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Effect of Target Angle and Thickness on the Heel Effect and X-ray Intensity Characteristics for 70 kV X-ray Tube Target

  • Kim, Gyehong;Lee, Rena
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.272-276
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    • 2016
  • To investigate the optimum x-ray tube design for the dental radiology, factors affecting x-ray beam characteristics such as tungsten target thickness and anode angle were evaluated. Another goal of the study was to addresses the anode heel effect and off-axis spectra for different target angles. MCNPX has been utilized to simulate the diagnostic x-ray tube with the aim of predicting optimum target angle and angular distribution of x-ray intensity around the x-ray target. For simulation of x-ray spectra, MCNPX was run in photon and electron using default values for PHYS:P and PHYS:E cards to enable full electron and photon transport. The x-ray tube consists of an evacuated 1 mm alumina envelope containing a tungsten anode embedded in a copper part. The envelope is encased in lead shield with an opening window. MCNPX simulations were run for x-ray tube potentials of 70 kV. A monoenergetic electron source at the distance of 2 cm from the anode surface was considered. The electron beam diameter was 0.3 mm striking on the focal spot. In this work, the optimum thickness of tungsten target was $3{\mu}m$ for the 70 kV electron potential. To determine the angle with the highest photon intensity per initial electron striking on the target, the x-ray intensity per initial electron was calculated for different tungsten target angles. The optimum anode angle based only on x-ray beam flatness was 35 degree. It should be mentioned that there is a considerable trade-off between anode angle which determines the focal spot size and geometric penumbra. The optimized thickness of a target material was calculated to maximize the x-ray intensity produced from a tungsten target materials for a 70 keV electron energy. Our results also showed that the anode angle has an influencing effect on heel effect and beam intensity across the beam.

A Copper Shield for the Reduction of X-γ True Coincidence Summing in Gamma-ray Spectrometry

  • Byun, Jong-In
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2018
  • Background: Gamma-ray detectors having a thin window of a material with low atomic number can increase the true coincidence summing effects for radionuclides emitting X-rays or gamma-rays. This effect can make efficiency calibration or spectrum analysis more complicated. In this study, a Cu shield was tested as an X-ray filter to neglect the true coincidence summing effect by X-rays and gamma-rays in gamma-ray spectrometry, in order to simplify gamma-ray energy spectrum analysis. Materials and Methods: A Cu shield was designed and applied to an n-type high-purity germanium detector having an $X-{\gamma}$ summing effect during efficiency calibration. This was tested using a commercial, certified mixed gamma-ray source. The feasibility of a Cu shield was evaluated by comparing efficiency calibration results with and without the shield. Results and Discussion: In this study, the thickness of a Cu shield needed to avoid true coincidence summing effects due to $X-{\gamma}$ was tested and determined to be 1 mm, considering the detection efficiency desired for higher energy. As a result, the accuracy of the detection efficiency calibration was improved by more than 13% by reducing $X-{\gamma}$ summing. Conclusion: The $X-{\gamma}$ summing effect should be considered, along with ${\gamma}-{\gamma}$ summing, when a detection efficiency calibration is implemented and appropriate shielding material can be useful for simplifying analysis of the gamma-ray energy spectra.

EFFECT OF X-RAY IRRADIATED RAT FETUS MANDIBLE (X-선조사가 자백서하악골에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Han Chang Gun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.39-42
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    • 1978
  • The effect of irradiation of x-ray to developing rat mandible in the gestation stage was focused on the study of mandible development and the side effect of x-ray irradiation. The author studied the effect of x-ray irradiation with the gestated rat and their off'springs. 100 rads, 200 rads, 300 rads and 400 rads of x-ray was irradiated in regular order schematically at the lower left abdomen of gestated rat. 18½days after conception, their off'springs were sacrificed and exaimined their developing mandible with histological findings. The results were as followed. 1. In the 100-200 rads irradiated rat off'springs, bony trabeclulation was revealed irregular shape. In combine with this finding, osteoblast and fibroblast were appeared shrunken of their nucleus and location of eccentric position. 2. In the 300-400 rads irradiated rat off'springs, decrease of fibroblast and osteoblast appearance in the periosteum were prominently observed and empty lacunae were frequently appeared in their bone matrix. 3. The advent of osteoclast and resorption of cortical bone were appeared in proportion to increasing of x-ray irradiation.

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A Practical Method to Correct the Saturation Effect in XMCD Spectra

  • Kim, J.Y.
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.85-87
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    • 2008
  • I report a simple method to correct the saturation effect in absorption spectra measured in total electron yield (TEY) mode. It does not require additional measurements of the X-ray penetration depth. In order to check the reliability of the method, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra for polycrystalline Fe were measured at two different incident angles, and then processed with the method. The two resultant XMCD spectra were identical, and their sum rule analysis produced the ratios of orbital magnetic moment to spin magnetic moment, which were very close to the well-known value.

