• Title, Summary, Keyword: proprietary medicine

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A study of how proprietary medicines during the Japanese colonial period led to transforms in Korean medicine and Korean medicine prescriptions (일제강점기 매약을 통해 본 한약의 제형 변화와 새로운 한약 처방의 경향성에 대한 고찰)

  • Hwang, Jihye;Kim, Namil
    • The Journal of Korean Medical History
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.99-112
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we examine the changes to Korean medicine that occurred when 'proprietary medicines' (賣藥) swept through the pharmaceutical market during the Japanese occupation (1910-1945 C.E.). Proprietary medicine during the Japanese colonial period took various forms including ready-made, over-the-counter, patent, and nostrum type pharmaceuticals. This paper examines how Korean medicine, which was the dominant form of medicine during the Joseon Dynasty, was forced to adapt to the rise of proprietary medicines. We found that the prescription of Korean medicine herbal decoctions became more like proprietary medicine in the way that they were formulated. In addition, prescriptions in Korean medicine books were reformulated with prescriptions and medicines from outside the tradition. Proprietary medicines, many of which were made with secret recipes handed down in a family, also attracted attention. Such prescriptions were made famous through advertisements and further influenced future Korean medicine doctors. New prescriptions took advantage of the trust and authority existing in traditional Korean medicine by introducing ginseng and traditional medicinal herbs such as deer antler velvet (鹿茸, Cervi Parvum Cornu). This paper argues that proprietary medicine of the Japanese colonial period distorted the concept of traditional herbal medicine.

Pharmacological Evaluation of Proprietary Preparation from Bacterial Metabolites with Special Reference to its Immunomodulatory Actions

  • Auddy, Biswajit;Mitra, Susil K.;Mukherjee, Biswapati
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 1999
  • A mixture of several bacterial metabolites $(Sterodin{\circledR})$ was used to study its effect on major immunocytes, in vivo and in vitro. This mixture of bacterial metabolites increased number of macrophages and neutrophils and their phagocytic activity in experimental animals for a transient period. BSA induced antibody production was found to be higher in the drug treated group. These results indicated that the bacterial metabolites probably acted through non-specific defence mechanism against invading organisms and the chance of reinfection was reduced.

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A Preliminary Study for the Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines of Korean Medicine for Bladder Cancer (방광암(膀胱癌)의 한의학적 진료지침 개발을 위한 기초 연구)

  • Park, Tae-yeol;Yoo, Hwa-seong;Lee, Sang-hun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.911-928
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study presents Korean medicine clinical practice guidelines for bladder cancer, of which the 5-year survival rate has still been about 75% since the 1990s despite the rapid development of medical science. Methods: A consensus was reached by an expert committee composed of professors and researchers who specialize in Korean medicine on the basis of a literature review that included other countries' clinical guidelines and a textbook. Results: Traditional Chinese medicine clinical practice guidelines were published for the first time in 2014. In Korea, the medical system is different from China in that Korea has completely dualized Korean and Western medicine and a low availability of proprietary herbal medicines. Therefore, these Korean medicine clinical practice guidelines for treating bladder cancer based on the previously published guidelines of Chinese medicine will help first-line Korean medicine doctors. Conclusions: Further studies related to Korean medicine are necessary to develop more advanced Korean medicine clinical practice guidelines for treating bladder cancer.

A Case of Mental Change in a Patient Who Received a Zoletil Injection (조레틸 주사 후 의식 변화를 주소로 내원한 환자 1례)

  • Lee, Yeong Ki;Kang, In Gu;Park, Cheol Sang;Heo, Seok Jin;Chai, Youn Seok;Park, Seong Soo;Lee, Jae Kwang;Kim, Hyun Jin;Jeong, Won Joon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2013
  • Zoletil is a non-opioid, non-barbiturate animal anesthetic and proprietary combination of two drugs, a dissociative anesthetic drug, tiletamine, with the benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug, zolazepam. Zoletil has greater potency than ketamine. Zoletil is abused for recreational purposes, especially by people with easy access to medicine. However, in Korea, it is available over-the-counter. Here we report on a case of an 83-year-old woman who received injection of seven vials of "Zoletil 50" by her daughter and presented with an altered mental change. Her mental state was stupor and vital sign was hypotension, bradycardia. Her blood tests indicated metabolic and respiratory acidosis and hyperkalemia. She was treated with intravenous naloxone and flumazenil but was not responsive. She was admitted to the ICU and treated with supportive therapy. Her mental state showed transient recovery, however, her clinical manifestation worsened and she expired.

