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Bending moments in raft of a piled raft system using Winkler analysis

  • Jamil, Irfan;Ahmad, Irshad
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2019
  • Bending moments in the raft of a pile raft system is affected by pile-pile interaction and pile-raft interaction, amongst other factors. Three-Dimensional finite element program has to be used to evaluate these bending moments. Winkler type analysis is easy to use but it however ignores these interactions. This paper proposes a very simplified and novel method for finding bending moments in raft of a piled raft based on Winkler type where raft is supported on bed of springs considering pile-pile and pile-raft interaction entitled as "Winkler model for piled raft (WMPR)" The pile and raft spring stiffness are based on load share between pile and raft and average pile raft settlement proposed by Randolph (1994). To verify the results of WMPR, raft bending moments are compared with those obtained from PLAXIS 3D software. A total of sixty analysis have Performed varying different parameters. It is found that raft bending moments obtained from WMPR closely match with bending moments obtained from PLAXIS 3D. A comparison of bending moments ignoring any interaction in Winkler model is also made with PLAXIS-3D, which results in large difference of bending moments. Finally, bending moment results from eight different methods are compared with WMPR for a case study. The WMPR, though, a simple method yielded comparable raft bending moments with the most accurate analysis.

Behavior of a combined piled raft foundation in a multi-layered soil subjected to vertical loading

  • Bandyopadhyay, Srijit;Sengupta, Aniruddha;Parulekar, Y.M.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.379-390
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    • 2020
  • The behavior of a piled raft system in multi-layered soil subjected to vertical loading has been studied numerically using 3D finite element analysis. Initially, the 3D finite element model has been validated by analytically simulating the field experiments conducted on vertically loaded instrumented piled raft. Subsequently, a comprehensive parametric study has been conducted to assess the performance of a combined piled raft system in terms of optimum pile spacing and settlement of raft and piles, in multi-layered soil stratum subjected to vertical loading. It has been found that a combined pile raft system can significantly reduce the total settlement as well as the differential settlement of the raft in comparison to the raft alone. Two different arrangements below the piled raft with the same pile numbers show a significant amount of increase of load transfer of piled raft system, which is in line with the load transfer mechanism of a piled raft. A methodology for the factor of safety assessment of a combined pile raft foundation has been presented to improve the performance of piled raft based on its serviceability requirements. The findings of this study could be used as guidelines for achieving economical design for combined piled raft systems.

Analysis of the piled raft for three load patterns: A parametric study

  • Chore, H.S.;Siddiqui, M.J.
    • Coupled systems mechanics
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.289-302
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    • 2013
  • The piled raft is a geotechnical construction, consisting of the three elements-piles, raft and the soil, that is applied for the foundation of a tall buildings in an increasing number. The piled rafts nowadays are preferred as the foundation to reduce the overall and differential settlements; and also, provides an economical foundation option for circumstances where the performance of the raft alone does not satisfy the design requirements. The finite element analysis of the piled raft foundation is presented in this paper. The numerical procedure is programmed into finite element based software SAFE in order to conduct the parametric study wherein soil modulus and raft thickness is varied for constant pile diameter. The problems of piled raft for three different load patterns as considered in the available literature (Sawant et al. 2012) are analyzed here using SAFE. The results obtained for load pattern-I using SAFE are compared with those obtained by Sawant et al. (2012). The fair agreement is observed in the results which demonstrate the accuracy of the procedure employed in the present investigation. Further, substantial reduction in maximum deflections and moments are found in piled raft as compared to that in raft. The reduction in deflections is observed with increase in raft thickness and soil modulus. The decrease in maximum moments with increase in soil modulus is seen in raft whereas increase in maximum moments is seen in piled raft. The raft thickness and soil modulus affects the response of the type of the foundation considered in the present investigation.

