• Title, Summary, Keyword: prostate cancer (PCa)

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Diagnostic Role of Serum Free-to-Total Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Ratio in Prostate Cancer with Serum Total Concentration of PSA below 4 ng/mL

  • Chang, Chih-Chun;Lee, Yi-Chen;Tsai, Huang-Wen;Yii, Shyi-Chun;Yen, Tzung-Hai;Chu, Fang-Yeh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.13
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    • pp.5261-5264
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of serum free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio (%fPSA) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with different serum total PSA (tPSA) categories. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2013, a total of 225 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) underwent tPSA and %fPSA measurements. Histological examination with calculation of Gleason score and whole body bone scans were performed in identified cases of PCa. Results: PCa was diagnosed in 44 (19.6%) patients and the remaining 181 patients had benign prostate disease. PCa was detected in 5 (23.8%), 13 (8.7%) and 26 (47.3%) cases with tPSA level ranges ${\leq}4ng/ml$, 4 to 10 ng/ml and >10 ng/ml, respectively. The average Gleason score was $7.2{\pm}0.2$. Some 6 (13.6%) out of 44 PCa patients had bone metastases. The sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 81.3% at the cut-off %fPSA of 15% in PCa patients with a tPSA level below 4 ng/mL. A lower %fPSA was associated with PCa patients with Gleason score ${\geq}7$ than those with Gleason score ${\leq}6$ ($11.7{\pm}0.98$ vs. $16.5{\pm}2.25%$, P=0.029). No obvious relation of %fPSA to the incidence of bone metastasis was apparent in this study. Conclusions: The clinical application of %fPSA could help to discriminate PCa from benign prostate disease in men with a tPSA concentration below 4 ng/mL.

Evaluation of Combined Quantification of PCA3 and AMACR Gene Expression for Molecular Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Moroccan Patients by RT-qPCR

  • Maane, Imane Abdellaoui;El Hadi, Hicham;Qmichou, Zineb;Al Bouzidi, Abderrahmane;Bakri, Youssef;Sefrioui, Hassan;Dakka, Nadia;Moumen, Abdeladim
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.5229-5235
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    • 2016
  • Prostate cancer (PCa) remains one of the most widespread and perplexing of all human malignancies. Assessment of gene expression is thought to have an important impact on cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decisions. In this context, we explored combined expression of PCa related target genes AMACR and PCA3 in 126 formalin fixed paraffin embedded prostate tissues (FFPE) from Moroccan patients, using quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR). This quantification required data normalization accomplished using stably expressed reference genes (RGs). A panel of twelve RG was assessed, data being analyzed using GenEx V6 based on geNorm, NormFinder and statistical methods. Accordingly, the hnRNP A1 gene was identified and selected as the most stably expressed RG for reliable and accurate gene expression quantification in prostate tissues. The ratios of both PCA3 and AMACR gene expression relative to that of the hnRNP A1 gene were calculated and the performance of each target gene for PCa diagnosis was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristics. PCA3 and AMACR mRNA quantification based on RT-qPCR may prove useful in PCa diagnosis. Of particular interesting, combining PCA3 and AMACR quantification improved PCa prediction by increasing sensitivity with retention of good specificity.

Utility of Digital Rectal Examination, Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Transrectal Ultrasound in the Detection of Prostate Cancer: A Developing Country Perspective

  • Kash, Deep Par;Lal, Murli;Hashmi, Altaf Hussain;Mubarak, Muhammed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3087-3091
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To determine the utility of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) estimation, and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Materials and Methods: All patients with abnormal DRE, TRUS, or serum tPSA >4ng/ml, in any combination, underwent TRUS-guided needle biopsy. Eight cores of prostatic tissue were obtained from different areas of the peripheral prostate and examined histopathologically for the nature of the pathology. Results: PCa was detected in 151 (50.3%) patients, remaining 149 (49.7%) showed benign changes with or without active prostatitis. PCa was detected in 13 (56.5%), 9 (19.1%), 26 (28.3%), and 103 (74.6%) of patients with tPSA <4 ng/ml, 4-10 ng/ml, 10-20 ng/ml and >20 ng/ml respectively. Only 13 patients with PCa had abnormal DRE and TRUS with serum PSA <4 ng/ml. The detection rate was highest in patients with tPSA >20 ng/ml. The association between tPSA level and cancer detection was statistically significant (p<0.01). Among 209 patients with abnormal DRE and raised serum PSA, PCa was detected in 128 (61.2%). Conclusions: The incidence of PCa increases with increasing serum level of tPSA. The overall screening and detection rate can be further improved by using DRE, TRUS and TRUS-guided prostate needle biopsies.

Magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion image-guided prostate biopsy: Current status of the cancer detection and the prospects of tailor-made medicine of the prostate cancer

  • Shoji, Sunao
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.4-13
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    • 2019
  • Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has been increasingly used to diagnose clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) because of its growing availability and its ability to combine anatomical and functional data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion imaging provides MRI information with TRUS images for prostate biopsies. This technique combines the superior sensitivity of MRI for targeting suspicious lesions with the practicality and familiarity of TRUS. MRI-TRUS fusion image-guided prostate biopsy is performed with different types of image registration (rigid vs. elastic) and needle tracking methods (electromagnetic tracking vs. mechanical position encoders vs. image-based software tracking). A systematic review and meta-analysis showed that MRI-targeted biopsy detected csPCa at a significantly higher rate than did TRUS-guided biopsy, while it detected significantly fewer cases of insignificant PCas. In addition to the high accuracy of MRI-targeted biopsy for csPCa, localization of csPCa is accurate. The ability to choose the route of biopsy (transperineal vs. transrectal) is required, depending on the patients' risk and the location and size of suspicious lesions on mpMRI. Fusion image-guided prostate biopsy has the potential to allow precise management of prostate cancer, including active surveillance, radical treatment, and focal therapy.

Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Relation to Background Factors: Are there Links to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and AhR Expression?

  • Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi;Jabari, Nasim;Zavarhei, Mansour Djamali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6121-6125
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    • 2014
  • Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a potential biomarker for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) but its level is known to be affected by many background factors and roles of ubiquitous toxicants have not been determined. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous reproductive toxicants used in consumer products, which promote tumor formation in some reproductive model systems by binding to AhR, but human data on its expression in prostate cancer as well as its association with PSA levels are not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the expression levels of AhR and its association with serological levels of PSA and to detect possible effects of background factors and EDC exposure history on PSA levels in PCa cases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the tissue levels of AhR and serum levels of PSA in 53 PCa cases from 2008-2011 and associations between each and background and lifestyle related factors were determined. Results: Although the AhR was overexpressed in PCa and correlated with the age of patients, it did not correlate with PSA levels.Of nutritional factors, increased intake of polysaturated fats and fish in the routine regimen of PCa cases increased the PSA levels significantly. Conclusions: AhR overexpression in PCa pontws to roles of EDCs in PCa but without any direct association with PSA levels. However, PSA levels are affected by exposure to possible toxicants in foods whichneed to be assessed as possible risk factors of PCa in future studies.

Prostate-specific Antigen Velocity (PSAV) and PSAV per Initial Volume (PSAVD) for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

  • Zheng, Xiang-Yi;Zhang, Peng;Xie, Li-Ping;You, Qi-Han;Cai, Bo-Sen;Qin, Jie
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5529-5533
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    • 2012
  • Aim: To investigate the utility of prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV) and PSAV per initial volume (PSAVD) for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in Chinese men. Methods: Between January 2009 and June 2012, a total of 193 men (aged 49-84 years, median 67 years) with at least 2 transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) procedures and concurrent serum PSA measurements underwent prostate biopsy because of suspicion of PCa. The total group were classified into PCa and non-PCa groups, and the variables of the two groups were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate which variables were predictove. The diagnostic values of PSAV, PSAVD and prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 44 (22.8%) of the 193 men. There were significant differences between the groups in last and initial prostate volumes determined by TRUS, initial age, last serum PSA levels, PSAV, PSAD and PSAVD. After adjusting for confounding factors, the odds ratios of PCa across the quartile of PSAVD were 1, 4.06, 10.6, and 18.9 (P for trend <0.001).The area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of PSAD (0.779) and PSAVD (0.776) were similar and both significantly greater than that of PSA (AUC 0.667). PSAVD was a significantly better indicator of PCa than PSAV (AUC 0.736). There was no statistical significant difference between the AUC of PSAV and that of last serum PSA level. The sensitivity and specificity of PSAVD at a cutoff of 0.023ng in participants with last serum PSA levels of 4.0ng/mL-10.0ng was 73.7% and 70.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated PSAVD may be a useful tool in PCa detection, especially in those undergoing previous TRUS examination.

Characterization of human infiltrating and circulating gamma-delta T cells in prostate cancer

  • Vella, Marco;Coniglio, Daniela;Abrate, Alberto;Gesolfo, Cristina Scalici;Presti, Elena Lo;Meraviglia, Serena;Serretta, Vincenzo;Simonato, Alchiede
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the distribution of gamma-delta (γδ)1 and γδ2 T cells and their phenotypes in peripheral blood and prostate samples of patients diagnosed with or without prostate cancer (PCa) at prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 43 outpatients underwent trans-rectal echo-guided prostate biopsy for suspected PCa. Flow cytometry analysis was used to identify and characterize the γδ T cells populations in peripheral blood and tissue samples. Patients were stratified according to the presence or not of PCa, and its International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade (1 vs. ≥2). Results: The distribution of γδ T cells in peripheral blood and prostate tissue showed wide variability and non-significant differences. A slightly higher percentage of δ2 T cells and a slightly lower percentage of δ1 T cells were found in peripheral blood of cancer patients. A non-significantly higher percentage of both Vδ1 and Vδ2 was expressed in cancer tissues, but a trend for lower distribution of δ1 and δ2 T cells was observed in ISUP grade ≥2. The "central memory" and "effector memory" were the most expressed T cells phenotype in peripheral blood and tissue samples. However no substantial differences in T cells subtypes distribution between cancer and healthy tissue were observed. Conclusions: No substantially different percentages of γδ T cells were found in peripheral blood and biopsy samples of healthy and PCa patients. However a non-significant trend for lower infiltrate in higher ISUP grade cancer tissue was observed, suggesting a possible role for the immunosurveillance of PCa.

