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The Current State of and Barriers to Quality Measurement, and Quality Managers' Reported Evaluation on Quality Indicators in Korea (국내 질 향상부서 중심의 질 지표 측정 현황, 장애요인과 평가)

  • Hwang Jee-In
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.26-45
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    • 2005
  • The purposes of this study were to Identify the .level of measurement on quality Indicators and evaluate the existing indicators in order to determine the priority of quality indicators' application in Korean general hospitals. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire. The subjects were quality managers working at general hospital having over 300 beds. The criteria were relevance, reliability, precision, impact, application, and preference to evaluate quality indicators. According to these six criteria, each indicator was evaluated on a five point scale(5: excellent, 1: poor). The response rate was $40.4\%$. The hospitals have monitored the average of 3.8 indicators(median 4). The indicators such as return to operating room, unplanned readmission, cancellation of booked operations, death, hospital infection, cesarean section rate, volume per disease or procedure, readmission, re-operation, blood transfusion, and post-procedural complications were frequently measured. The top ten quality indicators in the evaluation by its relevance, validity, reliability, impact, preference and application were decubitus ulcer, clean wound infection, fall, unplanned return to operation room, transfusion reactions, foreign body left In during procedure, unplanned readmission, wound infection after contaminated surgery, postoperative hemorrhage/hematoma, and cesarean section rate in order. The high priority quality indicators frequently measured could be used as primary national indicators. Standardized guidelines about monitoring indicators and the utilization will preliminarily be needed to compare and reuse the data for various purposes and improve the quality of care continuously.

The Effects of Discharge Planning for the Elderly with Pulmonary Disease in the Emergency Room (퇴원계획중재가 응급실 내원 호흡기 질환 노인의 퇴원준비도, 간호서비스 만족도, 재입원율에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Ju;Park, Yeon-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.24-32
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of discharge planning on patient satisfaction, the readmission rate and preparedness for discharge in the elderly admitted to the emergency room (ER) for pulmonary disease. Methods: A quasi-experimental intervention study design was used. Older adults with pulmonary health problems in the ER in one general hospital were randomly allocated to either an experimental (n=21, 74.2 years) or control group (n=19, 70.7 years). The experimental group participated in a discharge planning program by a geriatric nurse practitioner. Data were collected from medical records, physical measurements and structured questionnaires including information on demographics, patient satisfaction, readmission, and preparedness for discharge. Results: Participants in the experimental group had significantly better outcomes with regard to patient satisfaction with nursing services (p=.003) and preparedness for discharge (p=.034). However, there was no significant effect on the readmission rate (p=.392) Conclusion: The results suggested that a discharge planning program could bolster nursing service satisfaction and preparedness for discharge in older patients admitted to the ER for pulmonary health problems. To clarify the effects of discharge planning on older patients admitted to the ER, a larger sample population, better instruments for various measures, a new manual on discharge planning and frequent follow-up will be necessary.

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Does Process Quality of Inpatient Care Serve as a Guide to Reduce Potentially Preventable Readmission (PPR)? (의료서비스의 과정적 질과 잠재적으로 예방 가능한 재입원율과의 관계)

  • Choi, Jae-Young
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.87-106
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the association between process quality of inpatient care and risk-adjusted, thirty-day potentially preventable hospital readmission (PPR) rates. Data Sources/Study Setting: This was an observational cross-sectional study of nonfederal acute-care hospitals located in two states California and Florida, discharging Medicare patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia January through December 31, 2007. Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database, and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey of Hospitals. Study Design: The dependent variable of this study is condition-specific, risk-adjusted, thirty-day potentially preventable hospital readmission (PPR). 3M's PPR software was utilized to determine whether a readmission was potentially preventable. The independent variable of this study is hospital performance for process quality of inpatient care, measured by hospital adherence to recommended processes of care. We used multivariate hierarchical logistic models, clustered by hospitals, to examine the relationship between condition-specific, risk-adjusted, thirty-day PPR rates and process quality of inpatient care, after taking clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of patients and structural and operational characteristics of hospitals into account. Findings: Better performance on the process quality metrics was associated with better patient outcome (i.e., low thirty-day PPR rates) in pneumonia, but not generally in two cardiovascular conditions (i.e., heart failure and acute myocardial infarction). Practical Implication: Adherence to the process quality metrics currently in use by CMS is associated with risk-adjusted, thirty-day PPR rates for patients with pneumonia, but not with cardiovascular conditions. More evidence-based process quality metrics closely linked to 30-day PPR rates, particularly for cardiovascular conditions, need to be developed to serve as a guideline to reduce potentially preventable readmissions.

