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An inquiry into dental personnel's Knowledge, attitude and behavior about the defense against dental radiation (치과 의료기관 종사자의 방사선 방어에 대한 지식, 태도 및 행위)

  • Kim, Sun-Ju
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.15-29
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among knowledge, attitude, and behavior of dental personnel about the defense against dental radiation according to general features, and help them recognize the importance of defense against dental radiation. A questionnaire survey of 187 dental personnel who were working in 121 medical institutions such as university hospitals, general hospitals, hospitals, clinics, and public health centers in Seoul area was conducted from December 2002 to January 2003. Study findings are as follows: 1. The average knowledge score for the defense of radiation was 9.51(full score=14): By the demographic features, the know level for the defense of radiation was appeared to be different with the occupational category, age, academic background, workplace, year of working, and whether having the education of radiation or not. By questionnaire items, the knowledge for the defense of radiation was high in general, but for the item. 'the average amount of being bombed with radiation according occupations cannot be over 20mSv in a year for prescribed 5 years'. it was 18.7%: and for the item. 'the longer the length between focus and film. the less the amount of skin exposure', it was 40.6%. showing less knowledge for these two items. 2. The average attitude score for the defense of radiation was 64.24 (full score=75): By the demographic features, the attitude score was higher with respondents who were 31-35 years old. 11-15 years of working. and having radiation education. The attitude score by questionnaire items was generally high for all the items. 3. The average behavior score for the defense of radiation was 45.43: (a) By the demographic features, the behavior score for the defense of radiation was appeared to be higher with respondents who were dentists for occupational category, the aged for age, holding higher diploma for academic background, working in the university hospitals for workplace, and having longer occupational career for the year of working. (b) The behavior score for the defense of radiation by questionnaire items was lower than that of the attitude score for all the items. For the item, 'the amount of X-ray radiation is adjusted according to such conditions as patients' age, radiating areas, and kind of films', the score was 4.03; and for the item, 'Must receive the education of safety management of radiation periodically', the score was 1.73 and it was the lowest one. 4. As for the correlation among the knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the defense of radiation, the higher the level of knowledge and attitude, the higher the level of behavior.

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Personnel Dosimetry Performance Test (개인방사선 피폭선량판독 성능시험)

  • Na, Seong-Ho;Han, Seung-Jae;Lee, Dew-Hey;Cho, Dae-Hyung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 1996
  • This paper describes the methods and results of the personnel dosimetry performance tests which were been implemented for the first time in Korea in 1995. Seven categories, except the neutron category prescribed in the ANSI N13.11-1993, were adopted in the test. Fifteen types of dosimeters were participated by fourteen dosimeter processing institutes. A total of 129 dosimeters were selected to test-each type - 15 dosimeters for each of the seven categories and 24 for the controls. A total of 144 radiation categories were employed in the test and a total of 2560 (including 400 controls)dosimeters were submitted-7 categories for each type of the fifteen types dosimeters and 39 categories for the retest. The performance index in each category. sum of the absolute value of the bias and the standard deviation value of the performance quotient. was estimated by the use of delivered and processed dose equivalents according to the standard procedure. The performance in a given category was assessed as acceptable, for the deep and shallow dose equivalents (or the absorbed dose), if the performance index was less than 0.5. The test results showed 54% of the processors passed in the first test, 33% in the retest and 13% in the second retest.

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Number of Mediastinal Lymph Nodes as a Prognostic Factor in PN2 Non Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Single Centre Experience and Review of the Literature

  • Takanen, Silvia;Bangrazi, Caterina;Graziano, Vanessa;Parisi, Alessandro;Resuli, Blerina;Simione, Luca;Caiazzo, Rossella;Raffetto, Nicola;Tombolini, Vincenzo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7559-7562
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    • 2014
  • Currently the most important prognostic factor in lung cancer is the stage. In the current lung TNM classification system, N category is defined exclusively by anatomic nodal location though, in other type of tumours, number of lymph nodes is confirmed to be a fundamental prognostic factor. Therefore we evaluated the number of mediastinal lymph nodes as a prognostic factor in locally advanced NSCLC after multimodality treatment, observing a significant effect of the number of lymph nodes in terms of OS (p<0.01) and DFS (p<0.001): patients with a low number of positive mediastinal nodes have a better prognosis.

