• Title, Summary, Keyword: reactive oxygen species

Search Result 2,288, Processing Time 0.055 seconds

Astaxanthin Biosynthesis Enhanced by Reactive Oxygen Species in the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis

  • Kobayashi, Makio
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
    • /
    • v.8 no.6
    • /
    • pp.322-330
    • /
    • 2003
  • The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis has recently attracted great inter-est due to its large amounts of ketocarotenoid astaxanthin, 3,3'-dihydroxy-${\beta}$,${\beta}$-carotene-4,4'-dione, widely used commercially as a source of pigment for aquaculture. In the life cycle of H. pluvialis, astaxanthin biosynthesis is associated with a remarkable morphological change from green motile vegetative cells into red immotile cyst cells as the resting stage. In recent years we have studied this morphological process from two aspects: defining conditions governing astaxanthin biosynthesis and questioning the possible function of astaxanthin in protecting algal cells against environmental stress. Astaxanthin accumulation in cysts was induced by a variety of environmental conditions of oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species, intense light, drought, high salinity, and high temperature. In the adaptation to stress, abscisic acid induced by reactive oxygen species, would function as a hormone in algal morphogenesis from veget ative to cyst cells. Furthermore, measurements of both in vitro and in vivo antioxidative activities of astaxanthin clearly demonstrated that tolerance to excessive reactive oxygen species is greater in astaxanthin-rich cysts than in astaxanthin-poor cysts or astaxanthin-less vegetative cells. Therefore, reactive oxygen species are involved in the regulation of both algal morph O-genesis and carotenogenesis, and the accumulated astaxanthin in cysts can function as a protective agent against oxidative stress damage. In this study, the physiological roles of astaxanthin in stress response and cell protection are reviewed.

Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Cr(V) Entities in Chromium(VI) Exposed A549 Cells (크롬 6가 투여 후 A549 세포에서의 Reactive Oxygen Species와 크롬 5가의 발생)

  • 박형숙
    • Environmental health and toxicology
    • /
    • v.11 no.1_2
    • /
    • pp.49-57
    • /
    • 1996
  • The production of reactive oxygen species on addition of hexavalent chromium (potassium dichromate, $K_2Cr_2O_7$ ) to lung cells in culture was studied using flow cytometer analysis. A Coulter Epics Profile flow cytometer was used to detect the formation of reactive oxygen species after $K_2Cr_2O_7$ was added to A549 cells grown to confluence. The cells were loaded with the dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, after which cellular esterases removed the acetate groups and the dye was trapped intracellularly. Reactive oxygen species oxidized the dye, with resultant fluorescence. Increased doses of Cr(VI) caused increasing fluorescence (10-fold higher than background at 200 gM). Addition of Cr(III) compounds, as the picolinate or chloride, caused no increased fluorescence. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies indicated that three (as yet unidentified) spectral "signals" of the free radical type were formed on addition of 20, 50, 100 and 200 gM Cr(VI) to the A549 cells in suspension. Two other EPR 'signals" with the characteristics of Cr(V) entities were seen at field values lower than the standard free radical value. radical value.

  • PDF

Prostaglandin $F_2{\alpha}$ Controls Reactive Oxygen Species in Bovine Corpus Luteum

  • Lee, Seunghyung;Yang, Boo-Keun;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
    • /
    • v.39 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-6
    • /
    • 2015
  • Luteolysis is a cyclical regression of the corpus luteum in many non-primate mammalian species. Prostaglandin $F_2{\alpha}$($PGF_2{\alpha}$) from the uterus and ovary induces functional and structural luteolysis in bovine. The action of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ is mediated by $PGF_2{\alpha}$ receptor located on the luteal steroidogenic and endothelial cell membranes. $PGF_2{\alpha}$ plays an important role in regulating nitric oxide production in endothelial cells of the bovine corpus luteum. Nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase activity are stimulated and induced by $PGF_2{\alpha}$ in luteal endothelial cells. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species inhibits progesterone secretion in bovine luteal cells and induces apoptosis. Thus, the interaction between $PGF_2{\alpha}$ and reactive oxygen species provides important aspects in physiology of the corpus luteum forfunctional and structural luteolysis.