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A Case Report of Recurred Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patient Treated with Radio-Frequency Hyperthermia in Conjunction with Sorafenib (고주파 온열치료와 소라페닙을 병용하여 호전된 재발성 간암환자 1례)

  • Kim, Jee-Hye;Lee, Jong-Hoon;Joo, Jong-Cheon;Lee, Jeong-Bok;Cho, Chong-Kwan;Yoo, Hwa-Seung
    • Journal of Korean Traditional Oncology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.63-74
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    • 2016
  • Objective : The purpose of this study is to report the effects of radio-frequency hyperthermia cancer treatment in conjunction with Sorafenib on hepatocellular carcinoma patient. Method : The patient was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma at S6/7 and treated with right posterior sectionectomy. After 4 months, tumor recurrence was found at S4, 5 and 8. After transarterial chemoembolization, the patient was prescribed Sorafenib (proprietary name $Nexavar^{(R)}$ ) as well as proceeding with radio-frequency hyperthermia. The clinical outcomes were measured by computed tomography, laboratory findings including tumor markers (AFP, PIVKA-II), natural killer (NK) cell activity, and numeric rating scales (NRS). Results : After the treatment, tumor size was decreased accompanying by reducing the level of tumor markers (AFP, PIVKA-II). Major clinical symptoms were improved with increasing NK cell activity. There were no adverse events based on National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Conclusion : This case suggests that radio-frequency hyperthermia has synergistic effect for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma patient in conjunction with Sorafenib.

Comparative Characterization Study on Quality Attributes of Vegetable and Gelatin as Capsule Shell of Soft Capsule (연질캡슐 피막물질로서 식물성 성분 원료와 젤라틴에 대한 품질특성 비교)

  • Kim, Dong Wook;Weon, Kwon Yeon
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.70-76
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    • 2015
  • A Softgel is an oral dosage form for medicine similar to capsules and softgel dosage form offers several advantages over other oral dosage forms, such as delivering a liquid matrix designed to solubilize and improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble compound as a unit dose solid dosage form, delivering low and ultra-low doses of a compound. This study aimed to qualify a proprietary vegetable soft capsule which contains modified starch and carrageenan as capsule shell components compare to the conventional gelatin softgel. Four kinds of samples were prepared with vegetable and gelatin capsule shell, respectively. Morphology of capsule shell, mechanical strength of capsule, and hygroscopic properties were studied for comparing the quality attributes of softgel. Short-term stability against heat and moisture was also investigated in this study. Vegetable capsule shell showed better mechanical strength, physical stability and disintegration time for temperature and humidity than those of conventional gelatin capsule shell with four different filling materials used frequently as soft capsule form. Conclusively, this vegetable capsule shell polymer system can replace easily gelatin-shell systems and additionally allows encapsulation of lipid fills at high temperatures that are semisolid or solid-like at room temperature.

Evaluation of Standardized Uptake Value applying EQ PET across different PET/CT scanners and reconstruction (PET/CT 장비와 영상 재구성 차이에 따른 EQ PET을 이용한 표준섭취계수의 평가)

