• Title, Summary, Keyword: pyrolusite

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A Study on the Constituents of Pyrolusitum by XRD and XRF (XRD와 XRF를 이용한 무명이(無名異)의 구성 성분 연구)

  • Lee, Minwoo;Choi, Goya;Lee, Young-Jong
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the constituents of Pyrolusitum, which was used to eliminate static blood and inflammation, to establish the basis of clinical application. Methods: Qualitative analysis was performed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) using the sample as a powder, and the elemental content of granular sample was measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). 1 M hydrochloric acid and 5% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution were added to observe the changing shape, respectively. Results: Qualitative analysis by XRD revealed that the Pyrolusitum samples used in the study contained quarts and kaolinite. Quantitative analysis by XRF revealed that the manganese content in the samples used in the study was 6.16% on average, while iron was contained the highest amount of 22.99%. The minor constituents include 1.08% of titanium, 0.30% of barium, 0.18% of lead, 0.06% of zirconium, 0.05% of chromium, 0.04% of zinc, 0.03% of cadnium, 0.02% of nickel, 0.01% of arsenic, 0.01% of copper, 0.01% of rubidium, 0.01% of strontium, 0.00% of molybdenum, respectively. And cobalt, which is reported to be a constituent of Pyrolusitum, was not detected at all in the samples of the study. Pyrolusitum was dissolved in dark brown when it was put into 1 M hydrochlorid acid, and there was brown precipitate when sodium hydroxide solution was added to Pyrolusitum and stirred. Conclusions: It was found that manganese and iron were the major constituents of Pyrolusitum, and it could be identified by using concentrated hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution.

Mineralogy and Genesis of Manganese Ores in the Dongnam Mine, Korea (동남광산(東南鑛山)의 망간광석(鑛石)에 대(對)한 광물학적(鑛物學的) 및 성인적(成因的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Soo Jin;Chang, Se-Won
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.90-99
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    • 1989
  • Manganese deposits ar the Dongnam mine occur as vein in the Pungchon limestone of Ordovician age. Manganese ore veins consist of the hydrothermal manganese carbonate ores in the deeper part and the supergene manganese oxide ores in the shallow part. Manganese carbonate ores consist mainly of rhodochrosite, with minor amount of proxmangite, garnet, calcite, quartz, pyrite, galena and sphalerite. Manganese oxide ores consist of rancieite, buserite, birnessite, vernadite, todorokite, pydrolusite, nsutite, hydrohetaerosite and goethite. Manganese oxide minerals were formed in the following sequences; 1) rhodochrosite ${\rightarrow}$ vernadite ${\rightarrow}$ birnessite ${\rightarrow}$ nsutite ${\rightarrow}$ pyrolusite, 2) pyroxmangite ${\rightarrow}$ birnessite, 3) Buserite ${\rightarrow}$ ransieite. Todorokite, buserite and hydrohetaerolite were precipitated from solution in the later stage. The natural analogue of synthetic buserite has been discovered from the mine. It has been disclosed that buserite transforms to rancicite by dehydration, and that distinction between buserite and todorokite is possible by X-ray diffraction studies combined with dehydration experiment. Minerals identified from the mine have been characterized using various methods including polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, elecrton microscopy and dehydration experiment.