Storage of Bull and Boar Semen: Novel Concepts Derived Using Magnetized Water and Antioxidants

  • Lee, Sang-Hee;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
    • /
    • v.38 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2014
  • Artificial insemination technique has been contributed immensely for production of livestock worldwide as a critical assisted reproductive technique to preserve and propagate excellent genes in domestic animal industry. In the past decade, methods for semen preservation have been improved mostly in liquid preservation method for boar semen and freezing method for bull semen. Among many factors affecting semen quality during preservation, reactive oxygen species, produced by aerobic respiration in sperm for survival and motility, are unfavorable to sperm physiology. In mammalian cell as well as in the sperm, antioxidant system plays a role in degradation of reactive oxygen species. Magnetized water forms smaller stabilizing water clusters, resulting in high absorption and permeability of the cell for water, implicating its application for semen preservation. Therefore, this review focuses on preservation methods of boar and bull semen with respect to improvement of extender and reduction of reactive oxygen species by using magnetized water and supplementation of antioxidants.

다양한 기체를 사용한 대기압 플라즈마 젯에 대한 세포 내 활성 산소종의 영향 연구

  • Jo, Hye-Min;Kim, Seon-Ja;Jeong, Tae-Hun;Im, Seon-Hui
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.542-542
    • /
    • 2013
  • 저온 플라즈마를 발생시키는 대기압 마이크로-플라즈마 젯(Micro-plasma jet)을 이용하여 플라즈마와 세포와의 상호작용에 대한 연구를 진행하였다. 세포의 대사과정에서 생성되는 활성산소 종(Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS)은 세포에 산화 스트레스를 유발시킨다. 이러한 스트레스는 세포 예정사(programmed cell death)의 원인이 된다. 플라즈마 형성 기체로 헬륨, 아르곤, 질소를 사용하여 각각의 기체에 따른 세포의 형태 변화 및 세포 내 활성 산소 종의 영향을 분석하였다. 실험에 사용된 세포는 인체의 폐암 세포[Human lung cancer cell, A549]이며 플라즈마 처리 후 Intracellular ROS assay를 통하여 플라즈마에서 발생되는 활성 산소 종(Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS)이 세포 내에 들어가 활성 산소 종을 증가시키는 것을 확인하였다. 이때, 플라즈마에서 발생되는 활성 산소 종(Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS)들은 광 방출 스펙트럼(Optical Emission Spectroscopy)로 분석하였고, 기체별로 비교하여 보았다. 또한, 이 때 발생되는 플라즈마의 전류-전압 특성에 따른 optical intensity를 비교하였다.

  • PDF

Identification of Atherosclerosis Related Gene Expression Profiles by Treatment of Benzo(a)pyrene in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

  • Lee, Sun-Hee;Lee, Seung-Eun;Ahn, Hyun-Jong;Park, Cheung-Seog;Cho, Jeong-Je;Park, Yong-Seek
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.113-119
    • /
    • 2009
  • Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a persistent environmental contaminant and is present in tobacco smoke. BaP is considered a major contributor of cardiovascular disease. While the activation of endothelial cells by stimuli including tobacco smoke and air pollution contributes importantly to cardiovascular disease, the nature of BaP's mechanism is unclear. In this study, gene expression profiles were investigated in BaPtreated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Various atherosclerosis related genes could be up- and down-regulated more than 2-fold by BaP, and mRNA levels of atherosclerosis related genes encoding apolipoproteinC III, TLR 2, ICAM 1 and exportin 4 were significantly increased by BaP. Our data suggest that BaP-mediated changes in gene expression contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease.

