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Comparison of Different Microanastomosis Training Models : Model Accuracy and Practicality

  • Hwang, Gyo-Jun;Oh, Chang-Wan;Park, Sukh-Que;Sheen, Seung-Hun;Bang, Jae-Seung;Kang, Hyun-Seung
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.287-290
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    • 2010
  • Objective : The authors evaluated the accuracies and ease of use of several commonly used microanastomosis training models (synthetic tube, chicken wing, and living rat model). Methods : A survey was conducted among neurosurgeons and neurosurgery residents at a workshop held in 2009 at the authors' institute. Questions addressed model accuracy (similarity to real vessels and actual procedures) and practicality (availability of materials and ease of application in daily practice). Answers to each question were rated using a 5-point scale. Participants were also asked what types of training methods they would chose to improve their skills and to introduce the topic to other neurosurgeons or neurosurgery residents. Results : Of the 24 participants, 20 (83.3%) responded to the survey. The living rat model was favored for model accuracy (p<0.001; synthetic tube $-0.95{\pm}0.686$, chicken wing, $0.15{\pm}0.587$, and rat, $1.75{\pm}0.444$) and the chicken wing model for practicality (p<0.001; synthetic tube $-1.55{\pm}0.605$, chicken wing, $1.80{\pm}0.523$, and rat,$1.30{\pm}0.923$). All (100%) chose the living rat model for improving their skills, and for introducing the subject to other neurosurgeons or neurosurgery residents, the chicken wing and living rat models were selected by 18 (90%) and 20 (100%), respectively. Conclusion : Of 3 methods examined, the chicken wing model was found to be the most practical, but the living rat model was found to represent reality the best. We recommend the chicken wing model to train surgeons who have mastered basic techniques, and the living rat model for experienced surgeons to maintain skill levels.

Effect of Decreased Locomotor Activity on Hindlimb Muscles in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease (파킨슨병 모델 쥐에서 보행활동저하가 뒷다리근에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yong-Bum;Choe, Myoung-Ae
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.580-588
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of decreased locomotor activity on mass, Type I and II fiber cross-sectional areas of ipsilateral and contralateral hindlimb muscles 21 days after establishing the Parkinson's disease rat model. Methods: The rat model was established by direct injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 50 ${mu}g$) into the left substantia nigra after stereotaxic surgery. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of two groups; the Parkinson's disease group (PD; n=17) and a sham group (S; n=8). Locomotor activity was assessed before and 21 days after the experiment. At 22 days after establishing the rat model, all rats were anesthetized and soleus and plantaris muscles were dissected from both ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The brain was dissected to identify dopaminergic neuronal death of substantia nigra in the PD group. Results: The PD group at 21 days after establishing the Parkinson's disease rat model showed significant decrease in locomotor activity compared with the S group. Weights and Type I and II fiber cross-sectional areas of the contralateral soleus muscle of the PD group were significantly lower than those of the S group. Conclusion: Contralateral soleus muscle atrophy occurs 21 days after establishing the Parkinson's disease rat model.

Development of Grid-Based Conceptual Hydrologic Model (격자기반의 개념적 수문모형의 개발)

  • Kim, Byung-Sik;Yoon, Seon-Kyoo;Yang, Dong-Min;Kwon, Hyun-Han
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.43 no.7
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    • pp.667-679
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    • 2010
  • The distributed hydrologic model has been considerably improved due to rapid development of computer hardware technology as well as the increased accessibility and the applicability of hydro-geologic information using GIS. It has been acknowledged that physically-based distributed hydrologic model require significant amounts of data for their calibration, so its application at ungauged catchments is very limited. In this regard, this study was intended to develop a distributed hydrologic model (S-RAT) that is mainly based on conceptually grid-based water balance model. The proposed model shows advantages as a new distributed rainfall-runoff model in terms of their simplicity and model performance. Another advantage of the proposed model is to effectively assess spatio-temporal variation for the entire runoff process. In addition, S-RAT does not rely on any commercial GIS pre-processing tools because a built-in GIS pre-processing module was developed and included in the model. Through the application to the two pilot basins, it was found that S-RAT model has temporal and spatial transferability of parameters and also S-RAT model can be effectively used as a radar data-driven rainfall-runoff model.