Optimum Design of Piled Raft Foundations Using A Genetic Algorithm (유전자 알고이즘을 이용한 Piled Raft 기초의 최적설계)

  • Kim, Hong-Taek;Kang, In-Kyr;Jeon, Eung-Jin;Park, Sa-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2000
  • 본 연구에서는, 유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 piled raft 기초의 최적설계 기법을 제시하였다. 최적설계에 사용한 목적함수는 구조물의 사용한계에 해당하는 부등침하량과 piled raft 기초의 시고비용 차원에서의 말뚝과 raft의 총 중량으로 하였다. 유전자 알고리즘은 다읜의 적자생존의 법칙을 따르는 자연진화 법칙을 바탕으로 한 최적화 기법이다. 본 연구에서는 piled raft 기초의 해석방법으로 Clancy(1993)가 제시한 "hybrid" 해석방법을 사용하였으며, 유전자 알고리즘기법은 Goldberg(1989)가 제시한 단순 유전자 알고리즘(SGA)을 적용하였다. 또한 유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 최적설계기법의 유효성을 평가하기 위해 설계예제 및 매개변수변화연구를 통해 piled raft 기초시스템의 중요 설계인자들에 대한 분석을 수행하였다. 매개변수변화연구로부터 말뚝의 길이와 raft의 두께가 증가할수록 piled raft 기초시스템의 전체 중량은 일정한 값에 점차적으로 수렴하였으며, 지반의 강정, raft의 두께 말뚝의 길이 및 강성이 증가할수록 말뚝의 최적위치는 raft의 중앙에 집중되는 경향으로 나타났다.경향으로 나타났다.

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Finite Difference Modeling of a Piled Raft Foundation with Axisymmetry Condition and Interface Element (축대칭 조건 및 경계면 요소를 이용한 Piled Raft 기초의 유한차분 모델링 연구)

  • You, Kwang Ho;Kim, Hyung Ryul;Bae, Sang Han
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.853-861
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    • 2015
  • In this study, FDM modelling with axisymmetry condition and interface element was verified whether it is reasonable to estimate compositive behavior of a piled raft foundation. To this end, the modelling validity of piled raft foundations was estimated by comparing and analyzing numerical analysis results and laboratory model test results. Also, load bearing ratio of a raft is analyzed by performing sensitivity analysis of foundation parameters with the actual field conditions. As a result of this study, correlation between bearing capacity and vertical displacement of numerical results turned out to be similar with that of a laboratory model test. In addition, ultimate bearing capacity of piled rafts and load bearing ratio of the raft is calculated to be similar in both cases. The load bearing ratio of the raft was also estimated to be in the range of 33% to 52% from the sensitivity analysis. The results were confirmed to be similar to the previous studies. Therefore, it can be inferred that piled rafts can be effectively modelled applying axisymmetry condition and interface element.

An Experimental Study of Piled Raft Footing on Loose Sands (느슨한 모래지반에서의 말뚝지지 전면기초에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kwon, Oh-Kyun;Lee, Whoal;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Oh, Se-Boong;Jang, Hak-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.439-446
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    • 2003
  • In this paper the model tests have been conducted and the results are compared with those by the theoretical methods to study the behaviors of the piled raft. The size of model box is 2.2m${\times}$2m${\times}$2m. The raft is made of rigid steel plate and piles made of steel pipes. Generally the bearing capacity of group piles is designed with only the pile capacities, and the bearing capacity of raft is ignored. But the uncertainty of pile-raft-soil interaction leads to conservative design ignoring the bearing effects of raft. In the case of considering the bearing capacity of raft, the simple sum of bearing capacity of raft and that of each pile cannot be the bearing capacity of piled raft. Because the pile-raft-soil interaction affects the behavior of piled raft. Thus the effects of pile-raft-soil interaction are very important in the optimal design. In this paper, the behaviors of piled raft are studied through model tests of 2${\times}$2, 2${\times}$3, and 3${\times}$3 pile groups. The spacing between piles is changed in the model tests. And the behaviors of free standing and piled raft are also studied.

