• Title, Summary, Keyword: protein oxidation

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Effect of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Reduction of Freeze-Dried Bovine Liver (초임계 이산화탄소 처리가 동결 건조된 소간의 이화학적 특성 및 미생물 저감화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hye-Min;Woo, Sung-Woon;Kim, Ah-Na;Heo, Ho-Jin;Chun, Ji-Yeon;Choi, Sung-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.12
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    • pp.1847-1855
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    • 2015
  • Supercritical carbon dioxide ($SC-CO_2$) treatment has been becoming an important method for substituting the use of organic solvents for samples extraction prior to analysis due to its low toxicity, ease of handling, low cost of disposal etc. Freeze-dried bovine liver was treated with $SC-CO_2$ under different pressures (200, 300, and 450 bar) in order to investigate effects on physicochemical properties and reduction of microbial load. The yield of lipid extraction from bovine liver by $SC-CO_2$ treatment increased with increasing pressure, with values of 84, 86, and 90% in response to 200, 300, and 450 bar, respectively. Results of high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that vitamin A and coenzyme $Q_{10}$ ($CoQ_{10}$), which is soluble in lipid, were almost removed from bovine liver by $SC-CO_2$ treatment. Saturated fatty acids ratio of bovine liver decreased with increasing pressure, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with increasing pressure. Total content of amino acids in bovine liver treated by $SC-CO_2$ was less than that of the control sample without treatment. The number of aerobic bacteria in bovine liver, which was stored at $5^{\circ}C$ for 5 days and freeze-dried, decreased from 6.2 to 4.2 log CFU/g by $SC-CO_2$ treatment at 100 bar for 3 h. Interestingly, coliform bacteria were not found in the bovine liver sample by $SC-CO_2$ at 100 bar for 3 h under all storage conditions. This indicates that $SC-CO_2$ treatment can effectively reduce coliform bacteria in the food matrix even at low moisture. In conclusion, freeze-dried bovine liver by proper $SC-CO_2$ treatment may be used as a potential high protein source, with increasing microbial safety and stability of lipid oxidation.

A Study on the Activity of Anti-Aging by Second Fermented Snail Extract with Hericium erinaceum Mycelium (노루궁뎅이버섯 균사체를 이용한 2 차 발효달팽이 추출물의 항노화 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Zhoh, Choon-Koo;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.143-154
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    • 2016
  • This study is related to develop a snail extract through a snail secondary fermentation process, getting anti-aging activity with healthy and beauty skin care scientific applications. In order to obtain a primary fermentation was incubated with Hericium erinaceus mycelium. Through the secondary fermentation process using Leuconostoc mesenteroides, was deeply described a total process of obtaining second fermented extract using snail body. Mycelium is applied in this study was extracted using Hericium erinaceus mycelium and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The final yield of the extract was 62 wt%. Experimental results of secondary fermentation snail extract were contained with 32 wt% water, 31.5 wt% total amino acid protein, 15.7 wt% polysaccharide, 12.3 wt% fatty acid and others 8.5 wt%. In addition, in order to study about skin beauty care and anti-aging activity, we evaluated antioxidant activity with DPPH, elastin enzyme (elastase) inhibitory activity, tyrosinase inhibition rate, collagen synthetic function, fibroblast synthetic activity. First; anti-oxidative activity of secondary fermentation snail extract (IC50%) was spent with 7.27 mg/mL, control samples were spent with green tea extract was 11.8 mg/mL, common snails extract was 15.7 mg/mL, DL-a-tocopherol was 9.25 mg/mL respectively. Second; elastin enzyme inhibitory activity of secondary fermentation snail extract (IC50%) was spent with 32.5 mg/mL, control samples were also spent with green tea extract was 45.9 mg/mL, general snail extract was 67.7 mg/mL. Third; tyrosinase inhibitory activity of secondary fermentation snail extract (IC50%) was spent with 140.3 mg/mL, control samples were also spent with green tea extract was 250.7 mg/mL, general snails extract was 389.5 mg/mL, niacineamide was 125.9 mg/mL. Forth; fibroblast synthetic activity of secondary fermentation snail extract was increased with 125.6%, control samples were also spent with green tea extract was 98.9%, general snails extract was 109.5%, niacineamide was 125.9 mg/mL, DL-a-tocopherol was 96.2%. Fifth; collagen synthetic activity of secondary fermentation snail extract was increased with 118%, control samples were also spent with green tea extract was 87.3%, general snails extract was 93.2%, adenosine was 127.9%. In conclusion, on the basis of this study, in the future it is expected to be applied to the skin beauty care application and development of Korean style cosmetic products.

