• Title, Summary, Keyword: proprietary medicine

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Effect of Ephedrine on the Levels of Biogenic Amines and Their Metabolites in Rat Brain (Ephedrine이 뇌내 Biogenic Amine 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyung-Eun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.153-164
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    • 1995
  • Sympathomimetic amines, especially ephedrine, are a major ingredient in proprietary medications for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections. Their frequent uses can lead to occasional instances of abuse and habituation. The clinical symptoms of ephedrine abuse are similar to that of amphetamine psychosis and resemble closely that of schizophrenia. Because both amphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia are thought to be mediated primarily through the action on catecholamines, ephedrine-induced changes of the biogenic amines can be suspected. However, there were few studies about the central effects of ephedrine because of the milder central action than peripheral. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to elucidate the relations between the effects of single or repeated administration of ephedrine on the regional levels of biogenic amines in rat brain and ephedrine-induced CNS stimulation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing $100{\sim}200\;g$ were used. After single or repeated administrations of ephedrine, blocks of tissue were obtained from frontal cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra and cerebellum. The concentration of biogenic amines(norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT)) and their metabolites (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid(HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid(5-HIAA)) were measured by means of high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector(HPLC-ECD). The results obtained were as follows: 1) In the normal rat, the concentration of norepinephrine was the highest in hypothalamus. Dopamine, DOPAC and HVA were highest in corpus striatum, and 5-HT and 5-HIAA were highest in substantia nigra. Epinephrine was not detectable in any part of the brain tissue. 2) In a single administration of ephedrine, the concentration of DOPAC was decreased in corpus striatum. However, the other biogenic amines and their metabolites were not changed. 3) In repeated administration of ephedrine, the concentration of norepinephrine was decreased in all brain region checked. Dopamine was decreased in corpus striatum and substantia nigra and, increased in hypothalamus, and HVA was decreased in corpus striatum. 5-HT was decreased in all brain region except cerebellum and, 5-HIAA was decreased only in frontal cortex. The ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT was increased in corpus striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and substantia nigra. These data indicated that, although a single administration of ephedrine did not change the central neurotransmitters, repeated administration of ephedrine caused the decreases of norepinephrine and 5-HT in the most regions of brain, which may be responsible for the emergence of abnormal behavioral effect after ephedrine abuse.

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