Measurements and Assessments on Shielding Performance of FCTC10 60Co Transport Container

  • Zhuang, Dajie;Zhang, Guoqing;Li, Guoqiang;Wang, Renze
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.310-314
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    • 2016
  • Background: FCTC10 container is designed to transport $^{60}Co$ radioactive sources used in irradiation industry. It belongs to Type B(U) Category III (yellow) package when being loaded with a $^{60}Co$ source of $1.8{\times}10^5$ Ci. Materials and Methods: The container is constituted of shielding container, basket, protective cover and bracket. Shielding ability is provided mainly by stainless steel shells, tungsten alloy and lead among steel shells. Radiation level around the container has been calculated with both Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. Results and Discussion: It is proven that the shielding performance of the container fulfills the requirements in GB11806-2004 (Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, China Standard Press). Exposure doses to workers and to critical groups of public were calculated based on hypothetical exposure scene according to transport practice experience. Conclusion: The results show that doses to workers and public are less than the constraint dose considered in design, and the radiation level would be increased less than a factor of 2 under design basis accidents.

Initial Report for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation F1 Mail Survey

  • Milder, CM;Sakata, R;Sugiyama, H;Sadakane, A;Utada, M;Cordova, KA;Hida, A;Ohishi, W;Ozasa, K;Grant, EJ
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1313-1323
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    • 2016
  • To study the full health effects of parental radiation exposure on the children of the atomic bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation developed a cohort of 76,814 children born to atomic bomb survivors (F1 generation) to assess cancer incidence and mortality from common adult diseases. In analyzing radiation-associated health information, it is important to be able to adjust for sociodemographic and lifestyle variations that may affect health. In order to gain this and other background information on the F1 cohort and to determine willingness to participate in a related clinical study, the F1 Mail Survey Questionnaire was designed with questions corresponding to relevant health, sociodemographic, and lifestyle indicators. Between the years 2000 and 2006, the survey was sent to a subset of the F1 Mortality Cohort. A total of 16,183 surveys were completed and returned: 10,980 surveys from Hiroshima residents and 5,203 from Nagasaki residents. The response rate was 65.6%, varying somewhat across parental exposure category, city, gender, and year of birth. Differences in health and lifestyle were noted in several variables on comparison across city and gender. No major differences in health, lifestyle, sociodemographics, or disease were seen across parental exposure categories, though statistically significant tests for heterogeneity and linear trend revealed some possible changes with dose. The data described herein provide a foundation for studies in the future.

Development of new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology

  • Song, Si Yeol;Ahn, Seung Do;Chung, Weon Kuu;Shin, Kyung Hwan;Choi, Eun Kyung;Cho, Kwan Ho
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.142-148
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. Materials and Methods: The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Results: Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. Conclusion: The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology.

Ingestion Dose Evaluation of Korean Based on Dynamic Model in a Severe Accident

  • Kwon, Dahye;Hwang, Won-Tae;Jae, Moosung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 2018
  • Background: In terms of the Level 3 probabilistic safety assessment (Level 3 PSA), ingestion of food that had been exposed to radioactive materials is important to assess the intermediate- and long-term radiological dose. Because the ingestion dose is considerably dependent upon the agricultural and dietary characteristics of each country, the reliability of the assessment results may become diminished if the characteristics of a foreign country are considered. Thus, this study intends to evaluate and analyze the ingestion dose of Korean during a severe accident by completely considering the available agricultural and dietary characteristics in Korea. Materials and Methods: This study uses COMIDA2, which is a program based on dynamic food chain model. It sets the parameters that are appropriate to Korean characteristics so that we can evaluate the inherent ingestion dose of Korean. The results were analyzed by considering the accident date and food category with regard to the $^{137}Cs$. Results and Discussion: The dose and contribution of the food category depicted distinctive differences based on the accident date. Particularly, the ingestion dose during the first and second years depicted a considerable difference by the accident date. However, after the third year, the effect of foliar absorption was negligible and exhibited a similar tendency along with the order of root uptake rate based on the food category. Conclusion: In this study, the agricultural and dietary characteristics of Korea were analyzed and evaluated the ingestion dose of Korean during a severe accident using COMIDA2. By considering the inherent characteristics of Korean, it can be determined that the results of this study will significantly contribute to the reliability of the Level 3 PSA.