Protective effects of Gastrodia rhizoma and steamed & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma with anti-oxidant efficacy and suppression of NFκB signaling pathway on LPS-induced liver injury (LPS로 유발한 간손상 마우스에서 항산화 및 항염증 효능을 통한 천마와 증숙 발효 천마의 간보호 효과)

  • Kim, Hyoung-Jin;Kwon, O Jun;Lee, Ah Reum;Roh, Seong-Soo;Seo, Young-Bae
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2016
  • This study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Gastrodiae rhizoma and steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury in the mice model. Sample was selected to GR0F0 (not processed gastrodia rhizome) and GR6F4 (fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae before steamed and dried 6 times) based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and High-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups - Normal group, vehicle group (LPS treated), GR0F0 group (fed GR0F0 before LPS treated) and GR6F4 group (fed GR6F4 before LPS treated) with 6 mice in each group. GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group were fed each extract 200 mg/kg/day during 8 days. LPS 20 mg/kg injected to the experimental groups as abdominal injection. We measured aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amino-transferase in serum. GR0F0 and GR6F4 showed a significant decrease compared to the vehicle group. As a result of measuring the ROS, GR6F4 group showed a significant reduction in both the serum and liver tissues compared to the vehicle group. GR0F0 group showed a significant reduction only in the liver tissues. Activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and Inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly decreased GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group. But tumor necrosis factor alpha only showed a significant reduction in GR6F4 group. GR0F0 and GR6F4 groups against liver damage in mice with LPS. That showed significant effects on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory action. The effects of GR6F4 group showed superior results compared to GR0F0 group. Therefore, Steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodia rhizoma was might have a protective effect on liver injury.

Anti-Lipogenic Effect of Functional Cereal Samples on High Sucrose Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice (고당식이로 유도된 비알코올성 지방간 마우스에서 기능성 잡곡의 지질 대사 개선 효과)

  • Lee, Ko-Eun;Song, Jia-Le;Jeong, Byung-Jin;Jeong, Jong-Sung;Huh, Tae-Gon;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.789-796
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    • 2016
  • The anti-lipogenic effect of cereal samples on high sucrose diet (HSD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice was studied. We divided C57BL/6 mice into various groups based on 8 weeks of treatment with three types of cereal samples (HSD+WR, HSD diet containing 40% white rice; HSD+MCG, HSD diet containing 40% mixed cereal grain; HSD+AO-MCG, HSD diet containing 40% mixed antiobesity-cereal grain). After the experimental period, body weight changes, liver weights, serum lipid profiles, and hepatic fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression levels were determined. We found that HSD+WR, HSD+MCG, and HSD+AO-MCG treatments reduced body weight and liver weight, especially HSD+MCG and HSD+AO-MCG effectively reduced levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, expression of hepatic lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1, cluster of differentiation, and $PPAR-{\gamma}$ (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ${\gamma}$) decreased, whereas expression of ${\beta}-oxidation$ genes such as $PPAR-{\alpha}$ and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 increased following HSD+MCG and HSD+AO-MCG treatment compared with levels in HSD+WR and control groups. These results suggest that the functional cereal samples, especially HSD+AO-MCG treatment, improved hepatic steatosis triggered by an HSD-induced imbalance in hepatic lipid metabolism.