Identification of Prostate Cancer LncRNAs by RNA-Seq

  • Hu, Cheng-Cheng;Gan, Ping;Zhang, Rui-Ying;Xue, Jin-Xia;Ran, Long-Ke
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9439-9444
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To identify prostate cancer lncRNAs using a pipeline proposed in this study, which is applicable for the identification of lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in prostate cancer tissues but have a negligible potential to encode proteins. Materials and Methods: We used two publicly available RNA-Seq datasets from normal prostate tissue and prostate cancer. Putative lncRNAs were predicted using the biological technology, then specific lncRNAs of prostate cancer were found by differential expression analysis and co-expression network was constructed by the weighted gene co-expression network analysis. Results: A total of 1,080 lncRNA transcripts were obtained in the RNA-Seq datasets. Three genes (PCA3, C20orf166-AS1 and RP11-267A15.1) showed a significant differential expression in the prostate cancer tissues, and were thus identified as prostate cancer specific lncRNAs. Brown and black modules had significant negative and positive correlations with prostate cancer, respectively. Conclusions: The pipeline proposed in this study is useful for the prediction of prostate cancer specific lncRNAs. Three genes (PCA3, C20orf166-AS1, and RP11-267A15.1) were identified to have a significant differential expression in prostate cancer tissues. However, there have been no published studies to demonstrate the specificity of RP11-267A15.1 in prostate cancer tissues. Thus, the results of this study can provide a new theoretic insight into the identification of prostate cancer specific genes.

Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the XRCC1 Gene and Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

  • Zhou, Yun-Feng;Zhang, Guang-Bo;Qu, Ping;Zhou, Jian;Pan, Hui-Xin;Hou, Jian-Quan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5241-5243
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    • 2012
  • Background: Prostate cancer (Pca) is one of the most common complex and polygenic diseases in men. The X-ray repair complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1) is an important candidate in the pathogenesis of Pca. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene and susceptibility to Pca. Materials and Methods: XRCC1 gene polymorphisms and associations with susceptibility to Pca were investigated in 193 prostate patients and 188 cancer-free Chinese men. Results: The c.910A>G variant in the exon9 of XRCC1 gene could be detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing methods. Significantly increased susceptibility to prostate cancer was noted in the homozygote comparison (GG versus AA: OR=2.95, 95% CI 1.46-5.42, ${\chi}^2$=12.36, P=0.001), heterozygote comparison (AG versus AA: OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.12-2.51, ${\chi}^2$=4.04, P=0.045), dominant model (GG/AG versus AA: OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.19-2.97, ${\chi}^2$=9.12, P=0.003), recessive model (GG versus AG+AA: OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.33-4.06, ${\chi}^2$=8.86, P=0.003) and with allele contrast (G versus A: OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.56-2.42, ${\chi}^2$=14.67, P<0.000). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the c.910A>G polymorphism of the XRCC1 gene is associated with susceptibility to Pca in Chinese men, the G-allele conferring higher risk.

Predictive Value of the Platelet-To-Lymphocyte Ratio in Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

  • Yuksel, Ozgur Haki;Urkmez, Ahmet;Akan, Serkan;Yldirim, Caglar;Verit, Ayhan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6407-6412
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To predict prostatic carcinoma using a logistic regression model on prebiopsy peripheral blood samples. Materials and Methods: Data of a total of 873 patients who consulted Urology Outpatient Clinics of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital between February 2008 and April 2014 scheduled for prostate biopsy were screened retrospectively. PSA levels, prostate volumes, prebiopsy whole blood cell counts, neutrophil and platelet counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), biopsy results and Gleason scores in patients who had established diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) were evaluated. Results: This study was performed on a total of 873 cases, with an age range 48-76 years, divided into three groups as for biopsy results. with diagnoses of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (n=304, 34.8 %), PCa (n=265, 30.4 %) and histological prostatitis (n=304; 34.8 %). Intra- and intergroup comparative evaluations were performed. White blood cell and neutrophil counts in the histological prostatitis group were significantly higher than those of the BPH and PCa groups (p=0.001; p=0.004; p<0.01). A statistically significant intergroup difference was found for PLR (p=0.041; p<0.05) but not lymphocyte count (p>0.05). According to pairwise comparisons, PLR were significantly higher in the PCa group relative to BPH group (p=0.018, p<0.05, respectively). Though not statistically significant, higher PLR in cases with PCa in comparison with the prostatitis group was remarkable (p=0.067, and p>0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Meta-analyses showed that in patients with PSA levels over 4 ng/ml, positive predictive value of PSA is only 25 percent. Therefore, novel markers which can both detect clinically significant prostate cancer, and also prevent unnecessary biopsies are needed. Relevant to this issue in addition to PSA density, velocity, and PCA3, various markers have been analyzed. In the present study, PLR were found to be the additional predictor of prostatic carcinoma.