• Title, Summary, Keyword: protein oxidation

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A Vinegar-processed Ginseng Radix (Ginsam) Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in C57BL/KsJ db/db Mice

  • Han, Eun-Jung;Park, Keum-Ju;Ko, Sung-Kwon;Chung, Sung-Hyun
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1228-1234
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    • 2008
  • Having idea to develop more effective anti-diabetic agent from ginseng root, we comprehensively assessed the anti-diabetic activity and mechanisms of ginsam in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice. The db/db mice were divided into 4 groups; diabetic control (DC), ginsam at a dose of 300 or 500 mg/kg (GS300 or GS500) and metformin at a dose of 300 mg/kg (MT300). Ginsam was orally administered for 8 weeks. GS500 reduced the blood glucose concentration and significantly decreased an insulin resistance index. In addition, GS500 reduced the plasma non-esterified fatty acid, triglyceride, and increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol as well as decreased the hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride. More interestingly, ginsam increased the plasma adiponectin level by 17% compared to diabetic control group. Microarray, quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme activity results showed that gene and protein expressions associated with glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation were changed to the way of reducing hepatic glucose production, insulin resistance and enhancing fatty acid $\beta$-oxidation. Ginsam also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and glucose transporter expressions in the liver and skeletal muscle, respectively. These changes in gene expression were considered to be the mechanism by which the ginsam exerted the anti-diabetic and anti-dyslipidemic activities in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice.

Biological Inspiration toward Artificial Photostystem

  • Park, Jimin;Lee, Jung-Ho;Park, Yong-Sun;Jin, Kyoungsuk;Nam, Ki Tae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.91-91
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    • 2013
  • Imagine a world where we could biomanufacture hybrid nanomaterials having atomic-scale resolution over functionality and architecture. Toward this vision, a fundamental challenge in materials science is how to design and synthesize protein-like material that can be fully self-assembled and exhibit information-specific process. In an ongoing effort to extend the fundamental understanding of protein structure to non-natural systems, we have designed a class of short peptides to fold like proteins and assemble into defined nanostructures. In this talk, I will talk about new strategies to drive the self-assembled structures designing sequence of peptide. I will also discuss about the specific interaction between proteins and inorganics that can be used for the development of new hybrid solar energy devices. Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen is one of the promising pathways for solar to energy convertsion and storage system. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has been regarded as a major bottleneck in the overall water splitting process due to the slow transfer rate of four electrons and the high activation energy barrier for O-O bond formation. In nature, there is a water oxidation complex (WOC) in photosystem II (PSII) comprised of the earthabundant elements Mn and Ca. The WOC in photosystem II, in the form of a cubical CaMn4O5 cluster, efficiently catalyzes water oxidation under neutral conditions with extremely low overpotential (~160 mV) and a high TOF number. The cluster is stabilized by a surrounding redox-active peptide ligand, and undergo successive changes in oxidation state by PCET (proton-coupled electron transfer) reaction with the peptide ligand. It is fundamental challenge to achieve a level of structural complexity and functionality that rivals that seen in the cubane Mn4CaO5 cluster and surrounding peptide in nature. In this presentation, I will present a new strategy to mimic the natural photosystem. The approach is based on the atomically defined assembly based on the short redox-active peptide sequences. Additionally, I will show a newly identified manganese based compound that is very close to manganese clusters in photosystem II.

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Thiosulfate Oxidation and Mixotrophic Growth of Methylobacterium goesingense and Methylobacterium fujisawaense

  • Anandham, R.;Indiragandhi, P.;Madhaiyan, M.;Chung, Jong-Bae;Ryu, Kyoung-Yul;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2009
  • The mixotrophic growth with methanol plus thiosulfate was examined in nutrient-limited mixotrophic condition for Methylobacterium goesingense CBMB5 and Methylobacterium fujisawaense CBMB37. Thiosulfate oxidation increased the growth and protein yield in mixotrophic medium that contained 150mM methanol and 20mM sodium thiosulfate, at 144 h. Respirometric study revealed that thiosulfate was the most preferable reduced inorganic sulfur source, followed by sulfite and sulfur. M. goesingense CBMB5 and M. fujisawaense CBMB37 oxidized thiosulfate directly to sulfate, and intermediate products of thiosulfate oxidation such as polythionates, sulfite, and sulfur were not detected in spent medium and they did not yield positive amplification for tested soxB primers. Enzymes of thiosulfate oxidation such as rhodanese and sulfite oxidase activities were detected in cell-free extracts of M. goesingense CBMB5, and M. fujisawaense CBMB37, and thiosulfate oxidase (tetrathionate synthase) activity was not observed. It indicated that both the organisms use the "non-S4 intermediate" sulfur oxidation pathway for thiosulfate oxidation. It is concluded from this study that M. goesingense CBMB5, and M. fujisawaense CBMB37 exhibited mixotrophic metabolism in medium containing methanol plus thiosulfate and that thiosulfate oxidation and the presence of a "Paracoccus sulfur oxidation" (PSO) pathway in methylotrophic bacteria are species dependant.