Feeding Effect of Whole Crop Rice based TMR on Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (사료용 벼 위주 TMR 급여가 거세 한우의 육질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong Geun;Jo, Cheroun;Zhao, Guo Qiang;Liu, Chang;Nan, Wei Sheng;Kim, Hak Jin;Ahn, Eok Geun;Min, Hyung-Gyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.264-271
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of whole crop rice based TMR on the meat quality of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo). Sixteen Hanwoo steers (average 8 months old) were divided into the control group (commercially marketed TMR) and the WCR-TMR group (whole crop rice based TMR). Feeding trials were carried out up to 30 months of age, and after slaughter, the strip loin were collected and analyzed for meat quality. There were no significant differences in proximate compositions of Hanwoo (P>0.05), and crude protein, crude fat and crude ash were 19.51~20.23 %, 11.53~11.35 % and 1.10~1.12 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in water holding capacity and cooking loss between treatments (P>0.05), but it was slightly lower in the control group. Among the various functional components in meat, β-carotene was not detected, but α-tocopherol was significantly higher in WCR-TMR group and vitamin A content in control (P<0.05). The a⁎-value in the meat color index decreased significantly with longer storage period in the control group, whereas the WCR-TMR fed group showed no significant difference (P>0.05) according to the storage period. There were no difference between the treatments in the TBARS (2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) value used as an indicator of lipid oxidation and in fatty acid content. But the control group had high myristic acid content, whereas the WCR-TMR supplemented group showed higher oleic acid and linoleic acid content. In conclusion, feeding of WCR based-TMR increased the α-tocopherol content, which is a functional ingredient in meat, and the other components were not significantly different from the control. Therefore, it was judged that there was no significant difference between WCR based and conventional TMR in meat quality characteristics.

Evolutionary Explanation for Beauveria bassiana Being a Potent Biological Control Agent Against Agricultural Pests