Immunostimulating Effects of Angelica Gigas by Radio-Protective (당귀의 방사선 방호에 의한 생체면역 증진 효과)

  • Kim Kyung-Yoon;Jeong Hyun-Woo;Kim Gye-Yeop
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.1256-1260
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Angelica gigas on jejunal survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with Gamma-ray irradiation. The subject of this study includes 42 mice which were divided into each 7 groups. Angelica gigas experiment groups were Angelica gigas + Gamma-ray(10Gy), Angelica gigas + Gamma-ray(3Gy), Angelica gigas. Gamma-ray(1 Gy), Gamma-ray control (10Gy), Gamma-ray control(3Gy), Gamma-ray control(1Gy), Normal groups. In the present study to evaluate the effect of Angelica gigas on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice Gamma-ray with each dose of Gamma-ray irradiation. The results of this study were as follows: In low-dose(1Gy) Gamma-ray radiation were treatment of Angelica gigas showed significantly increased(p<0.05) on the cell death apoptosis in crypt, intestine crypts survival of intestine after gamma-ray irradiation. High-dose(10Gy) Gamma-ray, treatment of Angelica gigas showed significantly increased(p<0.05) on the leukocyte. The above results suggest that Angelica gigas were immunostimulating effectively reduced Gamma-ray irradiation.

Immunostimulating Effects of Acanthopanax in mice following Gamma-ray irradiation (방사선 조사 마우스에서 오가피의 면역활성 효과)

  • Kim, Gye-Yeop;Jeong, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Kyung-Yoon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.670-674
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    • 2006
  • This experimental study was carried out to investigate the immunostimulating effect of Acanthopanax, as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells and lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice following Gamma-ray irradiation. The subject of this study includes 72 mice which were divided into each 7 groups. Acanthopanax experiment groups were Acanthopanax. Gamma-ray(lOGy), Acanthopanax. Gamma-ray(3Gy), Acanthopnax. Gamma-ray(1Gy), Gamma-ray control(1OGy), Gamma-ray control(3Gy), Gamma-ray control(1Gy), Normal groups. The results of this study were as follows : Treatment with Acanthopanax showed significantly increased(p<0.05) on the cell death apoptosis in crypt, intestine crypts survival of intestine in mice following low-dose(1Gy) Gamma-ray radiation. And that significantly increased(p<0.05) on jejunal crypt survival and reduced(p<0.05) on lipid peroxidation in mice following high-dose(1OGy) Gamma-ray radiation. The above results suggest that Acathopanax were immunostimulating effectively reduced Gamma-ray irradiation.

Effect of Body Weight and Dual Effect of X-ray Irradiation on Tryptophan Pyrrolase Activity (TPO 활성에 대한 체중 변화의 영향과 X-선에 의한 이원적 영향)

  • Jung, Noh-Pal;Kim, Dong-Jun
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.19-22
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    • 1971
  • The effect based upon changes of body weight and effect of X-ray irradiation on tryptophan pyrrolase (TPO) activity in liver homogenate of albino rats was studied. 1. The average TPO activity of control group of 33 rats weighing $95{\sim}172g$\;was\;2.372{\pm}0.165{\mu}$ moles kynurenine/g protein/hr. 2. Correlation between body weight of 33 rats and its TPO activity was not showed practically(r=0.011). 3. TPO activity of whole-body X-ray irradiated rats (700r) was increased about double at 3hours and increased for a period of 4 days after irradiation, but after 6 days it was decreased gradually. This result is that whole-body X-ray irradiation showed dual effect on TPO activity in rat liver.

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Effect of Propolis on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Liver Irradiated by X-ray

  • Lee, Ji-Hoon;Ji, Tae-Jeong;Seo, Eul-Won
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.427-433
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    • 2006
  • We investigated the effect of propolis on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat liver exposed by X-ray irradiation. The dosage of propolis showed the effect of lowering the concentration of superoxide anion in irradiated rat liver, suggesting that propolis has a significant role to remove superoxide anion as an antioxidant and/or by activating the antioxidant enzyme. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR), disturbed by X-ray irradiation, were restored in 30 days to normal status in the group which dosed propolis before X-ray irradiation. Interestingly, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPOX) activities were highly increased with feeding propolis to rat compared to untreated group, whereas glutathione s-transferase (GST) activity was little affected. Taken together, it suggests that the propolis has a protective role in the rat liver cells against X-ray irradiation by increasing and recovering the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

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Experimental Study on the Irradiation and Surface Sterilization Effect of Ultra Violet Ray in Air Conditioning System (공조시스템에서 UV Ray의 조사 및 표면살균성능에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 홍진관
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.250-257
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    • 2004
  • Recently, the use of UVC lamps inside building air-conditioning system has been increasing in both medical and nonmedical buildings for the control of environmental microorganisms. In the present study, irradiance performance test of UVC lamp was carried out and surface sterilization effect of UV ray was investigated by using UV ray irradiation experimental chamber and pilot system. Experimental results show that the effective irradiance of UVC lamp is strongly dependent on air velocity and temperature with exception of relative huminity in air-conditioning system. An individual microbiological kill effectiveness experiment also shows that the fractional kill of two microbiological samples such as E. Coli and Legionella is roughly the same as the estimated fractional kill in the case of chamber test and pilot system test.

Assessment of Neutron Skyshine Dose in a Cargo Inspection Facility Using High Energy X-ray (고에너지 X-ray를 이용한 화물검색시설에서의 중성자 Skyshine 방사선량률 평가)

  • Cho, Young-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 2008
  • The radiation protection measures for the photoneutrons are one of the most important issue of radiation safety in high energy X-ray facilities. When the photoneutrons are released from the facility, the general public as well as occupational workers are exposed to unexpected radiations by neutron skyshine effect. In this study, the photoneutron inventory are calculated using monte carlo mothed, and the neutron skyshine dose rate is assessed using the inventory. A 9MeV X-ray cargo inspection facility is considered as a reference facility.

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