Functional Analysis of Protein Chip Plate Using Silane Carboxylate Surface (실란 카르복실 표면을 사용한 단백질 칩 기판의 기능 분석)

  • 김지현;송예신;윤미영;피재호
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.215-219
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    • 2004
  • We fabricated protein chip plates coated with silane carboxylate. The silane compound was immobilized by hydrogen bond and/or other chemical bonds on the surface of the plate. The plates were then prepared by binding $Ni^{2+}$ to surfaces terminated with silane carboxylate groups. The carboxylic acid surface was generated by chemical oxidation of the terminal double-bond functions of the silane-deposited layer. The $Ni^{2+}$ ions on the surface reacted readily to His-tagged proteins. A significant increase in His-tagged protein adsorption was achieved on the surface terminated with silane carboxylate with longer alkyl chain, suggesting better availability of these protein chip plates for proteomic studies.

Antioxidative effects of Houttuynia cordata root on non-lipid oxidative damage (비 지질 산화손상에 대한 어성초 뿌리의 항산화 효과)

  • Hah, Dae-Sik;Kim, Chung-Hui;Kim, Euikyung;Kang, Chung-boo;Kim, Jong-shu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2007
  • Houttuynia cordata root on non-lipid oxidative damage. The antioxidative efects of methanolic (MeOH) extract of Houttuynia cordata rooton non-lipid, including liposome oxidation, oxidation of deoxyribose, protein oxidation, chelating, scavenging,and 2'-deoxyguanosine (2'dG) oxidation were investigated. Houttuynia cordata root exhibited highantioxidative effect in a liposome model system. The inhibitory effect of MeOH extract on deoxyribosedamage exhibited antioxidative effect and it afforded considerable protection against damage to deoxyribose.In addition, MeOH extract at over 300extracts exhibited metal binding ability for hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, the oxidation of 2'dG to 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine was inhibited by MeOH extracts, and scavenging activity for hydroxyl radicalexhibited a remarkable effect. The present results on biological model systems showed that MeOH extractswas effective in the protection of non-lipids against various oxidative model systems.

Formation of Active Oxygen in Meat Emulsion System (냉장저장중 고기모형유화물에서 활성산소의 생성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Hyung-Il;Chung, Myung-Sup;Lee, Moo-Ha;Lee, Sung-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2001
  • Emulsion products with water soluble protein were exposed under light at $5^{\circ}C$ for 8 days. Peroxide value (POV) was increased significantly at the bigining of storage and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value also increased until 4 days of storage with increase of the production of carbonyl compounds, suggesting that the condition was reacted different from that of the lipid autoxidation. The reaction was similar to the flavor reversion that usually produced from the bigining of soybean oil oxidation. The reason might be the meat pigment, myoglobin, oxidation and it would be due to the singlet oxygen rather than superoxide anion. When the light was excluded general pattern was similar but the production of oxidation products were smaller than that when the sample was exposed under light. The effect of the singlet oxygen was also smaller which meant that the singlet oxygen produced during emulsion process may affect on the flavor reversion at the bigining of storage. The POV of the emulsion without water soluble protein increase gradually by storage and the results indicated that the degradation rate of the peroxides were lower than the sample with water soluble protein. Especially after 4 days of storage, production of carbonyl compounds were decreased. During storage it would be possible to produce the singlet oxygen and the sensitizer from the plants that can be produced during decoloration of soybean oil may be responsible for it. When the light was excluded the production of oxidation products were reduced at the begining of storage and the effect of quencher also was not detected. Therefore the results indicated that the light can accelerate the lipid oxidation.

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Effects of Korean Wheat on LDL Oxidation and Atherosclerosis in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits (고콜레스테롤혈증 유발 가토를 이용한 우리밀의 LDL산화 및 동맥경화 예방 효과)

  • Choe, Myeon;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.104-108
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    • 2002
  • Numerous studies have suggested the involvement of oxidative processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and especially of oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL). We studied the effect of Korean wheat on the oxidizability of LDL and the development of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits on cholesterol diet. For the approach of the aim, antioxidative activity of wheat extracts against oxidation of LDL was investigated. The antiatherogenic effect of wheat was studied against Newzealand whithe (NZW) rabbits fed containing the wheat powder for 12 weeks. PBS extracts of Korean and imported wheats decreased LDL oxidation induced by copper ion by 62.3%, 52.6% respectively in comparison with control. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS ) levels of rabbits were significantly lowered in Korean wheat fed group (0.397$\pm$ 0.029 nmol MDA/mg protein, p<0.05) compared to control (0.496$\pm$0.021 nmol MDA/mg protein) and imported wheat group (0.478$\pm$0.019 nmol MDA/mg protein). TBARS levels of kidney showed no significant difference among treatment groups. The aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits showed typical atherosclerotic lesions when compared with the controls, but the microscopic differences between groups was not clear. The present study suggests that Korean wheat may have higher antioxidative capacity than imported wheat and have more beneficial effects for the treatment of disease by inhibiting the oxidation of LDL.

