• Title, Summary, Keyword: protein oxidation

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Effect of Allium hookeri Root on Physicochemical, Lipid, and Protein Oxidation of Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Meatball

  • Yoon, Dong-kyu;Kim, Ji-Han;Cho, Won-Young;Ji, Da-Som;Lee, Ha-Jung;Kim, Jung-Ho;Lee, Chi-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.1203-1215
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    • 2018
  • The antioxidant effects of Allium hookeri root (AHR) were investigated by evaluating lipid and protein oxidation in meatballs during refrigerated storage at $4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$. AHR was mixed at concentrations of 0.5% (w/w, T2) and 1% (w/w, T3) with minced longissimus dorsi muscle. Meatballs containing AHR (T2 and T3) were compared to those containing 0.05% (w/w) ascorbic acid (T1) as a reference and without antioxidant as a control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, disulfide bond formation, carbonyl contents, and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value of T2 were lower than those of the control during storage (p<0.05). The pH values of T2 and T3 were higher than that of the control (p<0.05). Texture profile analysis of T2 revealed a lower value compared to the control (p<0.05). Therefore, the VBN value, TBARS value, disulfide bond formation, and carbonyl content in meatball containing AHR were lower than those of the control meatball. These results indicate that AHR improves the quality of meat products and functions as an antioxidant.

Protective Effect of Dietary Buchu (Chinese chives) Against Oxidative Damage from Aging and Ultraviolet Irradiation in ICR Mice Skin

  • Lee, Min-Ja;Ryu, Bog-Mi;Kim, Mi-Hyang;Lee, Yu-Soon;Moon, Gap-Soon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2002
  • Protective effect of skin by antioxidative dietary buchu (Chinese chives, Allium tuberosum Router), was evaluated in ICR mice fed diets containing 2% or 5% buchu for 12 months. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in skin, with or without ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, activities of antioxidative enzymes, total glutathione concentrations, and non-soluble collagen contents were measured. Dietary buchu decreased significantly in TBARS and protein carbonyl levels in skin compared to the control group, and were lower in those fed 5% than 2% buchu diet group. ICR mice exhibited an age-dependent decrease in antioxidative enzyme activities and total glutathione concentrations on the control diet, but in the groups fed buchu diet the enzyme activities and glu-tathione concentrations remained at youthful levels for most of the study. SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities as well as total glutathione concentrations increased with time in the skins of the mice fed buchu diets. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation provoked by UVB irradiation on ICR mice skin homogenates were also significantly inhibited by dietary buchu. The buchu diets also decreased the formation of non-soluble collagen in mice skin, compared to the control group. These results suggest that antioxidative components and sulfur-compounds in buchu may confer protective effect against oxidative stress resulting from aging and exposure to ultraviolet irradiation.

The Roles of Peroxiredoxin and Thioredoxin in Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing and in Signal Transduction

  • Netto, Luis E.S.;Antunes, Fernando
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2016
  • A challenge in the redox field is the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms, by which $H_2O_2$ mediates signal transduction in cells. This is relevant since redox pathways are disturbed in some pathologies. The transcription factor OxyR is the $H_2O_2$ sensor in bacteria, whereas Cys-based peroxidases are involved in the perception of this oxidant in eukaryotic cells. Three possible mechanisms may be involved in $H_2O_2$ signaling that are not mutually exclusive. In the simplest pathway, $H_2O_2$ signals through direct oxidation of the signaling protein, such as a phosphatase or a transcription factor. Although signaling proteins are frequently observed in the oxidized state in biological systems, in most cases their direct oxidation by $H_2O_2$ is too slow ($10^1M^{-1}s^{-1}$ range) to outcompete Cys-based peroxidases and glutathione. In some particular cellular compartments (such as vicinity of NADPH oxidases), it is possible that a signaling protein faces extremely high $H_2O_2$ concentrations, making the direct oxidation feasible. Alternatively, high $H_2O_2$ levels can hyperoxidize peroxiredoxins leading to local building up of $H_2O_2$ that then could oxidize a signaling protein (floodgate hypothesis). In a second model, $H_2O_2$ oxidizes Cys-based peroxidases that then through thiol-disulfide reshuffling would transmit the oxidized equivalents to the signaling protein. The third model of signaling is centered on the reducing substrate of Cys-based peroxidases that in most cases is thioredoxin. Is this model, peroxiredoxins would signal by modulating the thioredoxin redox status. More kinetic data is required to allow the identification of the complex network of thiol switches.

Protective Role of Thioredoxin Peroxidase Against Ionizing Radiation

  • Lee, Su-Min;Kim, Sun-Yee;Park, Jeen-Woo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.572-577
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    • 1998
  • A soluble protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides protection against a thiol-containing oxidation system but not against an oxidation system without thiol. This 25-kDa protein acts as a peroxidase but requires the NADPH-dependent thioredoxin system or a thiol-containing intermediate, and was thus named thioredoxin peroxidase. The protective role of thioredoxin peroxidase against ionizing radiation, which generates reactive oxygen species harmful tocellular function, was investigated in wild-type and mutant yeast strains in which the tsa gene encoding thioredoxin peroxidase was disrupted by homologous recombination. Upon exposure to ionizing radiation, there was a distinct difference between these two strains in regard to viability and the level of protein carbonyl content, which is the indicative marker of oxidative damage to protein. Activities of other antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutathione reductase were increased at 200-600 Gy of irradiation in wild-type cells. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were not significantly changed by ionizing radiation in thioredoxin peroxidase-deficient mutant cells. These results suggest that thioredoxin peroxidase acts as an antioxidant enzyme in cellular defense against ionizing radiation through the removal of reactive oxygen species as well as in the protection of antioxidant enzymes.

