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Shielding Effect of Radiation Protector for Interventional Procedure (중재적 방사선 분야 방호용구 차폐효과)

  • Ko, Shin-Kwan;Kang, Byung-Sam;Lim, Chung-Hwang
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.213-219
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate shielding effect of radiation protector for interventional radiologists in procedures by measuring inside and outside of radiation protector. In this study, we measured the radiation dose of 4 interventional radiologists during TACE and PTBD procedure for 4 month(2005.05-2005.09). Absorbed dose were measured by TLD placed underneath and over radiation protector such as Goggle, Thyroid protector, Apron and placed on the 4th finger of Hand. In addition, we measured background radiation dose in the control room using TLD. During TACE procedure, using 0.07 mmPb Goggle decreased average 53.8% of radiation dose rate in continuous fluoroscopic mode and decreased average 77.6% of radiation dose rate in pulse fluoroscopic mode. Using 0.5 mmPb Thyroid protector decreased average 88.9% of radiation dose rate in continuous fluoroscopic mode and decreased average 92.8% in pulse fluoroscopic mode. During PTBD procedure, using 0.07 mmPb Goggle decreased radiation dose rate average 62.7%, 87.9% by 0.5 mmPb Thyroid protector, 90.5% by 0.5 mmPb Apron. The average fluoroscopic time of PTBD was 6.14 min. shorter than TACE procedure, but radiation exposure dose rate of PTBD was 3 times higher in total body dose, and 40 times higher in hand dose rate than TACE. Interventional radiologists must wear thicker protector recommended over 0.5 mmPb. Also, they must use lead Goggle during interventional procedure. Abdomen dose decreased average 38.4% by drawing a lead curtain under the patient's table, therefore, they must draw a lead curtain to shield scattering ray. Radiation exposure dose decreased average 59.0% by using pulse fluoroscopic mode. So radiologists would better use pulse fluoroscopic mode than continuous fluoroscopic mode to decrease exposure dose.

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STUDY ON ENTRANCE SKIN DOSE AT PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY IN INCHEON, KOREA

  • Choi, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Chul;Han, Dong Kyoon
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2014
  • Recently, the use of panoramic radiography has shown a constant increase, and significant research is underway. However, radiation exposure attracts less attention in dental radiography than in other types of radiography. We used an OSLD for measurement of the entrance skin dose in eyeballs and the thyroid region, both of which are not covered by examinations but are included in radiographical regions and are sensitive to radiation, as well as orally in Incheon and reported the results. The entrance skin dose was 0.0282 mSv on average for the oral region, and 0.0259 mSv on average for the eyeball, and 0.0261mSv on average, for thyroid gland. While there is no proper shielding method for the eyeball, a thyroid protector is not used by most hospitals and most hospitals are equipped with an apron and a thyroid protector separately; thus, it is necessary to use an integration of an apron and a thyroid protector and medical device manufacturers need to develop a method for controlling the length of the slit in the slit-type area of radiation occurrence in order to reduce unnecessary exposure.

Radiation exposure to the eyes and thyroid during C-arm fluoroscopy-guided cervical epidural injections is far below the safety limit

  • Choi, Eun Joo;Go, Gwangcheol;Han, Woong Ki;Lee, Pyung-Bok
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2020
  • Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation exposure to the eye and thyroid in pain physicians during the fluoroscopy-guided cervical epidural block (CEB). Methods: Two pain physicians (a fellow and a professor) who regularly performed C-arm fluoroscopy-guided CEBs were included. Seven dosimeters were used to measure radiation exposure, five of which were placed on the physician (forehead, inside and outside of the thyroid protector, and inside and outside of the lead apron) and two were used as controls. Patient age, sex, height, and weight were noted, as were radiation exposure time, absorbed radiation dose, and distance from the X-ray field center to the physician. Results: One hundred CEB procedures using C-arm fluoroscopy were performed on comparable patients. Only the distance from the X-ray field center to the physician was significantly different between the two physicians (fellow: 37.5 ± 2.1 cm, professor: 41.2 ± 3.6 cm, P = 0.03). The use of lead-based protection effectively decreased the absorbed radiation dose by up to 35%. Conclusions: Although there was no difference in radiation exposure between the professor and the fellow, there was a difference in the distance from the X-ray field during the CEBs. Further, radiation exposure can be minimized if proper protection (thyroid protector, leaded apron, and eyewear) is used, even if the distance between the X-ray beam and the pain physician is small. Damage from frequent, low-dose radiation exposure is not yet fully understood. Therefore, safety measures, including lead-based protection, should always be enforced.