The Effect of GagamSohabhwang-won(Jiajiansuhexiang-yuan) Essential Oil on Cell Activity and Anti Oxidation (가감소합향원(加減蘇合香元) 향기액이 세포활성에 미치는 영향과 항산화효과에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yeo-Guk;Kim, Geun-Woo;Koo, Byung-Soo
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The glial cell, located in between the blood vessel and nerve cell, takes charge of the cell support, nutrition supply, elimination of body waste, and cell action. GagamSohabhwangwon(GGSH), a chinese traditional medicinal prescription has been used orally for the treatment of seizures, infantile, convulsion, stroke and so forth. This paper examines the effect of the GagamSohabhwangwon(GGSH) essential oil on cell activity and anti oxidation. Methods : MTT assay methods were employed to measure the cell activity based on the amount of the GagamSohabhwangwon(GGSH) essential oil by using primarily cultivated glial cell. In addition, this paper measured a viability of the glial cell after a protein active retarder control to confirm the multiplication of the cell and examined the cell extinction by the active oxygen, an extinction shielding effect with different amount of the GagamSohabhwangwon(GGSH) essential oil to observe anti oxidation. Furthermore, this paper measured a viability of the cell and phosphorylation(phosphorylation) of the protein which affects the multiplication of the glial cell. Results : When controlling the amount of the GagamSohabhwangwon(GGSH), there was a multiplication effect of the primary glial cell, the multiplication of the cell was dependent on the density of the GagamSohabhwangwon. The multiplication power of the primary glial cell was suppressed by PKA inhibiter (H89). In compliance with the active oxygen the extinction of the primary glial cell was dependent on the density of the GagamSohabhwangwon, there was a shielding effect of the cell extinction when GagamSohabhwangwon(GGSH) was preprocessed. When inducing the multiplication of the primary glial cell, phosphorylation of the Akt, BDNF, CREB, ERK and ERM were increased. Conclusions: Based on the results, GagamSohabhwangwon essential oil will have the effect which activates the nervous system cell and protects the cell through anti oxidation.

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Effects of Butanol extract from Rhois Vernicifluae Cortex (RVC) in lipopolysaccharides-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cells (칠피(漆皮) 부탄올 분획물이 LPS로 유도된 RAW 264.7 대식세포에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Saeng-Yeop;Sim, Sung-Yong;Kim, Kyung-Jun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : RVC has long been used for a useful natural agent ameliorating inflammation related symptoms in the folk medicine recipe. This study was performed to investigate effects of RVC on the inflammation and oxidation in RAW 264.7 cells. Methods : The RVC was extracted with 80% ethanol and sequentially partitioned with solvents in order to increase polarity. With the various fractions, we determined the activities on the inflammation and oxidation in RAW 264.7 cells. Results : 1. Among the various solvent extracts of RVC, the butanol fraction showed the most powerful inhibitory ability against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells without affecting cell viability. 2. Butanol fraction showed a oxidation inhibition effect by decreasing the DPPH and OH radicals. 3. Butanol fraction exhibited the inhibitory avilities against iNOS and COX-2. 4. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Westem blotting analysis revealed that the BuOH fraction provided a primary inhibitor of the iNOS protein and mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Among the up-regulater molecules of iNOS and COX-2, the BuOh fraction of RVC was shown the inhibitory activity of phoshporylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and threonine protein kinase (AKT), the one of the MAPKs pathway. Conclusion : Thus, the present study suggests that the response of a component of the BuOH fraction to NO generation via iNOS expression provide a important clue to elucidate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation mechanism of RVC.

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Characterization of Pseudomonas sp. MN5 and Purification of Manganese Oxidizing Protein (Pseudomonas sp. MN5의 특성과 망간산화단백질 정제)

  • Lee, Seung-Hui;Park, Kyeong-Ryang
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2008
  • Bacterial colonies which were able to oxidize the manganese were isolated from six soil samples in Byungchon area. Among them, one bacterial strain was selected for this study based on its high manganese oxidation activity. This selected bacterial strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. MN5 through physiological-biochemical test and analysis of its 16s rRNA sequence. This selected bacterial strain was able to utilize fructose and maltose, but they doesn't utilizing various carbohydrates as a sole carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. MN5 showed a very sensitive to antibiotics such as kanamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and tetracycline, but a high resistance up to mg/ml unit to heavy metals such as lithium, manganese and barium. Optimal manganese oxidation condition of Pseudomonas sp. MN5 was pH 7.5 and manganese oxidation activity was inhibited by proteinase K and boiling treatment. The manganese oxidizing protein produced by Pseudomonas sp. MN5 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, HiTrap Q FF anion exchange chromatography and G3000sw $_{XL}$ gel filtration chromatography. By sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, three manganese oxidizing protein with estimated molecular weights of 15 kDa, 46.7 kDa and 63.5 kDa were detected. Also, it was estimated that manganese oxidizing protein produced by Pseudomonas sp. MN5 were a kind of porin proteins through internal sequence and N-terminal sequence analysis.