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Origin of Manganese Carbonates in the Janggun Mine, South Korea (장군광산산(將軍鑛山産) 망간광물의 성인(成因)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Kyu Han
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.109-122
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    • 1986
  • Mn-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of the Janggun mine are hosted in the Cambro-Ordovician Janggun limestone mostly along the contacts of the Jurassic Chunyang granite. The deposits are represented by several ore pipes and steeply dipping lenticular bodies consisting of lower Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide ores and upper manganese carbonate and oxide ores. The former consists mainly of arsenic, antimony, silver, manganese, and tin-bearing sulfides, whereas the latter are characterized by hypogene rhodochrosite, and superficial manganese oxides including todorokite, nsutite, pyrolusite, cryptomelane, birnesite and janggunite. Origin of the upper manganese ore deposits has been a controversial subject among geologists for this mine: hydrothermal metasomatic vs. syngenetic sedimentary origin. Syngenetic advocators have proposed a new sedimentary rock, rhodochrostone, which is composed mainly of rhodochrosite in mineralogy. In the present study, carbon, oxygen and sulfur isotopic compositions were analayzed obtaining results as follows: Rhodochrosite minerals, (Mn, Ca, Mg, Fe) $CO_3$, from hydrothermal veins, massive sulfide ores and replacement ores in dolomitic limestone range in isotopic value from -4.2 to -6.3‰ in ${\delta}^{13}C$(PDB) and +7.6 to +12.9‰ in ${\delta}^{18}O$(SMOW) with a mean value of -5.3‰ in ${\delta}^{13}C$ and +10.7‰ in ${\delta}^{18}O$. The rhodochrosite bearing limestone and dolomitic limestone show average isotopic values of -1.5‰ in ${\delta}^{13}C$ and +17.5‰ in ${\delta}^{18}O$, which differ from those of the rhodochrosite mentioned above. This implies that the carbon and oxygen in ore fluids and host limestone were not derived from an identical source. ${\delta}^{34}S$ values of sulfide minerals exhibit a narrow range, +2.0 to +5.0‰ and isotopic temperature appeared to be about $288{\sim}343^{\circ}C$. Calculated initial isotopic values of rhodochrosite minerals, ${\delta}^{18}O_{H_2O}=+6.6$ to +10.6‰ and ${\delta}^{13}C_{CO_2}=-4.0$ to -5.1 ‰, strongly suggest that carbonate waters should be deep seated in origin. Isotopic data of manganese oxide ores derived from hypogene rhodochrosites suggest that the oxygen of the limestone host rock rather than those of meteoric waters contribute to form manganese oxide ores above the water table.

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A Comparative Study on the Removals of 1-Naphthol by Natural Manganese Oxides and Birnessite (천연망간산화물과 버네사이트에 의한 1-Naphthol의 제거 특성 비교)

  • Lee, Doo-Hee;Harn, Yoon-I;Kang, Ki-Hoon;Shin, Hyun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.278-286
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    • 2009
  • In this study, four natural Mn oxides ($NMO_1-NMO_4$) was characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and their removal efficiency for 1-naphthol (1-NP) in aqueous phase, using batch reactor, was investigated. The results were compared with one another and a synthetic manganese oxide, birnessite. The NMOs have a various Mn minerals including pyrolusite (${\beta}-MnO_2$), cryptomeltane (${\alpha}-MnO_2$) as well as birnessite (${\delta}-MnO_2$) depending on their sources, which results in different removal efficiencies (removals, kinetics) and reaction types (sorption or oxidative-transformation). The comparative study showed that $NMO_1$ (electrolytic Mn oxide) have a higher removal efficiency for 1-NP via oxidative-transformation compared to birnessite. The 1-NP removals by NMOs were followed by pseudo-first order reaction, and the surface area-normalized specific rate constants ($K_{surf},\;L/m^2$ min) determined were in order of $NMO_1(3.31{\times}10^{-3})$>${\delta}-MnO_2(1.48{\times}10^{-3}){\fallingdotseq}NMO_3(1.46{\times}10^{-3})$>$NMO_2(0.83{\times}10^{-3})$>$NMO_4(0.67{\times}10^{-3})$. From the solvent extraction experiments with the Mn oxide precipitates after reaction, it was observed that the oxidative-transformation rates of 1-NP were in order of $NMO_1{\fallingdotseq}{\delta}-MnO_2$>$NMO_3$>$NMO_4{\gg}NMO_2$ and the analysis of HPLC chromatogram and UV-Vis. absorption ratios ($A_{2/4}$, $A_{2/6}$) on the supernatant confirmed that the reaction products were oligomers formed by oxidative-coupling reaction. Results from this study proved that natural Mn oxide (except $NMO_2$) used in this experiment can be effectively applied for the removal of naphthols in aqueous phase, and the removal efficiencies are depending on the surface characters of the Mn oxides.