Radiation Protective Effect of the Thyroid Gland Using Bolus Protector in the Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography (치과 콘빔 전산화단층검사 시 보루스 차폐체를 이용한 갑상선의 방사선 차폐효과)

  • Lee, Tae Hui;Jeong, Seung Hun;Kim, Dong Woo;Park, Myeong Hwan;Kim, Tae-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.459-464
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    • 2019
  • In order to minimize the radiation exposure dose of the thyroid site at dental cone-beam computer tomography, a protector using a Bolus was prepared, and the radiation shielding effect and the appropriateness of the image were evaluated. Using a dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), a glass dosimeter was attached to the left and right sides of the thyroid for a dental radiation phantom, and the radiation dose was measured. The absorbed dose for each shield was measured by another method to 10 mm, 20 mm, and 30 mm-thickness, respectively. Eight evaluators evaluated whether or not the medical image is appropriate. When using a 30 mm Bolus shield at the left thyroid site, the resulting value is reduced by an average of $342.67{\mu}Gy$ by 20.7% from the average value of $431.22{\mu}Gy$ measured without using a Bolus shield, the right thyroid site In the case of using 30 mm Bolus shield, it showed a dose reduction effect of 21.9% with an average of $424.56{\mu}Gy$. The adequacy of the medical image was judged to be usable by both evaluators. In conclusion, the dental cone-beam computerized tomography can be used as a useful shielding material because it has a radiation shielding effect and it is possible to treat the diagnosis of the bolus protector in the thyroid without any obstruction shade in order to minimize the radiation dose.

Optimal Height of Shielding Plate of Radiation in Posteroanterior Chest Radiography for Pregnant Women on Korea (한국인 임산부의 흉부 후-전 방향 방사선검사 시 적절한 차폐막 높이)

  • Joo, Young-Cheol;Kim, Gyoo-Hyung
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for reducing unnecessary radiation dose to the abdomen and fetus of pregnant women by presenting proper height of shielding protector for efficient abdominal shielding in chest PA examination of Korean pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 288 persons who were eligible for this study among 798 pregnant women who had chest PA examination from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2016 Retrospective study was performed. Measurements was performed from the apex of the right and left lungs to costophrenic angle of the right and left lungs and to the lowest costophrenic angle among the right and left lungs at the top of the image(this line called Joo's line in this study). The mean of the right and left lung height of pregnant women were 259.09 mm and 263.57 mm, respectively. Also, the average height of the Joo's line designed by the researcher for proper abdominal radiation protection was 322.15 mm. For proper and efficient abdominal radiation protection for pregnant women, it is necessary to adjust the shielding according to the height of the pregnant woman. It is appropriate that the height of the shielding protector should be adjusted so that the upper part of the shield is located at 342.30 mm below from upper part of the detector.

A study on Protector Performance Evaluation According to X-ray Scattering Distribution of Portable Radiation System (이동형 방사선 발생장치 차폐물 설치에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyong-Gyun;Sung, Dong-Keon;Cho, Kyong-Mi;Kim, Sang-Beom;Kim, Jae-Young;Choi, Jun-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Digital Imaging in Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2009
  • This study, "The study about performance evaluations of mobile cover for X-ray's diffusion and distribution in mobile radiation" is based on the rules of mobile defense apparatus for radiation producer in 2006. To use the mobile cover for X-ray for diagnosis has been compulsory in common wards except operation rooms, emergency rooms and intensive care units. we have confirmed the effect in arbitrary shielding material after Qualitiy Control was carried out for accuracy in an experiment of mobile photographing equipment. The performance evaluation was conducted with the fabrics of selenium, 0.2 mmPb, 0.1 mmPb and aluminiums. Considering the result, we choosed 0.1 mmPb and attached cover to mobile photographing equipment. We have finished making the cover after drew up the draft to attach cover to mobile photographing equipment through the modeling and the structural analysis. the process of the study is that we assembled the manufactured structures and carried out the practical experiment to take the photograph after attaching the fabric of 0.1 mmPb to mobile photographing equipment. It is need of additional thesises hereafter that we compare the result between the part to improve for safety besides convenience in photographic experiment about clinical radiation and the effect of covering the diffusion in condition attached the cover.

