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Emerging Roles of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase

  • Kong, Hoon Young;Byun, Jonghoe
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.10-20
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    • 2013
  • Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent non-skin related cancers. It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among males in most Western countries. If prostate cancer is diagnosed in its early stages, there is a higher probability that it will be completely cured. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a non-specific phosphomonoesterase synthesized in prostate epithelial cells and its level proportionally increases with prostate cancer progression. PAP was the biochemical diagnostic mainstay for prostate cancer until the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which improved the detection of early-stage prostate cancer and largely displaced PAP. Recently, however, there is a renewed interest in PAP because of its usefulness in prognosticating intermediate to high-risk prostate cancers and its success in the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Although PAP is believed to be a key regulator of prostate cell growth, its exact role in normal prostate as well as detailed molecular mechanism of PAP regulation is still unclear. Here, many different aspects of PAP in prostate cancer are revisited and its emerging roles in other environment are discussed.

The association of family history of prostate cancer with the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer in Korean population

  • Park, Jee Soo;Koo, Kyo Chul;Chung, Byung Ha;Lee, Kwang Suk
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
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    • v.60 no.6
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    • pp.442-446
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The impact of family history on the diagnosis of the prostate cancer among Asian population remains controversial. We evaluated whether a positive family history of the prostate cancer in Korean men is associated with the diagnosis and aggressiveness of the prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy from March 2015 to September 2017 were evaluated. Information on family history was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire. The presence of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7) was evaluated according to the presence of a family history. Results: Of 602 patients (median age, 68.3 years; median prostate-specific antigen level, 6.28 ng/mL), 41 (6.8%) patients had a family history of prostate cancer. Family history was a significant factor for detecting prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.330-6.704; p=0.008). In multivariate analysis for predicting clinically significant prostate cancer, family history was a significant predictor (OR, 6.32; 95% CI; 2.790-14.298; p<0.001). Conclusions: A family history of prostate cancer in Korean men was a significant factor for predicting prostate cancer. Moreover, significant differences in the aggressive features of the disease were identified between patients with and without a family history.

Enhancing Knowledge, Beliefs, and Intention to Screen for Prostate Cancer via Different Health Educational Interventions: a Literature Review

  • Saleh, Ahmad M;Fooladi, Marjaneh M;Petro-Nustas, Wasileh;Dweik, Ghadeer;Abuadas, Mohammad H
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7011-7023
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    • 2015
  • Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting men globally, constituting the sixth leading cause of cancer related death in males, and the eleventh leading cause of death from cancer in all age groups. In Jordan, prostate cancer is the third most common cancer in the male population, accounting for one third (6.2%) of cancer related deaths and in 2010 alone, 218 (9.4%) new cases were identified. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of different health education interventions aimed at enhancing knowledge, beliefs and intention to screen for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: A literature search from January 2000 to April 2015 was conducted using the key words "prostate disease," "educational program," "knowledge," "prostate cancer," "demographic factors and prostate cancer," "knowledge and prostate cancer," "education for patients with prostate cancer," "factors that affect intention to screen," "knowledge, beliefs, and intention to screen for prostate cancer," "impact of prostate educational program on beliefs," and "impact of educational program on intention to screen." Results: Majority of studies reviewed indicated that men had low levels of knowledge regarding prostate cancer, and mild to moderate beliefs with good intention to screen for prostate cancer. Conclusions: Most studies indicated that men's knowledge levels about prostate cancer were poor and they had mild to moderate beliefs and intentions to screen for prostate cancer. Therefore, development of an assessment strategy based on the Health Belief Model seems essential. An effectively designed and implemented educational program can help identify the needs and priorities of the target population.

Effectiveness of the Transrectal Ultrasonography in the Detection of Prostate Cancer: in Patients with Prostate Specific Antigen of 10 ng/ml or Less (전립선암 발견에 있어 경직장 초음파 검사의 유용성: 전립선특이항원 수치가 10 ng/ml 이하인 환자를 대상으로)

