• Title, Summary, Keyword: radiation mutation

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Mutation Breeding of Mushroom by Radiation

  • Sathesh-Prabu, Chandran;Lee, Young-Keun
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.285-295
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    • 2011
  • Mushrooms belonging to macrofungi have been consumed by humans for their nutritional and medicinal values for centuries throughout the world. Mushroom farming is practiced in more than 100 countries of the world, with production increasing at a rate of 7% per annum. High yield and good quality are always the principal goals for agriculturally important crops, including mushrooms. Several breeding methods are employed for strain improvement such as mass selection based on the natural chance mutation and induced mutation (mutation breeding), protoplast fusion technology, cross breeding and transgenic breeding. However, mutation breeding has shown prominent success in crop plant improvement. Though several-hundred mutant crop varieties have been developed around the world, the mutation breeding of mushrooms is limited. This review paper explores the potential application of radiation on the development of mutant varieties of mushrooms for breeding with desired traits such as better quality and productivity.

Radiation-induced Tumorigenesis

  • Kim, In-Gyu;Lee, Yun-Sil
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.144-148
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    • 2003
  • During the past 2 decades, radiation tumorigenesis researchers have focused on cellular and molecular mechanisms. We reviewed some of these research fields, since they may specifically relate to the induction of cancer by ionizing radiation. First, radiation-mediated mutation was discussed. Then the initiating event in radiation carcinogenesis, as well as other genetic events that may by involved, is discussed in terms of the possible role of the activation of genes and the loss of cell-cycle checkpoints.

Effects of Natural Extracts on the Radiation-induced Pink Mutations in Tradescantia Stamen Hair Cells

  • Kim, Jin-Kyu;Kim, Yeon-Ku;Lee, Byoung-Hun;Lee, Young-Il;Shin, Hae-Shick
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.522-528
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    • 1999
  • The effect of a water-soluble extract from natural materials on radiation-induced mutations was studied by means of TSH assay in Tradescantia 4430 stamen hair cells. Inflorescence cuttings, with or without pretreatments of natural extracts for 3 hours, were exposed to 1 Gy of gamma ray. Comparisons were made on the basis of pooled data during the peak interval between the mean pink mutation frequencies of the experimental groups. Pretreatments of FB or FB-I resulted in about two-fold increases of the pink mutation frequencies, compared to those of the control group. Synergism between certain fractions and radiation was a possible cause of the increased DNA damage. FB and FB-I had a radiosensitizing effects on the pink mutations in Tradescantia 4430 stamen hair cells (p<0.001). On the other hand, the extract PP in a proper concentration significantly reduced the pink mutation frequencies (p<0.05). The result means that PP has a protective effect on the radiation-induced cell damage.

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Clonal plant as experimental organisms - DNA mutation rate evaluation in the radiation contaminated area of Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

  • KANEKO, Shingo
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.25-25
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    • 2018
  • The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 caused severe radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. Since the accident, much attention has been paid to the biological and genetic consequences of organism inhabiting the contaminated area. The effect of radiation exposure on genetic mutation rates is little known, especially for low doses and in situ conditions. Evaluating DNA mutation by low levels of radiation dose is difficult due to the rare mutation event and lack of sequence information before the accident. In this study, correlations with air dose levels and somatic DNA mutation rates were evaluated using Next Generation Sequencer for the clonal plant, Phyllostachys edulis. This bamboo is known to spread an identical clone throughout Japan, and it has the advantage that we can compare genetic mutation rate among identical clone growing different air dose levels. We collected 94 samples of P. edulis from 14 sites with air dose rates from $0.04{\sim}7.80{\mu}Gy/h$. Their clonal identity was confirmed by analysis using 24 microsatellite markers, and then, sequences among samples were compared by MIG sequence. The sequence data were obtained from 2,718 loci. About ~200,000 bp sequence (80 bp X 2,718 loci) were obtained for each sample, and this corresponds to about 0.01% of the genome sequence of P. edulis. In these sequences, 442 loci showed polymorphism patterns including recent origin mutation, old mutation, and sequence errors. The number of mutations per sample ranged from 0 to 13, and did not correlate with air dose levels. This result indicated that DNA mutations have not accumulated in P. edulis living in the air doses levels less than $10{\mu}Gy/h$. Our study also suggests that mutation rates can be assessed by selecting an appropriate experimental approach and analyzing with next generation sequencer.

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Strain Improvement Based on Ion Beam-Induced Mutagenesis (이온빔을 이용한 미생물의 균주 개량)

  • Jeong, Hae-Young;Kim, Kye-Ryung
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.235-243
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    • 2010
  • For decades, traditional mutation breeding technologies using spontaneous mutation, chemicals, or conventional radiation sources have contributed greatly to the improvement of crops and microorganisms of agricultural and industrial importance. However, new mutagens that can generate more diverse mutation spectra with minimal damage to the original organism are always in need. In this regard, ion beam irradiation, including proton-, helium-, and heavier-charged particle irradiation, is considered to be superior to traditional radiation mutagenesis. In particular, it has been suggested that ion beams predominantly produce strand breaks that often lead to mutations, which is not a situation frequently observed in mutagenesis induced by gamma-ray exposure. In this review, we briefly describe the general principles and history of particle accelerators, and then introduce their successful application in ion beam technology for the improvement of crops and microbes. In particular, a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator currently under construction by the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) is discussed. The PEFP accelerator will hopefully prompt the utilization of ion beam technology for strain improvement, as well as for use in nuclear physics, medical science, biology, space technology, radiation technology and basic sciences.

