• Title, Summary, Keyword: radiography

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A literature review on expansion of dental hygienists' radiography operations (치과위생사의 방사선 촬영업무의 확대에 대한 문헌적 고찰)

  • Choi, Young-Suk;Kim, Jin-Kyoung;Jang, Jong-Hwa;Park, Yong-Duk
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.111-124
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    • 2009
  • This study analyzes through the review of literature and laws the exposure time, clinical frequency, and radiation exposure of intraoral and extraoral radiography as well as of panoramic radiography performed by dental hygienists in dental clinics, compares the dental radiology curriculums of radiological science and dental hygiene departments, and proposes the expansion of dental hygienists' radiography operations. The radiology curriculums were compared between the radiological science and dental hygiene departments of colleges. For new analysis by radiography for dental diagnosis, the exposure time, radiation absorbed dose, effective dose, and number of days of natural radiation were compared by the type of oral radiation films and radiographical techniques proposed by domestic and international studies. The exposure time of panoramic radiography is 15 seconds and it takes about two minutes for completion, whereas the exposure time of the standard radiography is 0.2~0.8 seconds and it takes 10 times longer for completion of the radiography of full mouth than the panoramic radiography. The standard radiography can cause distortions of radiation at severely curved parts of dental arch and palatopharyngeal reflex. However, panoramic radiography can be performed even for lock jaw patients, causes less inconvenience to patients and is much simpler than the standard radiography. The percentage of dental clinics where radiography is performed by dental hygienists was 92.0%, and the percentage of standard film radiography by dental hygienists was 98% whereas the percentage of panoramic radiography by dental hygienists was 92%. For the absorbed dose which is an indicator of radiation exposure, the When the effective dose which is an indicator of the danger of radiation exposure was converted to the number of days of natural radiation, it was 3.3 days for panoramic radiography, but 13.9 days for the full mouth standard radiography by bisecting angle technique which was 4.2 times longer than the panoramic radiography. There were two colleges that had a dental radiology course with two credits in the departments of radiological science. The credits for dental radiology courses in the department of dental hygiene ranged varied by college, ranging from 3 to 8; on average, the theory course was 2.2 credits and the practice course was 2.02 credits. To summarize the above results, the percentage of dental clinics where panoramic radiography is performed by dental hygienists under the guidance of dentists is high. Panoramic radiography has become an essential facility for dental clinics. It is faster than standard film radiography and less dangerous due to low radiation exposure. Panoramic radiography is a simple mechanical job that does not require training of oral radiography by radiotechnologist. Because panoramic radiography is one of major operations which must be performed at all times in dental clinics, it must be designated as intraoral technique rather than extraoral technique, or legalized for inclusion in the scope of operations of dental hygienists.

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The Comparison of Appropriateness of Abdominal Computed Tomography (CT) and Abdominal Radiography Imaging Modality for Patients with Acute Nontraumatic Abdominal Pain (비외상성 급성 복부 통증 환자에게 시행한 복부 전산화단층촬 영과 복부 단순 촬영의 적정성 비교)

  • Song, Jung-Hup;Ryeom, Hun-Kyu
    • Quality Improvement in Health Care
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To compare the Appropriateness of abdominal CT to abdominal radiography as an imaging modality in terms of the diagnostic value, medical costs and decision making times for patients presented to the emergency department with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Methods: This study used the records of 530 cases presented to the emergency department(ED) with nontraumatic abdominal pain from February to March 2012. Imaging modalities were categorized into abdominal radiography and CT (radiography first or CT first) or radiography alone or CT alone. The diagnostic value, total medical costs and effect on decision making time of the each imaging modalities were compared. Especially, in retrospective review, to evaluate the predictability of the abdominal radiography, alit was assumed that all the 530 cases performed that exam as initial imaging. Results: Among 530 cases, 255 cases underwent abdominal radiography only, 28 cases underwent abdominal CT only and the remnant 247 cases underwent abdominal CT with plain abdominal radiography. The diagnostic value was higher in the cases with abdominal CT (268/275, 97.5%) than in the cases with plain abdominal radiography (19/255, 7.5%).The number of cases predicted by abdominal radiography only as initial imaging were 39/530 (7.4%). In cases where the patients performed the abdominal CT as the first imaging modality thereby omitting the abdominal radiography, the total diagnostic imaging fee was lower than in cases with plain abdominal radiography first followed by the abdominal CT (277,140 vs. 284,226(mean, Korean Won)). Although diagnostic value of the plain abdominal radiography as first imaging modality was lower than the abdominal CT, Decision making time, average duration of hospital stay was longer and the total medical costs was higher than abdominal CT. Conclusion: As an imaging modality in the ED for patients with acute nontraumatic abdominal pain, plain abdominal radiography is an avoidable procedure when viewed in terms of the diagnostic value and total medical costs and decision making times comparing with abdominal CT.