  • Chang, Han-Won;Cho, Jae-Ho
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.191-197
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    • 2004
  • Background: This study was performed to reconsider the efficacy of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in diagnosing prostate cancer by analyzing the results of a digital rectal examination (DRE), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and a transrectal ultrasonography in patients with prostate specific antigen levels of 10 ng/ml or less. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and eighty one men with PSA levels of 10 ng/ml or less, who had a TRUS-guided tissue biopsy performed, were included in this study. The detection rate of prostate cancer was compared according to the TRUS result and the presence or absence of nodularity and the consistency of the prostate on DRE. Results: In a total 181 patients, there were 73 patients with PSA levels of 4 ng/ml or less and 4 of them had prostate cancer. Thre were 108 patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml and 18 of them were prostate cancer. TRUS was performed in 152 patients and 16 out of 58 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 3 out of 39 diagnosed with suspicious prostate cancer, and 2 out of 55 patients diagnosed as having no prostate cancer were found to have prostate cancer. In 40 patients, a nodule was palpated on DRE and 8 of them were found to have prostate cancer. Five out of 19 patients with a stony hard consistency, 3 of 12 with a firm to hard consisency, 12 of 129 with a firm consistency, 0 of 13 with a soft to firm consistency, and 2 of 8 with a soft consistency were prostate cancer. In the prostate cancer patients, there were 4 patients with PSA levels of 4 ng/ml or less and all these patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer or suspicious prostate cancer on TRUS but the nodule was not palpated in all patients. Two were soft and 2 were firm consistency on DRE. Conclusion: In patients with serum PSA levels of 10 ng/ml or less, TRUS is a more useful supporting method than DRE and a more active application of TRUS may lead to an early diagnosis and pertinent treatment of prostate cancer.

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Significant Association of Metabolic Indices, Lipid Profile, and Androgen Levels with Prostate Cancer

  • Tewari, Reshu;Chhabra, Mohini;Natu, Shankar Madhavan;Goel, Apul;Dalela, Divakar;Goel, Madhu Mati;Rajender, Singh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9841-9846
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: To compare the metabolic indices, lipid profile, androgens, and prostate specific antigen between prostate cancer and BPH and between grades of prostate cancer in a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 95 cases of prostate cancer and 95 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prostate gland volume was measured using transrectal ultrasound. We compared insulin, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, prostate specific antigen levels and lipid profile between prostate cancer of different grades and BPH. Further, prostate cancer patients were classified into low grade and high grade. Unpaired t-test for normally distributed variables and Man-Whitney U test for non-normal variables were used to assess differences. Results: We found that prostate cancer patients had significantly higher levels of insulin, testosterone, PSA, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in comparison to their BPH counterparts. Higher levels of these parameters also correlated with a higher grade of the disease. Conclusions: We conclude that higher levels of insulin, testosterone, PSA, and cholesterol correlate with a higher risk of prostate cancer, and also with a higher grade of the disease.

No Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Prostate Cancer in Sanandaj, West of Iran

  • Khodabandehloo, Mazaher;Hosseini, Weria;Rahmani, Mohammad-Reza;Rezaee, Mohammad-Ali;Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad-Saied;Nikkhoo, Bahram;Jalili, Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6929-6933
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    • 2013
  • Background: Multiple etiologies have been hypothesized for prostate cancer, including genetic defects and infectious agents. A recently reported gamaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported to be detected in prostate cancer. However, this virus has not been detected in similar groups of patients in other studies. Herein, we sought to detect XMRV in prostate cancers and benign controls in Sanandaj, west of Iran. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, genomic DNA was extracted from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded prostate tissues from a total of 163 Iranian patients. We developed a conventional and a nested PCR assay using primers targeting to an env specific sequence of XMRV. PCR assays were carried out on 63 prostate cancers and 100 benign prostate hyperplasias. Results: Beta-actin sequences were successfully detected in the DNA extracts from all prostate tissues, confirming DNA extraction integrity. We did not detect XMRV in samples either from prostate cancers or benign prostate hyperplasias using XMRV specific primers. Conclusions: We conclude that in our population XMRV does not play a role in genesis of prostate cancer.

Prognostic Value of T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin-3 in Prostate Cancer

  • Piao, Yong-Rui;Piao, Long-Zhen;Zhu, Lian-Hua;Jin, Zhe-Hu;Dong, Xiu-Zhe
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3897-3901
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    • 2013
  • Background: Optimal treatment for prostate cancer remains a challenge worldwide. Recently, T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3) has been implicated in tumor biology but its contribution prostate cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TIM-3 as a prognostic marker in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: TIM-3 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in 137 prostate cancer tumor samples and paired adjacent benign tissue. We also performed cell proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl- 2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cell invasion assays. The effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TIM-3 (TIM-3 siRNA) in two human prostate cancer cell lines were also evaluated. Results: TIM-3 expression was higher in prostate cancer tissue than in the adjacent benign tissue (P<0.001). High TIM-3 expression was an independent predictor of both recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival. TIM-3 protein was expressed in both prostate cancer cell lines and knockdown suppressed their proliferation and invasion capacity. Conclusions: TIM-3 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in prostate cancer. Taken together, our resutlts indicate that TIM-3 is a potential prognostic marker in prostate cancer.