Review Study of Radioactive Waste Classification and Waste Acceptance Criteria for Disposal of VLLW from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (원자력시설 해체 시 극저준위방사성폐기물 처분을 위한 국내외 방사성폐기물 분류체계 및 인수기준에 대한 연구)

  • Song, Ji Young;Song, Gyo Hyeok;Park, Jin Ho;Ji, Seung Woo;Do, Tae Gwan;Kim, Kwang Pyo
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2018
  • Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for disposal of very low level waste (VLLW), which is generated in large quantities during decommissioning of nuclear facilities should be developed. For the WAC development, it is required to investigate current status to develop WAC for disposal of VLLW. The objective of the present study was to investigate radioactive waste classification and WAC for disposal of VLLW from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each country developed its own system for the classification of radioactive waste. Therefore, the classification system for radioactive waste in each country was analyzed to review its WAC of the radioactive waste, which is equivalent to the VLLW in the Korea waste classification system. The category of the VLLW in the waste classification systems of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Kingdom (UK) was similar to the category of the VLLW in the waste classification systems of Korea. For the United States(US), the category of Class A was similar to the VLLW in the Korea system. The IAEA provided the general guidance for the WAC based on the safety assessment of disposal system. The US and the UK developed the WAC based on national radioactive waste disposal policy and characteristics of disposal facilities and radioactive waste in addition to the IAEA general guidance. Therefore, the WAC for disposal of VLLW in Korea should be developed by considering the national radioactive waste disposal policy, characteristics of disposal facilities, and the IAEA guidance. This study results will contribute to establishment of national management system of radioactive waste.

Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for portal vein tumor thrombosis alone in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

  • Lee, Ju Hye;Kim, Dong Hyun;Ki, Yong Kan;Nam, Ji Ho;Heo, Jeong;Woo, Hyun Young;Kim, Dong Won;Kim, Won Taek
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.170-178
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data on 46 patients who received 3D-CRT for PVTT alone between June 2002 and December 2011. Response was evaluated following the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Prognostic factors and 1-year survival rates were compared between responders and non-responders. Results: Thirty-seven patients (80.4%) had category B Child-Pugh scores. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score was 2 in 20 patients. Thirty patients (65.2%) had main or bilateral PVTT. The median irradiation dose was 50 Gy (range, 35 to 60 Gy) and the daily median dose was 2 Gy (range, 2.0 to 2.5 Gy). PVTT response was classified as complete response in 3 patients (6.5%), partial response in 12 (26.1%), stable disease in 19 (41.3%), and progressive disease in 12 (26.1%). There were 2 cases of grade 3 toxicities during or 3 months after radiotherapy. Twelve patients in the responder group (15 patients) received at least 50 Gy irradiation, but about 84% of patients in the non-responder group received less than 50 Gy. The 1-year survival rate was 66.8% in responders and 27.4% in non-responders constituting a statistically significant difference (p = 0.008). Conclusion: Conformal radiotherapy for PVTT alone could be chosen as a palliative treatment modality in patients with unfavorable conditions (liver, patient, or tumor factors). However, more than 50 Gy of radiation may be required.

A Novel Prognostic Nomogram for Predicting Risks of Distant Failure in Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer Following Postoperative Adjuvant Radiotherapy

  • Lim, Yu Jin;Lee, Sea-Won;Choi, Noorie;Kwon, Jeanny;Eom, Keun-Yong;Kang, Eunyoung;Kim, Eun-Kyu;Kim, Jee Hyun;Kim, Yu Jung;Kim, Se Hyun;Park, So Yeon;Kim, In Ah
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.1140-1148
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    • 2018
  • Purpose This study aimed to identify predictors for distant metastatic behavior and build a related prognostic nomogram in breast cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 1,181 patients with non-metastatic breast cancer between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. To predict the probability of distant metastasis, a nomogram was constructed based on prognostic factors identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results The 7-year overall survival and 5-year post-progression survival of locoregional versus distant recurrence groups were 67.6% versus 39.1% (p=0.027) and 54.2% versus 33.5% (p=0.043), respectively. Patients who developed distant metastasis showed early and late mortality risk peaks within 3 and after 5 years of follow-up, respectively, but a broad and low risk increment was observed in other patients with locoregional relapse. In multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free interval, age (${\geq}45years$ vs. < 45 years), molecular subtypes (luminal A vs. luminal B, human epidermal growth receptor 2, and triple negative), T category (T1 vs. T2-3 and T4), and N category (N0 vs. N1 and N2-3) were independently associated (p < 0.05 for all). Regarding the significant factors, a well-validated nomogram was established (concordance index, 0.812). The risk score level of patients with initial brain failure was higher than those of non-brain sites (p=0.029). Conclusion The nomogram could be useful for predicting the individual probability of distant recurrence in breast cancer. In high-risk patients based on the risk scores, more aggressive systemic therapy and closer surveillance for metastatic failure should be considered.