A absorbed and effective dose from the full-mouth periapical radiography using portable dental x-ray machine and panoramic radiography (ORIGINAL ARTICLE - 이동형 구내방사선촬영기로 촬영한 치근단 방사선촬영과 파노라마방사선촬영의 흡수선량과 유효선량 평가)

  • Han, Won-Jeong
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.50 no.7
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    • pp.420-430
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the absorbed dose and to calculate the effective dose for full-mouth periapical radiography using the portable dental x-ray machine and panoramic radiography Material and Method: Thermoluminescent chips were placed at 25sites throughout the layers of the head and neck of a tissue-equivalent human skull phantom. The man phantom was exposed with the portable dental x-ray machine and panoramic unit. During full-mouth periapical radiography the exposure setting was 60 kVp, 2 mA and 0.15 ~ 0.25 seconds, while during panoramic radiography the selected exposure setting was 72 kVp, 8 mA and 18 seconds. Absorbed dose measurements were obtained and equivalent doses to individual organs were summed using ICRP 103 to calculate of effective dose. Result: In the full-mouth periapical radiography, the highest absorbed dose was recorded at the mandible body follow with submandibular glands and cheek. Using panoramic unit, the highest absorbed dose was parotid glands and the following was back of neck and submandibular glands. The effective dose in full-mouth periapical radiography using portable dental x-ray machine was 46 ${\mu}Sv$. In panoramic radiography, the effective dose was 38 ${\mu}pSv$. Conclusion: It was recommended to panoramic radiography for general check in the head and neck area because that the effect dose in the panoramic radiography was lower than the dose in the full-mouth periapical radiography using portable dental x-ray machine.

An Assessment of the Accuracy for Digital Radiography Image (디지털 방사선투과영상의 정밀성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Ki;Ahn, Yean-Shik;Gil, Doo-Song
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2009
  • Film based radiography imaging technique has been applied to the non-destructive test in medical, aircraft, and power industries contributing to the development of the industries. However, the complex process for imaging and analysis has increasingly demanded the reformation of the radiography test. A digital radiography imaging technologies has been com out from the demand. This study was mainly focused on the assessment on the accuracy for the each image from digital radiography test and film radiography test was proven to crate a better image in sensitivity than film radiography test. In the IQI(Image quality indicator) transmission test, one or two more line can be seen in digital image than in film image. When applying to the boiler tube weld, film image is detectable to the 1.0mm depth flaw; and digital image to the 0.5mm depth flaw. As a result of this study, digital radiography technology is determined to enhance the image quality, compared to film radiography technologies

Skin entrance dose for digital and film radiography in Korean dental schools

  • Cho Eun-Sang;Choi Kun-Ho;Kim Min-Gyu;Lim Hoi-Jeong;Yoon Suk-Ja;Kang Byung-Cheol
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.203-205
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: This study was aimed to compare skin entrance dose of digital radiography with that of film radiography and to show the dose reduction achievement with digital systems at 11 dental schools in Korea. Materials and Methods: Forty six intraoral radiographic systems in 11 dental schools were included in this study. Digital sensors were used in 33 systems and film was used in 13 systems. Researchers and the volunteer visited 11 dental schools in Korea. Researchers asked the radiologic technician (s) at each school to set the exposure parameters and aiming the x-ray tube for the periapical view of the mandibular molar of the volunteer. The skin entrance doses were measured at the same exposure parameters and distance by the technician for each system with a dosimeter (Multi-O-Meter : Unfors instruments, Billdal, Sweden). Results: The median dose was $491.2{\mu}Gy$ for digital radiography and $1,205.0{\mu}Gy$ for film radiography. The skin entrance dose in digital radiography was significantly lower than that of film radiography (p<0.05). Conclusion: Fifty-nine percent skin entrance dose reduction with digital periapical radiography was achieved over the film radiography in Korean dental schools.

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The Distribution and Patient Care in Radiography for Emergency Outpatients (응급환자의 방사선영상검사 분포 및 Patient Care)

