• Title/Summary/Keyword: protein

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Meat Quality of Pork Muscles from Low-fat Cuts (돼지 저지방 부의 근육들의 육질 특성)

  • Seong, Pil-Nam;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Hah, Kyung-Hee;Park, Beom-Young;Lee, Jong-Moon;Kim, Dong-Hoon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.364-373
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to provide fundamental information in developing muscle-specific strategies to improve the quality and value of low-fat pork cuts upon evaluating meat qualitative parameters of twenty one (21) muscle samples selected from ten (10) market-weighted crossbred pigs. The following observations were made. The pH was highest for subscpularis and lowest for gluteus superrificialis (p<0.05); the subscpularis can hold water the most (p<0.05), biceps femoris loses the most content upon cooking, while subscpularis loses the least content (p<0.05); gluteus superrificialis (p<0.05) has the most purge loss contents, and infraspanatus and gastrocneminus contained the most collagen, while adductor had the least collagen (p<0.05); biceps femoris has the most WB-shear force values while subscpularis (p<0.05) has the least; pectoralis profundi-fan was the most protein soluble; semitendinosus has the most gel strength (p<0.05). In the properties of meat color, tensor fasciae latae shows the highest CIE $L^*$ (lightness) values (p<0.05) and supraspinatus, brachiocephalicus and infraspanatus have the highest CIE $a^*$ (redness, p<0.05) values; vastus intermedius has the most myoglobin content while longissimus dorsi (p<0.05) has the least; infraspanatus is the most tender (one of the sensory properties) while biceps femoris was the most tough among all tested muscles (p<0.05); the pectoralis profundi-fan was the most flavorful pork while vastus intermedius was the least (p<0.05); supraspinatus, infraspanatus, semitendinosus, and vastus intermedius were juiciest while longissimus dorsi was the driest (p<0.05). In overall likeness, the semitendinosus and infraspanatus were most liked while biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi were the least (p<0.05). This study presents the results of several parameters in selected pork muscle samples which are useful information for developing new muscle-specific strategies to improve the quality of consuming meat and meat products.

Manufacture of Spent Layer Chicken Meat Products by Natural Freeze-Drying during Winter (겨울철 자연 동결 건조에 의한 노계 육제품의 제조)

  • Lee, Sung-Ki;Kang, Sun-Moon;Lee, Ik-Sun;Seo, Dong-Kwan;Kwon, Il-Kyung;Pan, Jo-No;Kim, Hee-Ju;Ga, Cheon-Heung;Pak, Jae-In
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to manufacture spent layer chicken meat products by natural freeze-drying. The spent layers of chickens that were slaughtered at 80 wk were obtained from a local slaughter house and separated into two halves of carcasses. The samples were divided into the following groups: 1) control (non-curing), 2) curing, and 3) curing with 2% trehalose before drying. The cured meats were placed at $2^{\circ}C$ for 7 d and then transferred to a natural drying spot located in Injae City, Gangwondo, Korea. The experiment was conducted from January to March in 2008. The average temperature, RH, and wind speed were $-1.5^{\circ}C$, 63%, and 1.8 m/sec, respectively. The cured treatments showed higher pH, lower Aw and lower shear force value compared with the control. Based on the results of TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) level and volatile basic nitrogen value, lipid oxidation and protein deterioration were inhibited in curing treatments during drying. Trehalose acted as a humectant because it maintained a lower water activity despite the relatively higher moisture content during drying. The polyunsaturated fatty acids content and sensory attributes were higher in cured treatments than in the control during drying. Most of the bacterial counts in the treated groups were lower by 2 Log CFU/g after 1 mon of drying, and Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were not found in any treatment. There was also no microbial safety problem associated with dried meat products. Based on the results of this experiment, dried meat products could be manufactured from precured spent layer chickens by natural freeze-drying during winter.