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Effect of Carnosine and Related Compounds on Glucose Oxidation and Protein Glycation In Vitro

  • Lee, Beom-Jun;Park, Jae-Hak;Lee, Yong-Soon;Cho, Myung-Haing;Kim, Young-Chul;Hendricks, Deloy G.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.370-378
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    • 1999
  • The effects of carnosine and related compounds (CRC) including anserine, homocarnosine, histidine, and ${\beta}$-alanine, found in most mammalian tissues, were investigated on in vitro glucose oxidation and glycation of human serum albumin (HSA). Carnosin and anserine were more reactive with D-glucose than with L-lysine. In the presence of $10\;{\mu}M$ Cu (II), although carnosine and anserine at low concentrations effectively inhibited formation of ${\alpha}$-ketoaldehyde from D-glucose, they increased generation of $H_2O_2$ in a dose-dependent manner. Carnosine, homocarnosine, anserine, and histidine effectively inhibited hydroxylation of salicylate and deoxyribose degradation in the presence of glucose and $10\;{\mu}M$ Cu (II). In the presence of 25 mM D-glucose, copper and ascorbic acid stimulated carbonyl formation from HSA. Except for ${\beta}$-alanine, CRC effectively inhibited the copper-catalyzed carbonyl formation from HSA. The addition of 25 mM D-glucose and/or $10\;{\mu}M$ Cu (II) to low density lipoprotein (LDL) increased formation of conjugated dienes. CRC effectively inhibited the glucose and/or copper-catalyzed LDL oxidation. CRC also inhibited glycation of HSA as determined by hydroxymethyl furfural and lysine with free ${\varepsilon}$-amino group. These results suggest that CRC may play an important role in protecting against diabetic complications by reacting with sugars, chelating copper, and scavenging free radicals.

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Effects of Light and Water Soluble Proteins on the Lipid Oxidation of Meat Emulsion Model System during Refrigerated Storage (광 조사 및 차단 조건에서의 고기모형 유화물의 지방산화에 미치는 수용성 단백질의 효과)

  • Park, Hyung-Il;Chung, Myung-Sub;Lee, M.
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.395-399
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    • 1997
  • Meat model emulsions ware prepared with salt-soluble protein and soybean oil. Effects of water-soluble protein (WSP) on the meat model emulsion treated with/without BHT during 8 day storage $5^{\circ}C$ under both dark and light illumination were studied by measuring POV and TBA. An emulsion without BHA and WSP was used as a control. Under light storage, there was no significant difference in peroxide values between the control and the sample treated with BHA except the 2nd day of storage. However, TBA values of the sample treated with BHA were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of control except the 4th day of storage. TBA and POV of the samples treated with WSP and WSP + BHA were higher than control after 4th day of storage under light. That is, water soluble protein, which was composed mainly of myoglobin, increased lipid oxidation under light storage. The similar trends were also shown in the samples stored under dark. These results suggested that acceleration of lipid oxidation of the meat model emulsions by water soluble protein (WSP) under both light and dark might not be due to the singlet oxygen formation, but due to superoxide anion formed.

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The Effects of Chungganhaeju-tang(Qingganjiejiu-tang) on Alcoholic Liver Damages by Applying Proteomics (청간해주탕(淸肝解酒湯)이 알코올 유발 간섬유화와 단백질 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Jun, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Young-Chul;Lee, Jang-Hoon;Woo, Hong-Jung
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.469-489
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Chungganhaeju-tang(Qingganjiejiu-tang) on alcoholic liver damaged by applying proteomics. Materials and Methods : Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment the rats were divided into the normal group, the control group(alcohol) and the sample group(CGHJT +alcohol). The ethanol was orally administered twice a day for 6 weeks in the control and sample groups. Water instead of ethanol was orally administered twice a day for 6 weeks in the normal group. CGHJT extract was orally administered once a day for 6 weeks in the sample group. The livers of each group were processed and assessed by histology, Western Blot, $Oxyblot^{TM}$, CBB and 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Results : In the histological findings of the liver, CGHJT inhibited hepatic fibrogenesis induced by alcohol. TIMP-1 decreased in the sample group assessed by western blot and statistical significance was noted by dot blotting(p<0.05). In the $Oxyblot^{TM}$, protein oxidation induced by alcohol treatment decreased with CGHJT. In the 2-dimensional electrophoresis finding, increased proteins alcohol such as HSP 60, 60kDa heat shock protein, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were normalized by CGHJT. CGHJT was considered to normalize the anti-oxidation activity elevated by alcohol. In the 2-dimensional electrophoresis finding, increased oxidized proteins such as actin, prolyl 4-hydroxylase beta polypeptide, 94kDa glucose regulated protein(GRP94), heat shock protein 90-alpha(HSC86), calreticulin precursor(CRP55), ATP synthase beta chain mitochondrial precursor, caspase-8 precursor, and dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase(E2) decreased with CGHJT. CGHJT was considered to reduce the oxidative stress of alcohol. Conclusion : Chungganhaeju-tang(Qingganjiejiu-tang) exerts an inhibitory effect against the fibrosis and protein oxidation induced by alcohol treatment of rat liver. CGHJT was considered to normalize the elevated anti-oxidation activity by alcohol and to reduce the level of oxidative stress due to alcohol.