  • Yoon, Seok Hwan;Kim, Byung Jin;Moon, Il Sang;Lee, Hong Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2018
  • Purpose Standardized uptake value(SUV) has been widely used as a quantitative metric of uptake in PET/CT for diagnosis of malignant tumors and evaluation of tumor therapy response. However, the SUV depends on various factor including PET/CT scanner specifications and reconstruction parameter. The purpose of this study is to validate a EQ PET to evaluate SUV across different PET/CT systems. Materials and Methods First, NEMA IEC body phantom data were used to calculate the EQ filter for OSEM3D with PSF and TOF reconstruction from three different PET/CT systems in order to obtain EARL compliant recovery coefficients of each spheres. The Biograph true point 40 PET/CT images were reconstructed with a OSEM3D+PSF reconstruction, images of the Biograph mCT 40 and Biograph mCT 64 PET/CT scanners were reconstructed with a OSEM3D+PSF, OSEM3D+TOF, OSEM3D+PSF+TOF. Post reconstructions, the proprietary EQ filter was applied to the reconstruction data. Recovery coefficient can be estimated by ratio of measured to true activity concentration for spheres of different volume and coefficient variability(CV) value of RC for each sphere was compared. For clinical study, we compared SUVmax applying different reconstruction algorithms in FDG PET images of 61 patients with lung cancer using Biograph mCT 40 PET/CT scanner. Results For the phantom studied, the mean values of CV for OSEM3D, OSEM3D+PSF, OSEM3D+TOF and OSEM3D+PSF+TOF reconstructions were 0.05, 0.04, 0.04 and 0.03 respectively for RC. Application of the proprietary EQ filter, the mean values of CV for OSEM3D, OSEM3D+PSF, OSEM3D+TOF and OSEM3D+PSF+TOF reconstructions were 0.04, 0.03, 0.03 and 0.02 respectively for RC. Clinical study, there were no statistical significance of the difference applying EQ PET on SUVmax of 61 patients FDG PET image. (p=1.000) Conclusion This study indicates that CV values of RC in phantom were decreased after applying EQ PET for different PET/CT system and The EQ PET reduced reconstruction dependent variation in SUVs for 61 lung cancer patients, Therefore, EQ PET will be expected to provide accurate quantification when the patient is scanned on different PET/CT system.

Digital Watermarking of Medical Image Based on Public Key Encryption Algorithm Considering ROI (ROI를 고려한 공개키 암호화 알고리즘 기반 의료영상 디지털 워터마킹)

  • Lee Hyung-Kyo;Kim Hee-Jung;Seong Tack-Young;Kwon Ki-Ryong;Lee Jong-Keuk
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.8 no.11
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    • pp.1462-1471
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    • 2005
  • Recently, the medical image has been digitized by the development of computer science and digitization of the medical devices. There are needs for database service of the medical image and long term storage because of the construction of PACS(picture archiving and communication system) following DICOM(digital imaging communications in medicine) standards, telemedicine, and et al. However, it also caused some kinds of problems, such as illegal reproduction of medical image, proprietary rights and data authentication. In this paper, we propose the new digital watermarking technique for medical image based on public key encryption algorithm for integrity verification. It prevents illegal forgery that can be caused after transmitting medical image data remotely. The watermark is the value of bit-plane in wavelet transform of the original image for certification method of integrity verification. We proposed the embedding regions are randomly chosen considering ROI, and a digital signature is made using hash function of MD5 which input is a secret key. The experimental results show that the watermark embedded by the proposed algorithm can survive successfully in image processing operations and that the watermark's invisibility is good.

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Immunogenicity and Safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescent (한국의 건강한 소아청소년을 대상으로 한 인플루엔자 사백신의 면역원성과 안전성 연구)

  • Ri, Soohyun;Kim, Mi Jeong;Kim, Yun-Kyung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) among healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods: From October to December 2008, 65 healthy patients aged 6 months to 18 years who visited Korea University Ansan Hospital for influenza vaccination were enrolled in this study. We measured the hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers at baseline and 30 days after vaccinating enrollees with split influenza vaccine and calculated the seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers, and seroconversion rates. Local and systemic adverse events were assessed after vaccination. Results: The seroprotection rates against all three viral strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) were 87.7%, 89.2%, and 89.2% (${\geq}70%$), respectively; seroconversion rates were 44.6%, 73.8%, and 63.1% (${\geq}40%$), respectively; and seroconversion factors were 4.5, 8.4, and 10.5 (>2.5), respectively. The TIV immunogenicity was acceptable according to the CPMP (Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products) criteria. Although 48 patients (73.8%) reported one or more adverse events, no severe adverse events such as anaphylaxis and convulsion were observed. Forty-two patients (64.6%) reported a local skin reaction, including redness (29.2%), pain (43.1%), or swelling (41.5%) of the injected site, and 26 (40.0%) reported a systemic reaction: fatigue (23.1%), myalgia (20.0%), headache (10.8%), arthralgia (10.8%), chills (9.2%), or fever (7.7%). Conclusions: This study shows that the immunogenicity of the TIV vaccine is acceptable. As there were no serious adverse events aside from local reactions and mild systemic reactions, this vaccine can be safely used among healthy Korean children and adolescents.