Breed Effects of Terminal Sires on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality in Commercial Pig Industry (돼지의 웅돈계열에 따른 도체형질 및 육질 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Sun, Du-Won;Seo, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Yang, Han-Sul;Joo, Seon-Tea;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, to determine the effects of terminal sire strains, carcass characteristics, yields of retail cut, and meat quality of 425 pigs were examined. Terminal sires were divided into five strains (D1, D2, B1, B2, and BD) based on the countries of origin and breeds. The strains D1 and D2 showed high grade 1+ appearance ratios and strains B1, B2, and D1 showed high appearance ratios of carcass yield grade A. As for the real retail cut yields of meat, strain D1 showed large real retail cut yields of meat in shoulder, rib, fore leg, loin, belly, tenderloin and hind leg. Moisture contents were significantly higher in strain B1, and protein and fat contents were significantly higher for strain D1 than in the other strains (p<0.05). Shear force values were significantly higher for strain B1 than in the other strains (p<0.05). For meat color properties, the lightness were significantly higher in strains D1, D2, and BD, and the yellowness were significantly higher in strains D1, D2, and BD relative to the other strains (p<0.05). In sensory evaluation, drip of strains D1 and D2 were significantly lower while marbling and overall acceptability were significantly higher in the other four strains (p<0.05). Therefore, when considering the results of the present study comprehensively, using strains D1 and D2 that showed high grade 1+ appearance ratios, large real retail cut yields of belly, significantly higher lightness and sensory evaluation will be helpful to the incomes of producers and farm households.

Comparisons of Characteristics of Amaranth Starches Isolated from five Cultivars Grown in Korea (국내산 아마란스로부터 분리한 전분의 특성 비교)

  • Choi, Cha-Ran;Choi, Hun-Jae;Kim, Sung-Ran;Lee, Jae-Hak;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.252-257
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    • 2000
  • The physicochemical and pasting properties of amaranth starches isolated from five cultivars, Andy, Suvarna, Nu World, K266-1, K432, grown in Korea, were investigated. The shapes of starch granules were all polygonal and size was in the range $1.14{\sim}1.48\;{\mu}m$ for all five cultivars. X-ray diffractograms were shown typical A type diffraction patterns for all amaranth starches. The protein and crude lipid contents of starches were $0.13{\sim}0.23%$ and $0.01{\sim}0.05%$, respectively. The apparent amylose contents ranged from $2.79{\sim}4.35%$ and the water binding capacities were $128.05{\sim}135.80%$. The transmittances of 0.1% amaranth starch suspensions except K266-1 increased rapidly above $65^{\circ}C$, thereafter increased slowely. The initial pasting and peak temperature ranges of five cultivars by RVA were $71.3{\sim}73.7^{\circ}C$ and $81.5{\sim}84.0^{\circ}C$, respectively. The peak and cooling viscosities followed the order : Nu World>Andy>Suvarna>K432>>K266-1. Nu World was shown the highest peak (166), final (103) and cooling viscosities (30 RVU). K266-I exhibited the lowest setback (-38) of all five cultivars. Gelatinization (To) and peak temperature (Tp) of amaranth starches in DSC thermograms were $65.7{\sim}68.0^{\circ}C$ and $70.6{\sim}75.8^{\circ}C$, respectively. Enthalpies followed the order: K266-1

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A Survey on the Health, Food Perceptions, and Food Habits of Urban Elderly Men -With Special Reference to Elderly Men in the Tap-gol Park- (도시 남자노인의 건강과 식품에 대한 인식 및 식습관 조사 -탑골공원 노인을 대상으로-)

  • Chung, Mi-Sook;Kang, Keum-Jee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.455-463
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    • 1996
  • A survey was conducted to investigate the perceptions of health and foods, and the food habits among the elderly men who came to the Tap-Gol park on a daily basis. A total of 253 subjects were selected for this study. The data was analyzed through the $X^2-test$, Duncan's multiple range test and Pearson Correlation by the use of SAS program. The results were as follows. The majority of the subjects were in their 70's. 56.1% of them lived with their sons' families, 9.1% lived alone, and 27.3% lived with a spouse. 32% of the subjects were living with the expense less than 50,000 won per month. Although some were suffering from such diseases as arthritis, indigestion, and hypertension etc., the subjects were generally in good health. Their dependance on dietary supplements were insignificant. Most of the subject had a common-sensible notion as to health. They put emphasis on the three factors for the maintenance of good health: a balanced diet, a peace of mind and exercising. With regard to the food habits, the majority were fair in general. The subject living with family had more regular meals than the single people did. 41.5% of the subjects responded that they had irregular meals, mainly for lunch due to a poor appetite or a financial problem. The respondents cited protein food, milk, fruit, sea weeds and food cooked with oil as conducive to good health. But what they consumed did not match what they thought was good, particularly milk. The results of this study lead to the suggestion that Korea need to develop such a lunch program for the elderly as is practiced in the U.S., through which dietary motivation can be stimulated and a low-priced and balanced diet offered at least for one meal a day.