Analysis of Direct Nursing Activity and Patient Outcomes Related to Graded Fee of Nursing Management for Inpatient (입원환자 간호관리료 차등제에 따른 직접간호활동 및 환자결과 비교)

  • 박성희
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.122-129
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the difference of direct nursing activity and patient outcomes as mortality rate, complication rate, readmission rate and length of stay related to graded fee of nursing management for inpatient. Method: The subjects of this study were 44 general hospitals with more than 500 beds. Data totaled to 86,044 claims provided to inpatients in Jan. 2001 requested by an electronic data interchange from a Health Insurance Review Agency. The data was analyzed by SPSS win(ver.10.0) and statistical methods used were frequency, one-way ANOVA, $X^2$-Test and regression. Result: Synthetic judgment through performance index and 95% confidence interval, direct nursing activity showed to provided adequate quality of nursing care on 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6th nursing degree. Also, patient outcomes showed difference by graded fee of nursing management for inpatient. Mortality rate of 2nd was the lowest with P.I. 67.9, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 4th in order. In case of complication rate, 2nd, 3rd and 4th were lower than other nursing degree. Readmission rate of 4th and 5th was the lowest. Length of stay of 2nd was the shortest with P.I. 88.3, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 4th, 6th in order. Conclusion: The findings from this study showed that, the higher nurse-to-patient ratio, the greater amount of direct nursing care activity for the patient. Also, the more direct nursing activities influenced a lower mortality rate, complication rate and readmission rate, shorter length of stay.

A Narrative Inquiry of Medical Students' Experiences of Expulsion and Military Service (의과대학 과정 중 제적과 군복무를 경험한 학생들에 대한 내러티브 연구)

  • Lee, Won Kyoung;Park, Kyung Hye
    • Korean Medical Education Review
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.92-99
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to use narrative inquiry to explore the experiences of medical students who faced expulsion, military service, and readmission, and their journeys of identity formation. Three medical students were recruited via snowball sampling, and each participant was interviewed twice. According to the sequence of experiences, their stories were summarized as follows: the process of being expelled, the military service experience and readmission process, and the present. Before all three students were expelled, they lived dissolute lives free of concern from the entrance examination and failed to cope well with dropping out. They felt that military experience had helped them develop interpersonal skills in the clinical setting and the strength to withstand a difficult crisis. Two students were motivated to become doctors after military service, but the other was not. They had reflected deeply over their unique experiences. The scars imprinted from their experiences became a means of stimulation, and they ultimately acquired the resilience and ability to accommodate for and counteract their weaknesses. This appears to have been an important influence on their identity formation. The narrations of their rare experiences can help medical educators more fully understand and support medical students through difficulties, specifically with regard to academic failure or expulsion. These findings may prompt medical professors to think about the kind of guidance or motivation that could help students before expulsion, rather than assuming that they are simply lacking academic ability.

Risk Factors Associated with Frequent Hospital Readmissions for Exacerbation of COPD

  • Kim, Mi-Hyun;Lee, Kwang-Ha;Kim, Ki-Uk;Park, Hye-Kyung;Jeon, Doo-Soo;Kim, Yun-Seong;Lee, Min-Ki;Park, Soon-Kew
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.69 no.4
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2010
  • Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of disability and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with recurrent hospital admissions for exacerbation of COPD in Korea. Methods: A retrospective study of 77 consecutive patients hospitalized for exacerbation of COPD at Pusan National University Hospital during the time period January 2005 to May 2008 was performed. The information was collected from the hospitalization period: clinical information, spirometric measures, and laboratory variables. In addition, socioeconomic characteristics, co-morbidity, anxiety, and depression were reviewed. Frequent readmission was defined as 2 or more hospitalizations in the year following discharge. Results: During the 1-year period after discharge, 42 patients (54.6%) reported one hospital admission and 35 patients (45.4%) reported 2 or more hospital readmissions. Among the 35 frequent readmission patients, 4 had more than 10 readmissions. Univariate analysis showed that a body mass index (BMI) <$18.5kg/m^2$, duration >36 months, forced expiratory volume in 1 second ($FEV_1$) <50% predicted, arterial $CO_2$ partial pressure ($PaCO_2$) >40 mm Hg, and arterial oxygen saturation ($SaO_2$) <95% at discharge were associated significantly with frequent readmissions. The multivariate analysis revealed that BMI <$18.5kg/m^2$, $PaCO_2$ >40 mm Hg at discharge were independently associated with frequent readmissions for exacerbation of COPD. Conclusion: Frequent readmissions for exacerbation of COPD were associated with low BMI and hypercapnia at discharge.

