program, and a reinforcement of career education integrated in the curriculum.

An Approach of Ecological Niche to Analysis of Recognition of 5th Grade Elementary students for Conception of Photosynthesis (생태 지위적 접근을 통한 5학년의 광합성 개념 분석)

  • Jeong, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Young-Shin
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
    • /
    • v.31 no.4
    • /
    • pp.513-527
    • /
    • 2011
  • There have been studies about conceptual ecology making a profound study of conceptual changes in learners' cognitive structure. Because learners' cognitive structure have been compared to ecology, it is natural to think that conception in learner's cognitive structure have a niche as species in ecology have niches. Therefore, it is necessary to study niche approach about conception that learners recognize in their cognitive structure. The purposes of this study were to identify relationships among conceptions that 5th grade elementary school students recognize about photosynthesis and to identify how these relationships among conceptions about photosynthesis change before and after a class of photosynthesis in curriculum in terms of an approach of ecological niche which are composed of 3 domains - diversity of conceptions, relevance and frequency rate of conceptions, and competition among conceptions. Open ended questionnaire was developed by 4 fields: photosynthetic place, photosynthetic products, photosynthetic materials needed and environment factors of photosynthesis. The subjects sampled in this study were 310 5th grade elementary students in 5 cites. Before and after classes in photosynthesis in science curriculum, students were asked to write down conceptions that they knew about the 4 fields of photosynthesis of questionnaire and to write down scales of relevance from 1 to 30 about how they think the conceptions are related to the field of photosynthesis. The results of this study showed the following: First, most students have had a variety of conceptions and commonly recognized 'light' and 'water' as concepts in photosynthesis. Second, students still recognized their preconceptions like 'soil' and 'root,' etc. that were far from scientific conceptions of photosynthesis although they took classes in photosynthesis. Third, students needed to take the various strategies of teachers because they did not recognized scientific conceptions appropriately about photosynthetic fields. Fourth, it appeared that photosynthetic conceptions recognized by students had status in terms of relevance and frequency rate of conceptions, and competition among conceptions, and that they looked like the niche of conceptions in their conceptual ecologies.

A study on Snack Purchasing Behavior, Understanding of Food and Nutrition Labeling of Middle School Students in Naju Area (중학생의 간식구매행동, 식품과 영양표시의 이해도 - 나주지역 일부학생들을 대상으로 -)

  • Jung, Lan-Hee;Kim, Yang-Ju;Jeon, Eun-Raye
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.1-19
    • /
    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate perception of snack purchasing behaviors and labeling of foods and nutrition of the middle school students. The survey was conducted from 424 students who are boys and girls of middle school in Naju. Data were analyzed by a SPSS program. According to the survey, snack purchase place had a significant difference between gender(p<.05), and all of the boys and girls responded at a high rate that it's convenience store. Snack eating frequency had a significant difference between boys and girls(p<.05). Boys responded that they ate 1~2 times per a week the most, and girls responded that they ate 1~2 times per a month the most. As for snack purchasing behaviors, depending on gender, that of boys was 2.76 in average and that of girls was 2.87, lower than middle. The reason why students didn't check up food labeling, depending on gender and all of the boys and girls responded 'Expiration date' was first confirmed. As for the understanding of food expression, depending on snack expenses, the reason why food expression contents were hard showed a significant difference, depending on snack expenses(p<.05). As for the understanding of food expression, depending on snack purchase attitude, the students showed a significant difference, depending on snack purchase attitude(p<.001), and the lower the snack purchase attitude was, the less the students checked up snack expression. The reason why students checked up nutrition labeling a significant difference, depending on gender, snack expense and snack purchase attitude(p<.001). 'Weight management' was the highest. The recognition in the necessity of nutrition expression(p<.001) and the necessity of food/ nutrition education and publicity(p<.01) showed significant difference.

  • PDF

A Study on the Concept of Records-Archives and on the Definition of Archival Terms (기록물의 개념과 용어의 정의에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
    • /
    • no.21
    • /
    • pp.3-40
    • /
    • 2009
  • It has passed ten years since modern records and archives management in our country launched. During times, it has dramatically developed in the fields of law, institution and education. However a study on the definition of records and archives was non be studied enough compared to development of various research fields. In fact the reason why study on the definition was non fulfilled is that some aspects such as historical, informational, archival perspective have been coexisting without order in Korea. This situation is the biggest barrier that archival science is to a disciplinary field. Historically, 'archivium' in Latin language had developed in starting of its means place, then whole entity of documents and those organic relations. In this point, archives is rigidly separate to material of Historical science which covers all of recorded. Unlike information which is produced in the process of intended themes and following its outputs like books, documents in archival science is made in the natural process of work. In addition, historical archives which finished the current and semi-current stage and transfer to the institute of permanent conservation after the process of selection so that it is historical and cultural value to satisfy its purpose of making. This changed trend is based on the Second World War and necessity of North American society which needs to effciency and transparency of work. In Korea, records and archives management has been dominantly affected by North American society and become a subject of not arrangement but of classification, not of transferring but of collection. It is also recognized as management of on formation on the all recorded or documents not as an whole documents and all organic relations. But the original type of recognition is the only technology, it cannot have dignity as a field of science.

The Promotion State and Measures to Improve the Record Information Disclosure System (기록정보공개 제도 개선 추진 현황과 방안)

  • Zoh, Young-Sam
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
    • /
    • no.22
    • /
    • pp.77-114
    • /
    • 2009
  • The right to know is not satisfied merely by making or improving laws or systems. The right to know is a matter of culture rather than system. Nevertheless, consistent system improvement measures are required. There are many laws relating to the right to know. In particular, at the core are the Official Information Disclosure Act, the Record and Archives Management Act, and the Presidential Record Management Act. The fact that systems relating to official record management and presidential record management are related to the right to know is understood by the promotion of records and archives management reform after the year 2004, as a result of which the national archives management innovation road map was established. Reflecting the many opinions of the "Information Disclosure System Improvement Task Force" composed with participation of the government and the press after the participatory government's announcement of "Measures to Advance the Support System for News Coverage," amendments to the Information Disclosure Act have come forward with system improvement measures in connection with issues that had arisen until then. Such improvement measures have not resulted in actual improvements. This thesis proposes several system improvement measures, focusing on those that have arisen until now but have not been reflected in discussion, such as converting the concept of information non-disclosure into disclosure postponement, preparing and disclosing particular information disclosure standards, specifying personal information for non-disclosure, specifying and strictly applying any information that has not been disclosed for purposes of internal review, deleting non-disclosure items in stenographic records that do not have a reason to exist, and establishing limits and terms of non-disclosure. Of the most remarkable system improvement measures that have been made until now is our recognition that the right to know is not limited to the information disclosure system but that the "cause" of archive management should be systematic and scientific. In other words, the right to know is understood to establish not just accidential factors, such as with a whistle-blower, but the inevitable factors of systemization of production, distribution, preservation, and use of archives. Much more study should be pursued regarding disclosure of archives information. In particular, difficult issues to be resolved regarding reading records at permanent archives management institutions, such as the National Archives of Korea, or copyrights that arise in the process, require constant study from academia and relevant institutions.