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Nutritional Status of Mentally Retarded Children by Residence and by Degree of Handicap (정신지체아동의 거주형태별 및 장애등급별 영양상태 비교)

  • 김창임;박기순;박영숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.112-119
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    • 2003
  • We studied the nutritional status of on mentally handicapped children living at home or in institutions since early teenage years are nutritionally important. The subjects of 7 to 12 year old mentally retarded children attenending a special education school in Seoul were surveyed with questionnaires as well as 2-day dietary recall records, with the help of persons of their care-giver when needed. Among the 64 children,54.7% are living in institutions and the rest of them are living at home. They were ranged from the trainable (64.1%) , the educable (26.6%) , and the non-trainable (9.4%) . Their average daily intake of energy intakes (%RDA) was 2,070.1 kcal (94.1%) , Ca 603.9 mg (75.5%) , Fe 11.1 mg (92.5%), Vt.A 507.5 RE (84.6%) , Vt. B$_2$.1g (88.2%), niacin 14.1 g (93.6%) and Vt. C 58.2 g (83.1%) . Their average intakes of these nutrients were significantly higher in subjects of institutions than at home. The nutrients consumed at a much higher level than the RDh of the normal children were Vt. B, (1.6 g,146.8%) and protein (75.3g, 136.9%) . The higher percentage of children at home were under consumed of several nutrients (< 75% RDA) than ones in institutions. When comparing the degree of handicap, energy and nutrient intakes except Vt. C were highest in educable children than trainable ones or Dawn's children. MAR of the diets of the subjects was 0.84. Children at home showed lower MAR as well as NAR of each nutrients, whereas children belonged to INQ < 1 were less at home. Handicapped children at home were snacking higher amount relative to their calorie intake and too frequently, that may lead to their poor nutrition. There was positive correlations between factors of nutrition and physical and dietary behaviors, but there were no correlations between factors of nutrition and health-related habits. Nutritional caring mentally handicapped children in institutions seemed to be more effectively managed.

The Study on the Qualities of Commercial Anchovy Sauces and Kimchies Prepared with Different Anchovy Sauces (시판 멸치 액젓의 품질과 그 액젓으로 제조한 김치의 품질 연구)

  • 문갑순;송영선;류복미;전영수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.272-277
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    • 1997
  • To evaluate the quality of commercial anchovy sauces, 8 varieties (2 products from the Fishery Cooperation, 2 from small companies, and 4 well-known brands) were chosen and their physicochemical and sensory properties were examined. The salinity of anchovy sauces ranged from 19.8% to 26%, where product E was the saltiest and followed by F> H > B > E > A> C = G > D. Product D with the least salinity was turbid, rancid, and high in ammonia content, suggesting that it is difficult to control the quality of anchovy source with a low salt content. Protein content of anchovy sauces ranged from 2.51% to 2.64%. The unit price of anchovy source A was the highest, whereas B was the lowest. Sensory evaluation scores of anchovy sauces were in the order of B > G > A > F > E > C > H > D for color, B > G = C > H > E = F > G > D for odor, E > C > F > G > H > D > B > A for saltiness, and B > A > C > H > E = F > G > D for overall acceptability. Above results suggest that product B was the best in quality as well as the cheapest among all. Based on the above results, kimchies were prepared with product A, B, C with a high sensory quality and product H with a high market occupancy, and sensory evaluation was performed. The kimchi with product C got the highest sensory score in appearance and the one with product A and H in odor. Although the kimchi with product A generally had high scores throughout the fermentation period, there were no significant differences in texture, salty taste, and overall acceptability among kimchies with different varieties of anchovy sauces.