Comparison of Surgical Infection and Readmission Rates after Laparoscopy in Pediatric Complicated Appendicitis

  • Jo, Hey Sung;Boo, Yoon Jung;Lee, Eun Hee;Lee, Ji Sung
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.28-32
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) has become a gold standard for children even in complicated appendicitis. The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative surgical site infection rates between laparoscopic and open appendectomy (OA) group in pediatric complicated appendicitis. Methods: A total of 1,158 pediatric patients (age ${\leq}$ 15 years) underwent operation for appendicitis over a period of 8 years. Among these patients, 274 patients (23.7%) were diagnosed with complicated appendicitis by radiologic, operative and pathologic findings, and their clinical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the 274 patients with complicated appendicitis, 108 patients underwent LA and 166 patients underwent OA. Patients in the LA group returned to oral intake earlier (1.9 days vs. 2.7 days; p<0.01) and had a shorter hospital stay (5.0 days vs. 6.3 days; p<0.01). However, rate of postoperative intra-abdominal infection (organ/space surgical site infection) was higher in the LA group (LA 15/108 [13.9%] vs. OA 12/166 [7.2%]; p<0.01). Readmission rate was also higher in the LA group (LA 9/108 [8.3%] vs. OA 3/166 [1.8%]; p<0.01). Conclusion: The minimally invasive laparoscopic technique has more advantages compared to the open procedure in terms of hospital stay and early recovery. However, intra-abdominal infection and readmission rates were higher in the laparoscopy group. Further studies should be performed to evaluate high rate of organ/space surgical infection rate of laparoscopic procedure in pediatric complicated appendicitis.

The Effect of Systematic Approach to Tracheostomy Care in Patients Transferred from the Surgical Intensive Care Unit to General Ward

  • Jung, Yooun-joong;Kim, Younghwan;Kyoung, Kyuhyouck;Keum, Minae;Kim, Taehyun;Ma, Dae seong;Hong, Suk-Kyung
    • Acute and Critical Care
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.252-259
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    • 2018
  • Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using a systematic approach to tracheostomy care by a clinical nurse specialist and surgical intensivists for patients with a tracheostomy who were transferred from the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) to the general ward. Methods: In this retrospective study, subjects were limited to SICU patients with a tracheostomy who were transferred to the general ward. The study period was divided into a preintervention period (January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010) and a postintervention period (January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014), and electronic medical records were used to analyze and compare patient characteristics, clinical outcomes, and readmission to the SICU. Results: The analysis included 44 patients in the preintervention group and 96 patients in the postintervention group. Decannulation time ($26.7{\pm}25.1$ vs. $12.1{\pm}16.0days$, P=0.003), length of stay in the general ward ($70.6{\pm}89.1$ vs. $40.5{\pm}42.2days$, P=0.008), length of total hospital stay ($107.5{\pm}95.6$ vs. $74.7{\pm}51.2days$, P=0.009), and readmission rate of SICU decreased due to T-cannula occlusion (58.8% vs. 5.9%, P=0.010). Conclusions: Using a systematic approach to tracheostomy care in the general ward led to reduction in decannulation time through professional management, which resulted in a shorter hospital stay. It also lowered SICU readmission by solving problems related to direct T-cannula.

Selecting the Best Prediction Model for Readmission

  • Lee, Eun-Whan
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: This study aims to determine the risk factors predicting rehospitalization by comparing three models and selecting the most successful model. Methods: In order to predict the risk of rehospitalization within 28 days after discharge, 11 951 inpatients were recruited into this study between January and December 2009. Predictive models were constructed with three methods, logistic regression analysis, a decision tree, and a neural network, and the models were compared and evaluated in light of their misclassification rate, root asymptotic standard error, lift chart, and receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: The decision tree was selected as the final model. The risk of rehospitalization was higher when the length of stay (LOS) was less than 2 days, route of admission was through the out-patient department (OPD), medical department was in internal medicine, 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases code was neoplasm, LOS was relatively shorter, and the frequency of OPD visit was greater. Conclusions: When a patient is to be discharged within 2 days, the appropriateness of discharge should be considered, with special concern of undiscovered complications and co-morbidities. In particular, if the patient is admitted through the OPD, any suspected disease should be appropriately examined and prompt outcomes of tests should be secured. Moreover, for patients of internal medicine practitioners, co-morbidity and complications caused by chronic illness should be given greater attention.