  • Han, Jae-Gu
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.27-28
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    • 2014
  • Beauveria bassiana (Cordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) is an anamorphic fungus having a potential to be used as a biological control agent because it parasitizes a wide range of arthropod hosts including termites, aphids, beetles and many other insects. A number of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs) have been isolated from B. bassiana and functionally verified. Among them, beauvericin and bassianolide are cyclic depsipeptides with antibiotic and insecticidal effects belonging to the enniatin family. Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) play a crucial role in the synthesis of these secondary metabolites. NRPSs are modularly organized multienzyme complexes in which each module is responsible for the elongation of proteinogenic and non-protein amino acids, as well as carboxyl and hydroxyacids. A minimum of three domains are necessary for one NRPS elongation module: an adenylation (A) domain for substrate recognition and activation; a tholation (T) domain that tethers the growing peptide chain and the incoming aminoacyl unit; and a condensation (C) domain to catalyze peptide bond formation. Some of the optional domains include epimerization (E), heterocyclization (Cy) and oxidation (Ox) domains, which may modify the enzyme-bound precursors or intermediates. In the present study, we analyzed genomes of B. bassiana and its allied species in Hypocreales to verify the distribution of NRPS-encoding genes involving biosynthesis of beauvericin and bassianolide, and to unveil the evolutionary processes of the gene clusters. Initially, we retrieved completely or partially assembled genomic sequences of fungal species belonging to Hypocreales from public databases. SM biosynthesizing genes were predicted from the selected genomes using antiSMASH program. Adenylation (A) domains were extracted from the predicted NRPS, NRPS-like and NRPS-PKS hybrid genes, and used them to construct a phylogenetic tree. Based on the preliminary results of SM biosynthetic gene prediction in B. bassiana, we analyzed the conserved gene orders of beauvericin and bassianolide biosynthetic gene clusters among the hypocrealean fungi. Reciprocal best blast hit (RBH) approach was performed to identify the regions orthologous to the biosynthetic gene cluster in the selected fungal genomes. A clear recombination pattern was recognized in the inferred A-domain tree in which A-domains in the 1st and 2nd modules of beauvericin and bassianolide synthetases were grouped in CYCLO and EAS clades, respectively, suggesting that two modules of each synthetase have evolved independently. In addition, inferred topologies were congruent with the species phylogeny of Cordycipitaceae, indicating that the gene fusion event have occurred before the species divergence. Beauvericin and bassianolide synthetases turned out to possess identical domain organization as C-A-T-C-A-NM-T-T-C. We also predicted precursors of beauvericin and bassianolide synthetases based on the extracted signature residues in A-domain core motifs. The result showed that the A-domains in the 1st module of both synthetases select D-2-hydroxyisovalerate (D-Hiv), while A-domains in the 2nd modules specifically activate L-phenylalanine (Phe) in beauvericin synthetase and leucine (Leu) in bassianolide synthetase. antiSMASH ver. 2.0 predicted 15 genes in the beauvericin biosynthetic gene cluster of the B. bassiana genome dispersed across a total length of approximately 50kb. The beauvericin biosynthetic gene cluster contains beauvericin synthetase as well as kivr gene encoding NADPH-dependent ketoisovalerate reductase which is necessary to convert 2-ketoisovalarate to D-Hiv and a gene encoding a putative Gal4-like transcriptional regulator. Our syntenic comparison showed that species in Cordycipitaceae have almost conserved beauvericin biosynthetic gene cluster although the gene order and direction were sometimes variable. It is intriguing that there is no region orthologous to beauvericin synthetase gene in Cordyceps militaris genome. It is likely that beauvericin synthetase was present in common ancestor of Cordycipitaceae but