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Studies on the Production of Alcohol Fermented Milk (알코올 발효유(醱酵乳)의 제조(製造)에 대(對)하여)

  • Yoo, Jin-Young;Kang, Tong-Sam;Min, Byong-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.337-343
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    • 1978
  • In order to develope a new kind of fermented milk, basic studies on several lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were conducted, 8 kinds of alcohol fermented milk were manufactured and sensory evaluation was undertaken. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Four kinds of lactic acid bacteria were isolated, among which Y-2 strain was strongest in acid productivity and it was elucidated that acid productivity of all strains was stornger in synthetic medium than in milk medium. 2. The pH in milk medium inoculated with Y-2 strain and incubated at $30^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours was dropped from 5.8 to 3.8 and fluctuation in amino nitrogen content was found during incubation. 3. The pH in milk medium inoculated with K. fragilis and incubated at $30^{\circ}C$ for 7 days was dropped from 6.2 to 5.2 and amino nitrogen content was in the range of $0.12{\sim}0.27mg/ml$. Alcohol productivity of K. fragilis was stronger than E-2 and E-4 strain but no difference in alcohol productivity was found between milk medium and synthetic medium. 4. The repression in growth and acid productivity of lactic acid bacteria was recongnized if inoculated after inoculating yeast firstly. 5. Alcohol productivity was increased rapidly at the end of acid production of lactic acid bacteria if lactic acid bacteria if lactic acid bacteria and yeast were inoculated simultaneously. 6. Sensory evaluation showed that the product that alcohol content and acidity were 1% and 0.8% respectively had the best palatability(p<0.01). 7. Chemical composition of final product was similar to that of milk koumiss in ash, protein and moisture content.

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Between-and Within-person Variability of Nutrient Intake in 7-day weighed Food Records (7일 실측법에 의한 영양소섭취량의 개인간변이와 개인내변이)

  • 정해랑
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.179-186
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    • 1992
  • Dietary intakes of 57 college women were measured by 7-day weight food records(7WR) Nutrient intakes of 7WR were compared with results of using 1-day weighted food records(1WR) and 2-day weighed food records(2WR), 7WR were recorded for 7 consecutive days by subjects and its first two days were chosen to provide 1WR and 2WR Mean nutrient intakes of the group were not significantly different between 1WR or 2WRand 7WR. Within-person variations were found to be greater than between-person variations. The ratio of within- and between-person variability was lowest for the vitamin A and highest for the calcium. Data on 7WR were analyzed to estimate the number of recording days needed to ensure r$\geq$0.9 between observed and turn mean intakes. The 11 to 13 days needed for energy sugar protein and vitamin A and 20 days for calcium The results indicated that the number of days needed varied substantially among individuals for the same nutrient and within individuals for different nutrients.

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The effect of high-carbohydrate diet and low-fat diet for the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents: Using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 1998-2009 (우리나라 청소년의 고탄수화물 식사와 고지방 식사가 대사증후군 위험요인에 미치는 영향: 1998~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Han, Mi-Rhan;Lim, Jeong Hyun;Song, YoonJu
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.186-192
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased in both the adult population and in adolescents. However, few studies have been conducted for adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors with high carbohydrate diet and high fat diet using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009). Methods: Using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for Korean Dietary Reference Intakes, subjects whose energy intake from carbohydrate was greater than 70% and from fat was less than 15% were classified as the 'High-carbohydrate & low-fat diet (HCLF)' group and subjects whose energy intake from carbohydrate was less than 60% and from fat was 25% or more were classified as the 'Low-carbohydrate & high-fat Diet (LCHF)' group. Among 5,931 eligible subjects, HCLF included 853 subjects and LCHF included 1,084 subjects. Results: The mean age in both groups was 14 years and significant difference in age, BMI, sex, physical activity, and household income was observed between the HCLF and LCHF groups. Regarding the energy intake compared to Estimated Energy Requirement, the HCLF group met 79.0% and the LCHF group met 100.3%. Regarding nutrient intake per 1,000 kcal, carbohydrate, iron, potassium, and vitamin C intake in the HCLF group were significantly higher, but protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin intakes were significantly lower in the HCLF group compared to the LCHF group. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, study year, household income, physical activity, and energy intake, the serum triglycerides level and systolic blood pressure were slightly higher, while the serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower in HCLF than LCHF. The odds ratio of metabolic syndrome did not differ significantly between HCLF and LCHF. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an association of a high carbohydrate diet with increased risks for metabolic syndrome components. Conduct of future studies would be necessary in order to explore the underlying mechanism and to confirm our findings in a prospective study.