• Title, Summary, Keyword: prostate cancer

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Emerging Roles of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase

  • Kong, Hoon Young;Byun, Jonghoe
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.10-20
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    • 2013
  • Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent non-skin related cancers. It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among males in most Western countries. If prostate cancer is diagnosed in its early stages, there is a higher probability that it will be completely cured. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a non-specific phosphomonoesterase synthesized in prostate epithelial cells and its level proportionally increases with prostate cancer progression. PAP was the biochemical diagnostic mainstay for prostate cancer until the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which improved the detection of early-stage prostate cancer and largely displaced PAP. Recently, however, there is a renewed interest in PAP because of its usefulness in prognosticating intermediate to high-risk prostate cancers and its success in the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Although PAP is believed to be a key regulator of prostate cell growth, its exact role in normal prostate as well as detailed molecular mechanism of PAP regulation is still unclear. Here, many different aspects of PAP in prostate cancer are revisited and its emerging roles in other environment are discussed.

Enhancing Knowledge, Beliefs, and Intention to Screen for Prostate Cancer via Different Health Educational Interventions: a Literature Review

  • Saleh, Ahmad M;Fooladi, Marjaneh M;Petro-Nustas, Wasileh;Dweik, Ghadeer;Abuadas, Mohammad H
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7011-7023
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    • 2015
  • Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting men globally, constituting the sixth leading cause of cancer related death in males, and the eleventh leading cause of death from cancer in all age groups. In Jordan, prostate cancer is the third most common cancer in the male population, accounting for one third (6.2%) of cancer related deaths and in 2010 alone, 218 (9.4%) new cases were identified. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of different health education interventions aimed at enhancing knowledge, beliefs and intention to screen for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: A literature search from January 2000 to April 2015 was conducted using the key words "prostate disease," "educational program," "knowledge," "prostate cancer," "demographic factors and prostate cancer," "knowledge and prostate cancer," "education for patients with prostate cancer," "factors that affect intention to screen," "knowledge, beliefs, and intention to screen for prostate cancer," "impact of prostate educational program on beliefs," and "impact of educational program on intention to screen." Results: Majority of studies reviewed indicated that men had low levels of knowledge regarding prostate cancer, and mild to moderate beliefs with good intention to screen for prostate cancer. Conclusions: Most studies indicated that men's knowledge levels about prostate cancer were poor and they had mild to moderate beliefs and intentions to screen for prostate cancer. Therefore, development of an assessment strategy based on the Health Belief Model seems essential. An effectively designed and implemented educational program can help identify the needs and priorities of the target population.

The association of family history of prostate cancer with the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer in Korean population

  • Park, Jee Soo;Koo, Kyo Chul;Chung, Byung Ha;Lee, Kwang Suk
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
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    • v.60 no.6
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    • pp.442-446
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The impact of family history on the diagnosis of the prostate cancer among Asian population remains controversial. We evaluated whether a positive family history of the prostate cancer in Korean men is associated with the diagnosis and aggressiveness of the prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy from March 2015 to September 2017 were evaluated. Information on family history was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire. The presence of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7) was evaluated according to the presence of a family history. Results: Of 602 patients (median age, 68.3 years; median prostate-specific antigen level, 6.28 ng/mL), 41 (6.8%) patients had a family history of prostate cancer. Family history was a significant factor for detecting prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.330-6.704; p=0.008). In multivariate analysis for predicting clinically significant prostate cancer, family history was a significant predictor (OR, 6.32; 95% CI; 2.790-14.298; p<0.001). Conclusions: A family history of prostate cancer in Korean men was a significant factor for predicting prostate cancer. Moreover, significant differences in the aggressive features of the disease were identified between patients with and without a family history.