A TRUS Prostate Segmentation using Gabor Texture Features and Snake-like Contour

  • Kim, Sung Gyun;Seo, Yeong Geon
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.103-116
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    • 2013
  • Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in men and is a major cause of mortality in the most of countries. In many diagnostic and treatment procedures for prostate disease accurate detection of prostate boundaries in transrectal ultrasound(TRUS) images is required. This is a challenging and difficult task due to weak prostate boundaries, speckle noise and the short range of gray levels. In this paper a method for automatic prostate segmentation in TRUS images using Gabor feature extraction and snake-like contour is presented. This method involves preprocessing, extracting Gabor feature, training, and prostate segmentation. The speckle reduction for preprocessing step has been achieved by using stick filter and top-hat transform has been implemented for smoothing the contour. A Gabor filter bank for extraction of rotation-invariant texture features has been implemented. A support vector machine(SVM) for training step has been used to get each feature of prostate and nonprostate. Finally, the boundary of prostate is extracted by the snake-like contour algorithm. A number of experiments are conducted to validate this method and results showed that this new algorithm extracted the prostate boundary with less than 10.2% of the accuracy which is relative to boundary provided manually by experts.

Extracting The Prostate Boundary Using Direction Features of Prostate Boundary On Ultrasound Prostate Image

  • Park, Jae Heung;Seo, Yeong Geon
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2016
  • Traditionally, in the hospital the doctors saw the TRUS images by their eyes and manually segmented the boundary between the prostate and nonprostate. But the manually segmenting process not only needed too much time but also had different boundaries according to the doctor. To cope the problems, some automatic segmentations of the prostate have been studied to generate the constant segmentation results and get the belief from patients. Besides, on detecting the boundary, the ones in the middle of all images are easy to find the boundary but the base and apex of the images are hard to do it since there are lots of uncertain boundary. Accurate detection of prostate boundaries is a challenging and difficult task due to weak prostate boundaries, speckle noises and the short range of gray levels. In this paper, we propose the method that extracts a prostate boundary using features of its directions on prostate image. As a result of our experiments, it shows that the boundary never falls short of the existing methods or human expert's segmentation. And also, its searching speed is too fast because the method searches a smaller area that other methods.

Extended use of P504S Positive Primary Circulating Prostate Cell Detection to Determine the Need for Initial Prostate Biopsy in a Prostate Cancer Screening Program in Chile

  • Murray, Nigel P.;Reyes, Eduardo;Fuentealba, Cynthia;Jacob, Omar;Orellana, Nelson
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9335-9339
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    • 2014
  • Background: To determine the frequency of primary circulating prostate cells (CPC) detection according to age and serum PSA levels in a cohort of men undergoing screening for prostate cancer and to determine the diagnostic yield in those men complying with the criteria for prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out to analyze all men evaluated in a hospital prostate cancer screening program. Primary CPCs were obtained by differential gel centrifugation and detected using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-PSA, positive samples undergoing a second process with anti-P504S. A malignant primary CPC was defined as PSA+ P504S+, and a test positive if 1 cell/4ml was detected. The frequency of primary CPC detection was compared with age and serum PSA levels. Men with a PSA >4.0ng/ml and/or abnormal rectal examination underwent 12 core prostate biopsy, and the results were registered as cancer/no-cancer and compared with the presence/absence of primary CPCs to calculate the diagnostic yield. Results: A total of 1,117 men participated; there was an association of primary CPC detection with increasing age and increasing serum PSA. Some 559 men underwent initial prostate biopsy of whom 207/559 (37.0%) were positive for primary CPCs and 183/559 (32.0%) had prostate cancer detected. The diagnostic yield of primary CPCs had a sensitivity of 88.5%, a specificity of 88.0%, and positive and negative predictive values of 78.3% and 94.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The use of primary CPCs for testing is recommended, since its high negative predictive value could be used to avoid prostate biopsy in men with an elevated PSA and/or abnormal DRE. Men positive for primary CPCs should undergo prostate biopsy. It is a test that could be implemented in the routine immunocytochemical laboratory.