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Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Piled Raft Foundation on OC Clay using Centrifuge and Numerical Modeling (원심모형 실험과 수치해석을 이용한 과압밀 지반에서의 piled raft 기초의 지지력 평가)

  • Park, Jin-Oh;Choo, Yun-Wook;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.376-387
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    • 2009
  • Piled raft foundation is a geotechnical composite construction to support the superstructure by pile-soil-raft interaction. General conventional design for piled raft doesn't consider the contribution of a raft. This is very conservative and requires more piles to satisfy the factor of safety. It is important to evaluate the load sharing features of piled raft. In this research, this characteristics of piled raft evaluated using both centrifuge and numerical modelings. The ultimate bearing capacity of piled raft foundation was also evaluated and predicted through comparisons of ultimate bearing capacity of single pile (SP), unpiled raft (UR), freestanding pile group (FPG) and piled raft (PR). $\xi_{pr}$ and $\eta$ were determined by centrifuge model tests to simply evaluate the ultimate bearing capacity of piled raft and bearing capacity of piled raft was predicted using the calibrated numerical model based on the centrifuge tests and laboratory tests data.

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Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis of Piled Raft on Soft Clay (연약지반에 시공된 Piled Raft 기초의 3차원 거동 분석)

  • Lee, Jin-Hyung;Jeong, Sang-Seom
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.63-75
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    • 2007
  • Piled raft is known to be an unfavorable foundation type in soft clay because foundation is associated with both excessive settlement and bearing capacity failure problems. Despite these reasons, in recent decades, an increasing number of structures have been constructed over soft clay area, piled raft concepts arouse interest as the foundation of structures on soft clay area becomes popular. This study described 3 dimensional behavior of piled raft on soft clay based on a numerical study using 3D finite element method. A series of numerical analyses were performed for a various pile lengths and the pile configurations on the raft were subjected to vertical uniform or point loading. Based on the results of the parametric study, comparisons were made among the effect of loading type, various pile length and configurations, and the load-settlement behavior and load sharing characteristics of piled raft were also evaluated. From the results, the characteristic of piled raft on soft clay was examined.

Optimum Design of Piled Raft Foundations Using Genetic Algorithm(II) - Comparison with Laboratory Model Test Results - (유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 Piled Raft 기초의 최적설계(II) - 실내모형실험결과의 비교 -)

  • 김홍택;강인규;박순규;박정주
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.379-386
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    • 2001
  • Piled raft foundations are usually used to reduce total and differential settlements of superstructures. In the piled raft foundations, the raft is often on its own able to provide adequate bearing capacity and only few widely spaced piles are added to the foundation to keep settlements be1ow a certain limit. In this paper, experimental studies on the load sharing ratio between piles and raft are carried out. Also, for evaluating the application of optimum design technique using a genetic algorithm, optimal locations of files are compared with the results of laboratory model tests. from tile results of laboratory model tests, there are found that the load sharing ratio between files and raft is depended on the number of piles and stiffness of raft, and the optimal locations of piles became concentrated on the middle of rafts. From these results of laboratory model tests, the optimum technique using a genetic algorithm is acknowledged to the application in the piled raft.

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An Study of Behavior of Granuler soil for the Piled raft from the Model Test (모형실험을 이용한 사질토지반에서의 Piled raft 거동특성에 대한 연구)

  • Kwon, Oh-Kyun;Lee, Whoal;Kim, Jin-Bok;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Oh, Se-Boong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.358-365
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    • 2002
  • In this paper the model tests have been conducted and the results were compared with those by the theoretical methods to study the behaviors of the piled raft. The size of model box is 2.2m${\times}$2m${\times}$2m. The raft is made of rigid steel plate and piles are made of steel pipes. Generally the bearing capacity of group piles is designed with only the pile capacities, which is Ignored the bearing capacity of raft. But the uncertainty of pile-raft-soil interaction leads to conservative design ignoring the bearing effects of raft. In the case of considering the bearing capacity of raft, the simple sum of bearing capacity of raft and that of each pile cannot be the bearing capacity of piled raft. Because the pile-raft-soil interaction affects the behavior of piled raft. Thus the effects of pile-raft-soil interaction are very important in the optimal design. In this paper, the behaviors of piled raft are studied through model tests of 2${\times}$2, 2${\times}$3, and 3${\times}$3 pile groups. The spacing between piles is changed in the model tests. And the behaviors of free standing and piled raft are also studied.

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