  • Lee, Hwan-Hyung;Kang, Won-Han
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.55-74
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to improve service efficiency and to cope with a emergency situation in emergency radiography, through analysis of the radiographic distribution and literature cited about emergency care. Data collection of radiographic distribution was surveyed for 761 emergency outpatients who visit during JAN, 1994 at ER of the general hospital in Pusan city. The results is as follows: Emergency radiography rate of simple radiography was 61.1 %, special radiography 2.5 %, CT 12.6 %, and ultrasonography 6.7 %. In simple radiography rate, a high rate was distributed on male(63.6 %), thoracicsurgery part(90.0%), admission patient(74.9 %), and long stayed patient at ER. In special raiography rate, a high rate was observed in urologic part(28.6%), and in CT rate, observed neurosurgery part(49.2 %) and neurologic part(36.7%). Ultrasonography rate was high for female(8.8 %) and internal medicine part(15.9 %). There are distributed regional radiography rate in radiographic type that chest(55.3 %) is high in the simple radiography, urinary system(1.2%) in the special study, and brain(40.0 %) in the CT. Regional radiography rate according to diagnostic department also was showed highly for head(64.6%) in neurosurgery, chest(90.0%) in thoracic-surgery, abdomen(58.0%) in general-surgery, spine (40.0% ) in neuro-surgery, and pelvis(15.9%), upper extrimity(20.5%), and lower extrimity(31.8%) in orthopedic-surgery each. Mean radiographic case number per patient of simple radiography was sinificant on sex, age, transfer relation in both total and radiographic patients(p<0.05). Mean radiographic case number was highly distributed on male(2.2 case number) in sex, on thirties(2.7) in age, transfered patient(2.7) in patient type, and on neurosurgery(3.4) in diagnostic charged part. Total radiographic case number in regional part was highly distributed on chest(499 case number). Considering the above results, emergency radiographer should take care of the elder patient in emergency radiography and get hold of injury mechanism to decrease possible secondary injury during radiography. Because of high radiography rate of urinary system in special study, radiographer should know well about dealing with contrastmedia administration and related instrument. All radiographer who take charge emergency patient should cope with a emergency situation during radiography, Because head trauma patients is very important in patient care, especilly in CT at night, charged doctor should be always silted with CT room and monitoring-patient. Radiography was reqested by many diagnostic department in ER. Considering that rate of simple radiography is high, special room for emergency radiography should be established in ER area, and the radiographer of this room should be stationed radiologic technician who is career and can implement emergency patient care.

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Effective dose of cone-beam computed tomography for orthodontic analysis in pediatric patient (소아환자에서 교정분석을 위한 콘빔CT 촬영시 유효선량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.53 no.8
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    • pp.558-568
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    • 2015
  • Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure pediatric organ and effective doses of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for orthodontic analysis and to compare them to those of panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography, the conventional radiography for orthodontic analysis. Materials and Methods: Alphard VEGA for CBCT, Planmeca Proline XC for panoramic radiography and Orthophos CD for cephalometric radiography were used for this study. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were located at 24 anatomic sites of 10-year-old anthropomorphic phantom and exposed during CBCT (C-mode; $200{\times}179mm$ FOV), panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographic procedures at the clinical exposure settings for 10-year-old patient. Pediatric organ and effective doses were measured and calculated using ICRP 2007 tissue weighting factors. Results: Effective doses of CBCT, panoramic radiography and lateral cephlometric radiography in pediatric clinical exposure settings were $292.5{\mu}Sv$, $19.3{\mu}Sv$, and $4.4{\mu}Sv$ respectively. The thyroid gland contributed most significantly to the effective dose in all the radiographic procedures. Conclusion: Effective dose of CBCT was about 12 times to conventional radiographic procedures for orthodontic analysis in pediatric patient. The use of CBCT for orthodontic analysis should be fully justified over conventional radiography and dose optimization to decrease thyroid dose is needed in pediatric patients.

Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries (CCD 디지털 방사선사진촬영법의 초기 치아우식증의 진단능 평가에 대한 연구)

  • Lee Wan;Lee Byung-Do
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. Materials and Methods : 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOV A test. Results: The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p > 0.05). Coclusion : These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

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A Study of Usefulness of Panoramic Radiography in Case of Employees' Oral Examination (근로자 구강검진 시 파노라마방사선사진의 필요성에 관한 고찰)

  • Jun, Sung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Digital Imaging in Medicine
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to know usefulness of panoramic radiography by comparing clinical evaluation and dental panoramic radiography in case of oral examination. Following results were concluded by analyzing difference between the result of Clinical evaluation and dental panoramic radiography. According to comparison the result of clinical evaluation and panoramic radiography, In Shin's research, dental caries was higher by 23.1%, periodontal disease was 31.9%, in An's research, dental caries was 24.2%. From new point of view from panoramic radiography, impacted tooth was 33.6%, Sinus abnormalities was 11.6%, periapical lesion was 5.4% in Shin's research and periapical lesion was 17.4%, 3rd molar impaction was 15.3% and retained root was 5.3% in An's research. Any kind of caries were not found in oral examination in the 66.7% of patients among patients with dental root caries in An's research. There were misdiagnose in oral examination(even side(59.5%),proximal side(59.5%), seconds caries(44.0%).

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Assessment of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool: review of the literature

  • Choi, Jin-Woo
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2011
  • Purpose : The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool. Materials and Methods : This report was carried out by review of the literatures. Results : Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography. Conclusion : Panoramic radiography will improve the efficacy of dental examination in national oral examination. However, more studies are required to evaluate the benefit, financial cost, and operation time and also to make selection criteria and quality management program.