The effect of Periostracum Cicadae on capsaicin-induced model of atopic dermatitis in rats (Capsaicin으로 유도된 아토피 피부염 rat model에서 선태의 효과)

  • Chang, You-jin;Jung, Dal-lim;Hong, Seung-ug
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.41-50
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : 선태는 아토피 피부염에서 소양증 완화를 위해 사용되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 면역계 및 신경계 손상을 일으킨 rat model에서 선태 추출물이 소양증 완화에 효과가 있는지 알아보고자 한다.Methods : 출생 48시간 이내의 rat을 대상으로, capsaicin(50 mg/kg)을 피하 투여하였다. 임의로 선정된 12마리의 실험군에 3주 동안 선태 추출물(0.5g/kg)을 매일 경구 투여하였다. 이후 scratching behavior 와 dermatitis score를 측정하였다.Results : 선태 투여군과 대조군에서 scratching number 와 dermatitis score의 차이가 없었다.Conclusions : 위의 결과로부터 capsaicin으로 유발한 아토피 피부염 rat model에서 선태의 소양증 완화 효과가 없다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 아토피 피부염의 효과적인 치료를 위해 면역계 뿐만 아니라 신경계 손상 회복시키는 약물을 찾기 위한 더 많은 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각된다.

Effects of Size and Permittivity of Rat Brain on SAR Values at 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz

  • Hyun Jong-Chul;Oh Yi-Sok
    • Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of size and permittivity on the specific absorption rate(SAR) values of rat brains during microwave exposure at mobile phone frequency bands. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique with perfect matching layer(PML) absorbing boundaries is used for this evaluation process. A color coded digital image of the Sprague Dawley(SD) rat based on magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) is used in FDTD calculation with appropriate permittivity values corresponding to different tissues for 3, 4, 7, and 10 week old rats. This study is comprised of three major parts. First, the rat model structure is scaled uniformly, i.e., the rat size is increased without change in permittivity. The simulated SAR values are compared with other experimental and numerical results. Second, the effect of permittivity on SAR values is examined by simulating the microwave exposure on rat brains with various permittivity values for a fixed rat size. Finally, the SAR distributions in depth, and the brain-averaged SAR and brain 1 voxel peak SAR values are computed during the microwave exposure on a rat model structure when both size and permittivity have varied corresponding to different ages ranging from 3 to 10 weeks. At 900 MHz, the simulation results show that the brain-averaged SAR values decreased by about 54 % for size variation from the 3 week to the 10 week-old rat model, while the SAR values decreased only by about 16 % for permittivity variation. It is found that the brain averaged SAR values decreased by about 63 % when the variations in size and permittivity are taken together. At 1,800 MHz, the brain-averaged SAR value is decreased by 200 % for size variation, 9.7 % for permittivity variation, and 207 % for both size and permittivity variations.

Functional Recovery Following the Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells in Rat Spinal Cord Injury Model

  • Muniswami, Durai Murugan;Tharion, George
    • Asian Spine Journal
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.998-1009
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    • 2018
  • Study Design: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) from rat olfactory mucosa were cultured, characterized, and transplanted into a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Purpose: To evaluate different doses of OECs in a rat model of SCI. Overview of Literature: SCI causes permanent functional deficit because the central nervous system lacks the ability to perform spontaneous repair. Cell therapy strategies are being explored globally. The clinical use of human embryonic stem cell is hampered by ethical controversies. Alternatively, OECs are a promising cell source for neurotransplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different doses of allogenic OEC transplantation in a rat model of SCI. Methods: OECs were cultured from the olfactory mucosa of Albino Wistar rats; these cells were characterized using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Rats were divided into five groups (n=6 rats each). In each group, different dosage ($2{\times}10^5$, $5{\times}10^5$, $10{\times}10^5$, and >$10{\times}10^5$) of cultured cells were transplanted into experimentally injured spinal cords of rat models. However, in the SCI group, only DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) was injected. Rats were followed up upto 8 weeks post-transplantation. The outcome of transplantation was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale; motor-evoked potential studies; and histological examination. Results: Cultured cells expressed 41% of p75NTR, a marker for OEC, and 35% of anti-fibronectin, a marker for olfactory nerve fibroblast. These cells also expressed $S100{\beta}$ and glial fibrillary acid protein of approximately 75% and 83%, respectively. All the transplanted groups showed promising BBB scores for hind-limb motor recovery compared with the SCI group (p<0.05). A motor-evoked potential study showed increased amplitude in all the treated groups compared with the SCI. Green fluorescent protein-labeled cells survived in the injured cord, suggesting their role in the transplantation-mediated repair. Transplantation of $5{\times}10^5$ cells showed the best motor outcomes among all the doses. Conclusions: OECs demonstrated a therapeutic effect in rat models with the potential for future clinical applications.