Effect of Gamma-ray on Survival and Mutation Rates of Rooted Cuttings and Unrooted Cuttings in Rose (감마선 처리에 의한 장미 삽수의 발근 여부에 따른 생존율과 돌연변이 발생빈도)

  • Kim, Se Won;Lee, Hyo Jeong;Kim, Ye-Sol;Jo, Yeong Deuk;Ryu, Jai Hyunk;Kang, Si-Yong;Kim, Sang Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to compare the survival and mutation rates and mutation spectrum by gamma-irradiation on rooted and unrooted cuttings of three spray type ('Lovelydia', 'Yellowbabe', and 'Haetsal') and two standard type ('Vital' and 'Aqua') cultivars in roses. Two groups, rooted and unrooted cuttings were gamma-irradiated at 70Gy for 24 hours. The irradiated rooted and unrooted cuttings were planted in a greenhouse, and survival, mutation rates and mutation spectrum were investigated 30 weeks after planting, respectively. As a result, survival and mutation rates of gamma-ray irradiated plants were 16.4%~50.8% and 0~5.1% for unrooted cuttings, and 39.4%~55.1% and 0.7%~7.4% for rooted cuttings, respectively. In conclusion, both survival and mutation rates were a little higher on rooted cuttings than on unrooted cuttings. However, when only survived plants after gamma-ray irradiation were considered, mutation rates were 0~10% and 1.8%~14.1% for unrooted cuttings and rooted cuttings, respectively, showing no significant difference. In addition, diverse variations on color and number of petals or shape of flowers were detected both in plants from rooted and unrooted cuttings, which indicated that there was no significant difference in mutation spectrum between two groups.

Radiosensitivity of the in vitro Cultured Young Plants for Sport Mutation Induction of Stevia rebaudiana Bert (스테비아(Stevia rebaudiana Bert)의 아조돌연변이유기를 위한 기내유식물체의 방사선감수성)

  • Yoon, Tai-Young;Kim, Ee-Youb;Hyun, Kyung-Sup;Jo, Han-Jig;Lee, Young-Il;Ju, Sun-Ah;Oh, Seung-Cheol;Kim, Dong Sub;Kang, Si-Yong;Ko, Jeong-Ae
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.297-306
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    • 2010
  • Due to the increasing incidence of diabetes, obesity and hypertensive, stevia has been placed great attentions as the sweetener to substitute sucrose in the world. Stevia was introduced to Korea in 1970's, but it has not been an attractive crop in that time. However, recently it has more attention for the natural food sweet additives. Because stevia have many problems for cultivation especially cultivar, seed germination, fertility, uniformity and glycoside quality, the sport mutation was attempted to in vitro plants for the improvement of some characteristics. The young in vitro plants was nursed on MS medium supplemented with $1mg\;l^{-1}\;GA_3$. Shoots of 10 cm height were irradiated with 0~200 Gy of gamma ray and the every node was separated and inoculated on MS basic medium. The lethality, number and length of shoot, numbers of node and branch were investigated for the evaluation of radiosensitivity. The optimum dose of gamma ray seemed to be around 80 Gy for the sport mutation induction in stevia. The lower node was more sensitive than higher node to radiation.

Effect of a 60Hz electromagnetic field on the frequency of bleomycin-induced HPRT gene mutation and 1,2,4-benzenetriol-induced sister chromatid exchanges in CHO cell

  • Chung, Hai-Won;Kang, Su-Jin;Lee, Young-Joon;Kim, Su-Young
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 2002
  • The interaction of low density extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) in the frequency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) mutation induced by bleomycin and on the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) induced by 1,2,4-benzenetriol(BT) was demonstrated. CHO cells pretreated with bleomycin or 1,2,4-benzenetriol were exposed for 24hrs to a sinusoidal 0.8mT magnetic field at 60Hz. Frequency of HPRT mutation and SCEs were determined. ELF MF exposure led to a two-fold increase of the frequency of HPRT mutation induced by bleomycin. No increase of mutation frequency was observed by ELF MF alone ELF MF also increased the frequency of SCEs induced by BT while no Increase of SCE frequencies were observed by ELF MF alone. These results suggest that low density ELF MF field would art as an enhancer rather than as an initiator of mutagenic effects in CHO cell.

Mutation Spectrum of Manganese (II) Peroxidase Gene in the Pleurotus ostreatus Mutants Induced by Gamma Radiation

  • Chang, Hwa-Hyoung;Lee, Young-Keun;Kim, Jae-Sung;Lee, Ki-Sung;Cho, Kyu-Seong
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2003
  • The mutational spectra in the manganese (II) peroxidase gene (mnp) of the Pleurotus ostreatus mutants induced by gamma radiation (Co$\^$60/) give evidence to prove the effect of gamma radiation on the gene. mnp of each mutant was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. Among the 1941 base pairs of the sequenced region of the mnP genes of 4 mutants (PO-5,-6,-15 and -16), nine mutational hotspots on which the same base was mutated simultaneously were found, additionally 6 mutations were also found at different positions in the mnp gene. These mutation-spectra were predominantly A:T\longrightarrowG:C transitions (50.1%). By the analysis of putative amino acid sequences, PO-5 and PO-16 mutants have 3 and 1 mutated residues, respectively. Since the mutational spectra reported herein are specific to the mnp gene, we propose that the mutational hotspots for the gamma radiation could be in the gene(5) within cells.