Drugs Most Frequently Used in OPD of Yeungnam University Hospital: March to August, 1985 (영남대학교 의과대학 부속병원 외래환자에 대한 약물처방 동향의 분석)

  • Lee, Kwang-Youn;Kim, Won-Joon;Kim, Sung-Hoon
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 1985
  • This report offers descriptive data about the drugs utilized in out patient department (OPD) of Yeungnam University Hospital (YUH) in the period of march to august in 1985. The data in this report were produced by the computerized totalization of the number of mentions of individual drugs included in the prescriptions. The 100 drug entries that were most frequently recorded are listed in rank order. The listing is arbiturarily restricted to the drugs that were prescribed as single preparations, the drugs of basis of compound preparations and the drugs of adjuvent or corrective of compound preparations that have significant therapeutic effects either by generic names. And in addition, the listing also involves the compound preparations used in relatively large frequency, and the individual components of which have the unique pharmacological actions each other by proprietary names. And all routes of administrations were allowed. The 10 drugs most frequently named are diazepam, aluminum compounds, acetaminophen, isoniazid, metoclopramide, $polaramine^{(R)}$, carboxymethylcystem, ephedrine, codeine and caroverine in order. The 521,855 drug mentions listed as above are described by the chief therapeutic usage that each is intended to apply generally. The drugs which account the largest proportion of total mentions were those acting on the central nervous system (20.57%), including tranquilhzers and sedative hypnotics (11.71%), analgesic antipyretics (5.55%), antidepressants (2.15%) etc. Gastrointestinal drugs and smooth muscle preparations (18.64%) included antacids and anti-ulcer drugs (9.24%), antiemetics (3.57%), spasmolytics (3.14%) and others. Respiratory drugs (16.11%) included expectorants and cough preparations (10.99%) and bronchodilators (5.12%). Chemotherapeutic agents (15.12%) included the antiTbc drugs (7.09%) most frequently, and the penicillins (3.33%) accounted the largest proportion among the antibiotics. Cardiovascular drugs (5.64%) included cardiac drugs and coronary vasodilator (4.12%) and antihypertensives and vasodilators (1.06%). And anti-inflammatory drugs (4.33%), vitamins of single preparations (3.76%), hormones and their antagonists (3.29%), common cold preparations (3.12%), diuretics (2.81%), drugs supporting liver function (2.02%), drugs affecting autonomic nervous system(1.89%) including anti-glaucomas, atropine and cerebral vasodilators, antihistamine drugs (1.02%) and disinfectants (0.74%) were following in order. The data in this report were compared to those reported by H. Koch, et al. in United States (US), 1981 as "Drugs Most Frequently Used in Office Practice:National Ambulatory Medical Case Survey, 1981." Cardiovascular drugs prescribed in YUH were much less in proportion than in US (10.56%), but gastrointestinal drugs accounted the larger proportion than in US (3.72%). Expectorants and cough preparations in YUH also accounted the larger proportion than in US (2.74%). In conclusion, in the period of march to august, 1985, OPD of YUH prescribed the CNS drugs including diazepam most frequently, and gastrointestinal, repiratory and chemotherapeutic drugs in next orders. It is supposed that the eating habits of Koreans and a unique atmospheric condition in Taegu as a basin were some important factors that affected the proportions of drugs acting on gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

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