Current Trends in the Incidence and Survival Rate of Urological Cancers in Korea

  • Joung, Jae Young;Lim, Jiwon;Oh, Chang-Mo;Jung, Kyu-Won;Cho, Hyunsoon;Kim, Sung Han;Seo, Ho Kyung;Park, Weon Seo;Chung, Jinsoo;Lee, Kang Hyun;Won, Young-Joo
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.607-615
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    • 2017
  • Purpose This descriptive study assessed the current trends in the incidence of urological cancers and patient survival in Korea. Materials and Methods In this nationwide retrospective observational study based on the data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database (KNCIDB), this study analyzed the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and annual percentage changes (APCs) of kidney, bladder, prostate, testicular, and penile cancers as well as cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter between 1999 and 2012. The relative survival rates (RSRs) were calculated for urological cancer patients diagnosed between 1993 and 2012 from the KNCIDB data. Results Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 66,812 individuals followed by bladder (41,549) and kidney (36,836) cancers. The overall ASR (18.26 per 100,000) increased with age because of the higher ASRs of bladder and prostate cancers in the elderly. The ASR for kidney cancer was highest in the 40-59-year-old group, whereas testicular cancer occurred most frequently before the age of 40. The incidence of most urological cancers increased (overall APC, 6.39%; p < 0.001), except for penile (APC, -2.01%; p=0.05) and bladder (APC, -0.40%; p=0.25) cancers. The overall survival increased steadily (5-year RSR, 66.4% in 1993-1995 vs. 84.2% in 2008-2012; p < 0.001), particularly for prostate (by 34.10%) and kidney (by 16.30%) cancers, but not for renal pelvis and ureter cancers (-7.20%). Conclusion The most common urological cancer in Korea was prostate cancer followed by bladder and kidney cancers. The incidence of most urological cancers, except for penile and bladder cancers, increased. Survival also increased, particularly for prostate and kidney cancers.

Prognostic Value of T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin-3 in Prostate Cancer

  • Piao, Yong-Rui;Piao, Long-Zhen;Zhu, Lian-Hua;Jin, Zhe-Hu;Dong, Xiu-Zhe
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3897-3901
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    • 2013
  • Background: Optimal treatment for prostate cancer remains a challenge worldwide. Recently, T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3) has been implicated in tumor biology but its contribution prostate cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TIM-3 as a prognostic marker in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: TIM-3 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in 137 prostate cancer tumor samples and paired adjacent benign tissue. We also performed cell proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl- 2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cell invasion assays. The effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TIM-3 (TIM-3 siRNA) in two human prostate cancer cell lines were also evaluated. Results: TIM-3 expression was higher in prostate cancer tissue than in the adjacent benign tissue (P<0.001). High TIM-3 expression was an independent predictor of both recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival. TIM-3 protein was expressed in both prostate cancer cell lines and knockdown suppressed their proliferation and invasion capacity. Conclusions: TIM-3 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in prostate cancer. Taken together, our resutlts indicate that TIM-3 is a potential prognostic marker in prostate cancer.

Significant Association of Metabolic Indices, Lipid Profile, and Androgen Levels with Prostate Cancer

  • Tewari, Reshu;Chhabra, Mohini;Natu, Shankar Madhavan;Goel, Apul;Dalela, Divakar;Goel, Madhu Mati;Rajender, Singh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9841-9846
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: To compare the metabolic indices, lipid profile, androgens, and prostate specific antigen between prostate cancer and BPH and between grades of prostate cancer in a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 95 cases of prostate cancer and 95 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prostate gland volume was measured using transrectal ultrasound. We compared insulin, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, prostate specific antigen levels and lipid profile between prostate cancer of different grades and BPH. Further, prostate cancer patients were classified into low grade and high grade. Unpaired t-test for normally distributed variables and Man-Whitney U test for non-normal variables were used to assess differences. Results: We found that prostate cancer patients had significantly higher levels of insulin, testosterone, PSA, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in comparison to their BPH counterparts. Higher levels of these parameters also correlated with a higher grade of the disease. Conclusions: We conclude that higher levels of insulin, testosterone, PSA, and cholesterol correlate with a higher risk of prostate cancer, and also with a higher grade of the disease.