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The Effects of Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminum on Cellular Macromolecules in the Hippocampus and Cerebral Cortex of Rats (알루미늄을 투여한 흰쥐의 해마와 대뇌피질에서 Reactive Oxygen Species 생성으로 인한 생체거대분자의 산화적 손상)

  • Moon Chul-Jin;Koh Hyun-Chul;Shin In-Chul;Lee Eun-Hee;Moon Hae-Ran
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.213-223
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    • 2004
  • This work aimed to study the effectiveness of cellular oxidative parameter (malondial-dehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine). The experimental groups were aluminum treated rats and control rats. Aluminum treatd rats were given intraperitoneally aluminum nitrate nonahydrate ($Al^{3+}$, 0.2 mmol/kg) daily for 30 days except Sunday. Control rats were injected 1 ml of saline. After the dose, rats were decapitated and hippocampus and cerebral cortex were removed. The measured parameters were tissue malondialdehyde (MDA, index of lipid peroxidation), protein carbonyl (index of protein oxidation), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG, index of DNA oxidation), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase. AI concentrations in the tissues were also measured. All results were corrected by tissue protein levels. The results were as followed; 1. The concentrations of AI in the cortex and hippocampus were significantly higher in the AI-treated rats than in the control rats. 2. Antioxidative enzyme's activity, catalase and GR, were significantly higher in the AI-treated rats than the control rats. GSH levels were also higher in the AI-treated rats. 3. MDA, protein carbonyl, and 8-OHdG concentration of AI-treated rats were significantly higher than those of control rats. 4. The concentrations of antioxidants, and oxidative stress parameter were correlated with the concentrations of AI in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Catalase and GR activity were also correlated with the concentration of AI. Based on these results, it can be suggested that intraperitoneally injected AI was accumulated in the brain and induced the increase of antioxidant levels and antioxidative enzyme activity. Also, the oxidative products of cellular macromolecules are significantly related to tissue AI concentration. Therefore MDA, protein carbonyl, and 8-OHdG are useful markers for oxidative stress on cellular macromolecules.

The Influence of Phosvitin on the Inhibition of Iron-, and Copper-catalyzed Oxidation in Egg Oil Model System (철과 구리 이온으로 산화 촉진시킨 난황유 모델시스템에서 Phosvitin의 항산화 효과)

  • 이성기;김용재
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.209-213
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    • 2000
  • Phosvitin, an iron chelating protein in egg yolk, was measured for its ability to inhibit lipid oxidation in egg oil model system. Phosvitin(75$\mu$M) could inhibit both iron(50∼150$\mu$M) and copper(5∼15$\mu$M) catalyzed oxidation of egg oil, and much more effective in the presence of iron than copper. The antioxidant activity of phosvitin in egg oil decreased with increasing temperature up to 121$\^{C}$. But phosvitin was relatively heat stable maintaining 79 and 73% of its antioxidant activity after being heated for 6 min at 100$\^{C}$ and 2 min at 121$\^{C}$, respectively.

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Effects of Replacing Backfat with Fat Replacers and Olive Oil on the Quality Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Low-fat Sausage During Storage

  • Moon, Sung-Sil;Jin, Sang-Keun;Hah, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Il-Suk
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.396-401
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    • 2008
  • Effects of replacing pork backfat with a combination (ICM) of isolated soy protein (ISP), carrageenan, and maltodextrin, or with ICM +olive oil, on the quality characteristics of sausages were investigated. Both treatments had lower fat content (p<0.05), but higher protein and moisture contents than the control (p<0.05). The fat content of low-fat sausage containing the ICM was increased on day 30 compared to day 1 and 15 (p<0.05), and that of ICM+olive oil was increased after day 15. The water holding capacity of ICM was lower than the control through day 30 (p<0.05). The ICM+olive oil had a lower cooking loss than ICM on day 1 and 15 (p<0.05). On day 1, the ICM had lower lightness and higher redness values than the control (p<0.05), and the ICM+olive oil had a higher yellowness value than the control and ICM (p<0.05). Both treatments presented higher hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness values than the control (p<0.05). The lipid oxidation values of both treatments were lower than the control on day 15 and 30 (p<0.05), and those were affected by the addition of olive oil. The ICM was rated higher for sensory color and overall acceptability than the ICM+olive oil (p<0.05).