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Research of Awareness for Medical Radiation Safety in Radiography (방사선검사 시 의료방사선 안전성에 대한 인식도 조사)

  • Kim, Gyoo-Hyung
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2018
  • Most patients and parents and guardians display frequent anxiety due to radiation exposure during outpatient, ward, and pediatric general radiographic examinations. This is a behavior that perceives only the harmfulness of radiation. For the recognition of medical radiation, we conduct surveys on outpatients, inpatients, and pediatric parents and guardians to identify their awareness, and then use the radiation dose promotional materials After providing accurate information on the use of radiation, the outpatient, inpatient, and pediatric parents and guardians were asked to explain the change in awareness. The questionnaire items were classified into five categories: repetitive radiation awareness for diagnosis, awareness of exposure dose, availability of exposure information, awareness of radiation risk, and awareness of health problems caused by radiation. There was a statistically significant difference in the items of recognition result of medical radiation, although there was a slight difference in the individual items in the pre and post-recognition results of providing information about the radiologists of the protector and the outpatient(p<0.05). Therefore, through the installation of these promotional materials, we will improve our awareness of medical radiation safety during general radiography surveillance in the Department of Radiology to provide better quality medical information and medical services, thereby contributing to strengthening the competitiveness of the hospital.

A Study on Radiation Exposure Dose of Operator During Interventional Radiology Procedure (방사선 중재적 시술 중 시술자의 피폭선량에 대한 연구)

  • Jeon, Mi-Eun;Lim, Cheong-Hwan;Jung, Hong-Ryang;You, In-Gyu;Hong, Dong-Hee;Kang, Byung-Sam
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.219-226
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    • 2012
  • Interventional radiologists are not aware of the potential injury from procedures. The purpose of this study are to evaluate radiation exposure of interventional radiologist from intervention procedures and to develop guideline of the simple methods for decreasing their radiation exposure from intervention procedure. In this study, Dosimeters were used to monitor operator doses of radiation exposure in a broad range of procedures from 20 interventional radiologist during the periods of 3 months. And, we searched protection methods of each interventional radiologist. During TACE procedure, there was using 0.5 mmPb radiation protector decreased average 89.5 % of radiation exposure. Thicker radiation protector provide decreasing radiation exposure. And radiation exposure dose decreased average 47.7 % by using pulse fluoroscopic mode. Therefore, interventional radiologist should wear protective aprons, use active shielding, monitor their doses, and know how to poisoning themselves during the procedure and operate correct of the machines for minimum dose.

Mechanism of Radioresistance Induced by Low-Dose Irradiation (저준위 방사선에 의해 유도된 방사선저항의 기전)

  • Park, Sang-Hee;Cho, Chul-Koo;Yoo, Seong-Yul;Lee, Yeon-Hee
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 1996
  • After high-dose irradiation(8 Gy). the viability of lymphocyte with a prior low-dose irradiation was 3.7-fold higher than that without a prior low-dose irradiation The viability could be increased by the reduction of oxygen radicals or the removal of damaged molecules-DNA, protein. lipid membrane. or the removal of damaged cells. In this paper. we studied the radioresistance mechanism in lymphocytes and lymphoma cells by examining the activities of radical scavengers(catalase. peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), and a radical protector(glutathione). Different enzymes were induced in lymphocyte and lymphoma with low-dose irradiation. The activity of peroxidase increased most(133.3%) in lymphoma while the enzymes increased most in lymphocyte were superoxide dismutase (138.5%), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (122.4%) and glutathione(120.8%). The activities of these enzymes were highest when the interval was 7 hours between low-dose and high-dose irradiation.

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The Effect of Scattering Dose on the Thyroid During Mammography (Mammography시 Thyroid에 미치는 산란선량에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Mi-Hwa;Dong, Kyung-Rae;Park, Seo-Joo;Whang, Sun-Kwang
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.826-830
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    • 2010
  • This study examined the effect of the scattering dose on the thyroid during a mammography examination. One hundred subjects for a mammography examination were enrolled in this study. The average glandular dose (AGD) and thyroid scattering dose (TSD) were measured. Statistical analysis was carried out using the percentage, t-test and co-variance. The mean radiation exposure to the breast and thyroid was $1.08{\pm}0.16$ and $0.14{\pm}0.04$ mGy, respectively. The percentage TSD to the AGD was 31.19%. There was no difference between the Rt. and Lt., and CC to MLO, and radiation dose to the TSD was 13.78% of the breast. Therefore, the volume of radiation exposure to the thyroid was 54.12% in a single routine mammography examination. These results suggest that the TSD was increased by increasing radiation dose to the breast. A thyroid protector is considered necessary to decrease the level of radiation exposure.