Multiparametric MRI in the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer

  • Futterer, Jurgen J.
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.597-606
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    • 2017
  • Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 50 years and older in developed countries and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Multiparametric prostate MR imaging is currently the most accurate imaging modality to detect, localize, and stage prostate cancer. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer are discussed. In addition, insights are provided in imaging techniques, protocol, and interpretation.

Identification of Prostate Cancer LncRNAs by RNA-Seq

  • Hu, Cheng-Cheng;Gan, Ping;Zhang, Rui-Ying;Xue, Jin-Xia;Ran, Long-Ke
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9439-9444
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To identify prostate cancer lncRNAs using a pipeline proposed in this study, which is applicable for the identification of lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in prostate cancer tissues but have a negligible potential to encode proteins. Materials and Methods: We used two publicly available RNA-Seq datasets from normal prostate tissue and prostate cancer. Putative lncRNAs were predicted using the biological technology, then specific lncRNAs of prostate cancer were found by differential expression analysis and co-expression network was constructed by the weighted gene co-expression network analysis. Results: A total of 1,080 lncRNA transcripts were obtained in the RNA-Seq datasets. Three genes (PCA3, C20orf166-AS1 and RP11-267A15.1) showed a significant differential expression in the prostate cancer tissues, and were thus identified as prostate cancer specific lncRNAs. Brown and black modules had significant negative and positive correlations with prostate cancer, respectively. Conclusions: The pipeline proposed in this study is useful for the prediction of prostate cancer specific lncRNAs. Three genes (PCA3, C20orf166-AS1, and RP11-267A15.1) were identified to have a significant differential expression in prostate cancer tissues. However, there have been no published studies to demonstrate the specificity of RP11-267A15.1 in prostate cancer tissues. Thus, the results of this study can provide a new theoretic insight into the identification of prostate cancer specific genes.

Prostate Cancer in a Patient with a Family History of BRCA Mutation: a Case Report and Literature Review

  • Song, Won Hoon;Kim, Sung Han;Joung, Jae Young;Park, Weon Seo;Seo, Ho Kyung;Chung, Jinsoo;Lee, Kang Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.377-381
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    • 2017
  • One of the most significant risk factors for prostate cancer (PC) is a family history of the disease, with germ-line mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene (BRCA) 2 conferring the highest risk. We here report a 56-year-old man presented with painful gait disturbance and diagnosed PC with multiple disseminated bone metastases. The patient had a strong family history of breast cancer with his 2 nieces affected. Furthermore, his aunts and uncles from both sides were diagnosed with stomach, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. His genomic sequencing analysis of the BRCA genes revealed the same BRCA2 deleterious mutation that his breast cancer-affected nieces carried. Previous studies have suggested that BRCA2-mutated PC is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Our experience in the present case also indicated the urgent needs for novel treatment modality and PC screening in this high-risk group of patients.

Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer: a Case-control Study in Faisalabad, Pakistan

  • Bashir, Muhammad Naeem;Ahmad, Muhammad Riaz;Malik, Akram
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10237-10240
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    • 2015
  • Background: Prostate cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among males in Pakistan but very little is known about risk factors among the Pakistani population. Therefore a hospital-based, case-control study was carried out in Faisalabad to identify potential risk factors. Materials and Methods: This study was based on 140 prostate cancer cases and 280 normal controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios to assess the relationship between prostate cancer and different risk factors. Results: Family history of prostate cancer, age, smoking, obesity, consumption of red meat and frequent use of fat items significantly increased the prostate cancer risk (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of: 7.32; 1.79-29.8; 16.9, 5.60-50.8; 2.47, 1.17-5.18; 5.79, 2.66-12.6; 2.71, 1.07-6.91; and 3.39, 1.47-7.83, respectively. On the other hand, more consumption of fruit, fluid intake and better lifestyle (physical activity) significantly reduced the risk of developing prostate cancer with odd ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of: 0.27, 0.11-0.61; 0.05, 0.02-0.12; and 0.28, 0.13-0.58. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that age, family history of prostate cancer, smoking, obesity, fluid intake, frequent use of fat items, consumption of fruits and better lifestyle might be associated with prostate cancer among Pakistani males.