selective gene loss has occurred in several species including C. militaris. Putative bassianolide biosynthetic gene cluster consisted of 16 genes including bassianolide synthetase, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, and putative Gal4-like transcriptional regulator genes. Our synteny analysis found that only B. bassiana possessed a bassianolide synthetase gene among the studied fungi. This result is consistent with the groupings in A-domain tree in which bassianolide synthetase gene found in B. bassiana was not grouped with NRPS genes predicted in other species. We hypothesized that bassianolide biosynthesizing cluster genes in B. bassiana are possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from distantly related fungi. The present study showed that B. bassiana is the only species capable of producing both beauvericin and bassianolide. This property led to B. bassiana infect multiple hosts and to be a potential biological control agent against agricultural pests.

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Purification and Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isozymes in Channa argus (가물치(Channa argus) 젖산탈수소효소 동위효소들의 정제 및 특성)

  • Park, Eun-Mi;Yum, Jung-Joo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.260-268
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    • 2010
  • The lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27, LDH) isozymes in tissues from Channa argus were purified and characterized by biochemical, immunochemical and kinetic methods. The activity of LDH in skeletal muscle was the highest at 380.4 units and those in heart, eye and brain tissues were 13.4, 3,5 and 5.4 units, respectively. Citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7, CS) activity in heart tissue was the highest at 20.7 units. LDH/CS in skeletal muscle, heart, eye and brain tissues were 172.9, 0.6, 0.32 and 0.47. Protein concentration in skeletal muscle tissue was 14.7 mg/g and specific activities of LDH in skeletal muscle, heart, eye and brain tissues were 25.88, 0.79, 0.31 and 1.38 units/mg, respectively. Therefore, skeletal muscle tissue was anaerobic and heart tissue was aerobic. The LDH isozymes in tissues were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoprecipitation and Western blot with antiserum against $A_4$, $B_4$, and eye-specific $C_4$. LDH $A_4$, $A_3B$, $A_2B_2$. $AB_3$ and $B_4$ isozymes were detected in every tissue, $C_4$, $AC_3$, $A_2C_2$ and $A_3C$ were detected in eye tissue, and $A_3C$ was found in brain tissue. LDH $A_4$, $A_3B$, $A_2B_2$, $AB_3$, $B_4$, eye-specific $C_4$ isozymes were purified by affinity chromatography and Preparative PAGE Cells. The LDH $A_4$ isozyme was purified in the fraction from elution with $NAD^+$ containing buffer of affinity chromatography. Eye-specific $C_4$ isozyme was eluted right after $A_4$, after which $B_4$ isozyme was eluted with plain buffer. As a result, one part of molecular structures in $A_4$, $B_4$ and eye-specific $C_4$ were similar, but were different from each other in $B_4$ and $C_4$. Therefore the subunit A may be conservative in evolution, and the evolution of subunit B seems to be faster than that of subunit A. The activity of LDH $A_4$, $A_2B_2$, $B_4$, and eye-specific $C_4$ isozymes remained at 39.98, 21.28, 19.67 and 16.87% as a result of the inhibition by 10 mM of pyruvate, so the degree of inhibition was very high. The $Km^{PYR}$ values were 0.17, 0.27 and 0.133 mM in $A_4$, $B_4$ and eye-specific $C_4$ isozymes, respectively. The optimum pH of LDH $A_4$, $B_4$, eye-specific $C_4$, $A_2B_2$, $A_3B$, and $AB_3$ were pH 6.5, pH 8.5, pH 5.5, pH 6.0-6.5, pH 5.0 and pH 7.5. The $A_4$ and heterotetramer isozymes stabilized a broad range of pH. Especially, LDH activities in skeletal muscle tissue were high, resulting in a high degree of muscle activity.LDH metabolism in eye tissue seems to be converted faster from pyruvate to lactate by eye-specific $C_4$ isozyme as eye-specific $C_4$ have the highest affinity for pyruvate, and right after the conversion, oxidation of lactate was induced by $A_4$ isozyme. It was found that expression of Ldh-C, affinity to substrate and reaction time of $C_4$ isozyme were different according to the ecological environmental and feeding capturing patterns.