Cuff Technique for Small-Diameter Vascular Grafts in the Systemic Arterial Circulation of the Rat

  • Cho, Sukki;Song, In Hag
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.423-426
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    • 2018
  • This study determined the feasibility of the cuff technique for small-caliber vascular grafts in a rat model. A graft was implanted with the cuff technique or suture technique in a 1-cm segment of the abdominal aorta in 12 rats. The mean aortic clamp time was 29 minutes with the cuff technique and 44 minutes with the suture technique; the cuff technique was significantly shorter. Abdominal angiography at 1 week after implantation showed no significant stenosis in 9 rats, focal stenosis of the mid-portion of the graft in 1 rat with each technique, and total occlusion of the graft in 1 rat with the suture technique. We have successfully used the cuff technique for anastomosis for small-caliber vascular grafts in an animal model.

Study on the Radiation Dose about Skin Thickness of Rat (For Radiation Damage Tissue Engineering) (쥐의 피부두께에 따른 선량연구)

  • Jung, Hongmoon;Won, Doyeon;Kim, Hyeongyun;Jung, Jaeeun;Choi, hyeun-woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.375-379
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    • 2016
  • A rat is the most common experimental animal used for the realization of the radiation injury model. The certain thickness of rat skin was prepared by peeling off a rat skin. Radiation level was measured by using this rat skin. Also, The schematic of the formula was made that can predict the radiation absorbed dose (RAD) as a function of the thickness of the rat skin. Consequently, we will provide the RAD information in the realization of in-vitro experimental model regarding the rat's skin thickness by applying the formulas. Moreover, the results from this study can be effectively used for the in-vitro experiment of the rat subcutaneous tissue which was exposed to radiation.

Hemifacial Transplantation Model in Rats

  • Lim, Jong Woo;Eun, Seok Chan
    • Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.89-93
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    • 2014
  • Background: To refine facial transplantation techniques and achieve sound results, it is essential to develop a suitable animal model. Rat is a small animal and has many advantages over other animals that have been used as transplantation models. The purpose of this study was to describe a rat hemifacial transplantation model and to verify its convenience and reproducibility. Methods: Animals used in this study were Lewis rats (recipients) and Lewis-Brown Norway rats (donors). Nine transplantations were performed, requiring 18 animals. The hemifacial flap that included the ipsilateral ear was harvested based on the unilateral common carotid artery and external jugular vein and was transferred as a single unit. Cyclosporine A therapy was initiated 24 hours after transplantation and lasted for 2 weeks. Signs of rejection responses were evaluated daily. Results: The mean transplantation time was 1 hour 20 minutes. The anatomy of common carotid artery and external jugular vein was consistent, and the vessel size was appropriate for anastomosis. Six of nine allografts remained good viable without vascular problems at the conclusion of study (postoperative 2 weeks). Conclusion: The rat hemifacial transplantation model is suitable as a standard transplantation training model.

The Rat Model in Microsurgery Education: Classical Exercises and New Horizons

  • Shurey, Sandra;Akelina, Yelena;Legagneux, Josette;Malzone, Gerardo;Jiga, Lucian;Ghanem, Ali Mahmoud
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2014
  • Microsurgery is a precise surgical skill that requires an extensive training period and the supervision of expert instructors. The classical training schemes in microsurgery have started with multiday experimental courses on the rat model. These courses have offered a low threat supervised high fidelity laboratory setting in which students can steadily and rapidly progress. This simulated environment allows students to make and recognise mistakes in microsurgery techniques and thus shifts any related risks of the early training period from the operating room to the lab. To achieve a high level of skill acquisition before beginning clinical practice, students are trained on a comprehensive set of exercises the rat model can uniquely provide, with progressive complexity as competency improves. This paper presents the utility of the classical rat model in three of the earliest microsurgery training centres and the new prospects that this versatile and expansive training model offers.