Rhamnazin inhibits LPS-induced inflammation and ROS/RNS in raw macrophages

  • Kim, You Jung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.49 no.5
    • /
    • pp.288-294
    • /
    • 2016
  • Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate the beneficial effects of rhamnazin against inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and anti-oxidative activity in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Methods: To examine the beneficial properties of rhamnazin on inflammation, ROS/ RNS, and anti-oxidative activity in the murine macrophage RAW264.7 cell model, several key markers, including COX and 5-LO activities, $NO^{\cdot}$, $ONOO^-$, total reactive species formation, lipid peroxidation, $^{\cdot}O_2$ levels, and catalase activity were estimated. Results: Results show that rhamnazin was protective against LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophage cells. The underlying action of rhamnazin might be through modulation of ROS/RNS and anti-oxidative activity through regulation of total reactive species production, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, and $^{\cdot}O_2$, $NO^{\cdot}$, and $ONOO^{\cdot}$ levels. In addition, rhamnazin down-regulated the activities of pro-inflammatory COX and 5-LO. Conclusion: The plausible action by which rhamnazin renders its protective effects in macrophage cells is likely due to its capability to regulate LPS-induced inflammation, ROS/ RNS, and anti-oxidative activity.

Oxidative stress on anaerobes

  • Takeuchi, Toru;Shi, Minyi;Kato, Naoki;Watanabe, Kunitomo;Morimoto, Kanehisa
    • Journal of Photoscience
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.142-145
    • /
    • 2002
  • A strict anaerobe, Prevotella melaninogenica is highly sensitive to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress such as exposure to oxygen or addition of hydrogen peroxide, increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (80HdG), a typical of oxidative DNA damage, and decreased the bacterial cell survival rate. We could detect the generation of reactive oxygen species in P. melaninogenica after exposure to oxygen. UVA irradiation also increased 80HdG in the bacterium. On the other hand, such oxidative stress did not increase 80HdG in a facultative anaerobe. These findings suggest that P. melaninogenica is a suitable material to study the biological effects of oxidative stress, to evaluate antioxidants, and to study the effects of oxygen or reactive oxygen species on molecular evolution.

  • PDF

Mechanism of Photodynamic Therapy using 9-hydroxypheophorbide-alpha on HeLa Cell Lines

  • Ahn, Jin-Chul
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.15 no.2
    • /
    • pp.153-160
    • /
    • 2009
  • Photodynamic therapy(PDT) is a treatment utilizing the generation of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species(ROS), which selectively accumulate in target cells. The aim of present work is to investigate the photodynamic therapy mechanism of 9-HpbD-a-mediated PDT in HeLa cell lines. We studied the general reactive oxygen species(G-ROS) activation after 9-HpbD-a PDT using fluorescence stain with $H_2DCF-DA$. G-ROS activation observed after 9-HpbD-a PDT and higher activation condition was 1 hour after PDT at 0.5 ${\mu}g/ml$ 9-HpbD-a concentration. Sodium azide and reduced glutathione(the singlet oxygen quencher) could protect HeLa cells from cell death induced by 9-HpbD-a PDT. But D-mannitol(the hydroxyl radical scavenger) could not protect cell death. Singlet oxygen played a decisive role in 9-HpbD-a PDT induced HeLa cell death. Type II reaction was the main type of ROS formation at 9-HpbD-a PDT.

  • PDF

Formation of Cross-Linked Products of The Reaction Center D1 Protein in Photosystem II under Light Stress

  • Uchida, Suguru;Kato, Yoji;Yamamoto, Yasusi
    • Journal of Photoscience
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.382-384
    • /
    • 2002
  • When illuminated with strong visible light, the reaction center Dl protein of photo system II is photodamage and degraded. Reactive oxygen species and endogenous cationic radicals generated by photochemical reactions are the cause of the damage to the Dl protein. Recently we found that the photodamaged Dl protein cross-links with the surrounding polypeptides such as D2 and CP43 in photosystem II. As the cross-linking reaction is dependent on the presence of oxygen, reactive oxygen species are suggested to be involved. Among the reactive oxygen species examined, ? OH was most effective in the formation of the cross-linked products. These results indicate that the cross-linking is mostly due to ? OH generated at photosystem II. The cross-linking site of the Dl protein is not known. As several tyrosine residues exist at the D­E loop of the Dl protein, there is a possibility that di-Tyr is formed between the D­E loop of the Dl protein and surrounding polypeptides during the strong illumination. Therefore, we examined the formation of di-Tyr using the monoclonal antibody against di-Tyr under excess illumination of the photosystem II membranes. The results obtained here suggest that no di-Tyr is formed during the excess illumination of photosystem II.

  • PDF