Sesquiterpenoids Bioconversion Analysis by Wood Rot Fungi

  • Lee, Su-Yeon;Ryu, Sun-Hwa;Choi, In-Gyu;Kim, Myungkil
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.19-20
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    • 2016
  • Sesquiterpenoids are defined as $C_{15}$ compounds derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), and their complex structures are found in the tissue of many diverse plants (Degenhardt et al. 2009). FPP's long chain length and additional double bond enables its conversion to a huge range of mono-, di-, and tri-cyclic structures. A number of cyclic sesquiterpenes with alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone derivatives have key biological and medicinal properties (Fraga 1999). Fungi, such as the wood-rotting Polyporus brumalis, are excellent sources of pharmaceutically interesting natural products such as sesquiterpenoids. In this study, we investigated the biosynthesis of P. brumalis sesquiterpenoids on modified medium. Fungal suspensions of 11 white rot species were inoculated in modified medium containing $C_6H_{12}O_6$, $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ for 20 days. Cultivation was stopped by solvent extraction via separation of the mycelium. The metabolites were identified as follows: propionic acid (1), mevalonic acid lactone (2), ${\beta}$-eudesmane (3), and ${\beta}$-eudesmol (4), respectively (Figure 1). The main peaks of ${\beta}$-eudesmane and ${\beta}$-eudesmol, which were indicative of sesquiterpene structures, were consistently detected for 5, 7, 12, and 15 days These results demonstrated the existence of terpene metabolism in the mycelium of P. brumalis. Polyporus spp. are known to generate flavor components such as methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethyl benzoate; 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methyl benzoic acid; 3-hydroxy-5-methyl phenol; and 3-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl phenol in submerged cultures (Hoffmann and Esser 1978). Drimanes of sesquiterpenes were reported as metabolites from P. arcularius and shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (Fleck et al. 1996). The main metabolites of P. brumalis, ${\beta}$-Eudesmol and ${\beta}$-eudesmane, were categorized as eudesmane-type sesquiterpene structures. The eudesmane skeleton could be biosynthesized from FPP-derived IPP, and approximately 1,000 structures have been identified in plants as essential oils. The biosynthesis of eudesmol from P. brumalis may thus be an important tool for the production of useful natural compounds as presumed from its identified potent bioactivity in plants. Essential oils comprising eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids have been previously and extensively researched (Wu et al. 2006). ${\beta}$-Eudesmol is a well-known and important eudesmane alcohol with an anticholinergic effect in the vascular endothelium (Tsuneki et al. 2005). Additionally, recent studies demonstrated that ${\beta}$-eudesmol acts as a channel blocker for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, and it can inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway (Seo et al. 2011). Variation of nutrients was conducted to determine an optimum condition for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes by P. brumalis. Genes encoding terpene synthases, which are crucial to the terpene synthesis pathway, generally respond to environmental factors such as pH, temperature, and available nutrients (Hoffmeister and Keller 2007, Yu and Keller 2005). Calvo et al. described the effect of major nutrients, carbon and nitrogen, on the synthesis of secondary metabolites (Calvo et al. 2002). P. brumalis did not prefer to synthesize sesquiterpenes under all growth conditions. Results of differences in metabolites observed in P. brumalis grown in PDB and modified medium highlighted the potential effect inorganic sources such as $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ on sesquiterpene synthesis. ${\beta}$-eudesmol was apparent during cultivation except for when P. brumalis was grown on $MgSO_4$-free medium. These results demonstrated that $MgSO_4$ can specifically control the biosynthesis of ${\beta}$-eudesmol. Magnesium has been reported as a cofactor that binds to sesquiterpene synthase (Agger et al. 2008). Specifically, the $Mg^{2+}$ ions bind to two conserved metal-binding motifs. These metal ions complex to the substrate pyrophosphate, thereby promoting the ionization of the leaving groups of FPP and resulting in the generation of a highly reactive allylic cation. Effect of magnesium source on the sesquiterpene biosynthesis was also identified via analysis of the concentration of total carbohydrates. Our current study offered further insight that fungal sesquiterpene biosynthesis can be controlled by nutrients. To profile the metabolites of P. brumalis, the cultures were extracted based on the growth curve. Despite metabolites produced during mycelia growth, there was difficulty in detecting significant changes in metabolite production, especially those at low concentrations. These compounds may be of interest in understanding their synthetic mechanisms in P. brumalis. The synthesis of terpene compounds began during the growth phase at day 9. Sesquiterpene synthesis occurred after growth was complete. At day 9, drimenol, farnesol, and mevalonic lactone (or mevalonic acid lactone) were identified. Mevalonic acid lactone is the precursor of the mevalonic pathway, and particularly, it is a precursor for a number of biologically important lipids, including cholesterol hormones (Buckley et al. 2002). Farnesol is the precursor of sesquiterpenoids. Drimenol compounds, bi-cyclic-sesquiterpene alcohols, can be synthesized from trans-trans farnesol via cyclization and rearrangement (Polovinka et al. 1994). They have also been identified in the basidiomycota Lentinus lepideus as secondary metabolites. After 12 days in the growth phase, ${\beta}$-elemene caryophyllene, ${\delta}$-cadiene, and eudesmane were detected with ${\beta}$-eudesmol. The data showed the synthesis of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with bi-cyclic structures. These compounds can be synthesized from FPP by cyclization. Cyclic terpenoids are synthesized through the formation of a carbon skeleton from linear precursors by terpene cyclase, which is followed by chemical modification by oxidation, reduction, methylation, etc. Sesquiterpene cyclase is a key branch-point enzyme that catalyzes the complex intermolecular cyclization of the linear prenyl diphosphate into cyclic hydrocarbons (Toyomasu et al. 2007). After 20 days in stationary phase, the oxygenated structures eudesmol, elemol, and caryophyllene oxide were detected. Thus, after growth, sesquiterpenes were identified. Per these results, we showed that terpene metabolism in wood-rotting fungi occurs in the stationary phase. We also showed that such metabolism can be controlled by magnesium supplementation in the growth medium. In conclusion, we identified P. brumalis as a wood-rotting fungus that can produce sesquiterpenes. To mechanistically understand eudesmane-type sesquiterpene biosynthesis in P. brumalis, further research into the genes regulating the dynamics of such biosynthesis is warranted.

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