• Title, Summary, Keyword: prognostic biomarker

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Adenosine Deaminase - a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Kelgandre, Deepak Chandrakant;Pathak, Jigna;Patel, Shilpa;Ingale, Pramod;Swain, Niharika
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1865-1868
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    • 2016
  • Background: The number of patients with oral cancer in India is increasing gradually (especially in younger people). Although the diagnostic modalities and therapeutic management of oral cancer are improving, the treatment outcome and prognosis of oral cancer remain poor. The absence of definite early warning symptoms for most head and neck cancers suggests that sensitive and specific biomarkers are likely to be important in screening for high-risk patients. Aims: To analyze serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases who reported to our institute. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed on 100 histopathologically proven cases of OSCC (study group) and 100 normal healthy individuals (control group). Independent sample and one sample t-tests and one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey's POST HOC test were conducted for analysis. Results: Statistically significant increase in serum ADA levels was observed in OSCC cases compared to the control group. Also serum ADA level increased significantly with the histopathological grade. Conclusions: Serum ADA levels in OSCC may be a useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in clinical practice and our findings suggest that a large-scale study is warranted to confirm clinical utility as a prognostic and diagnostic biomarker.

Clinicopathological Significance of Osteopontin in Cholangiocarcinoma Cases

  • Laohaviroj, Marut;Chamgramol, Yaovalux;Pairojkul, Chawalit;Mulvenna, Jason;Sripa, Banchob
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2016
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is generally a rare primary liver tumor of the bile duct with extremely poor clinical outcomes due to late diagnosis. Osteopontin (OPN) is the most abundant expressed gene in intrahepatic CCA and its involvement in tumor aggressiveness suggests it could be a useful prognostic biomarker. However, the prognostic significance of OPN expression in CCA is still controversial. We therefore immunohistochemically studied OPN expression in 354 resected CCAs and correlated the results with patient clinicopathological parameters. OPN expression was separately scored according to the percentage of cancer cells or degree of stromal tissue staining and classified as low (score 0-1) and high (score 2-3). OPN expression in CCA cells was found in 177 out of 354 patients (56.5%), whereas stroma was positive in 185 out of 354 patients (52.3%). Univariate analysis with several of the aforementioned parameters revealed that stromal but not cancer cell OPN expression was significantly associated with tumor size, tumor direct invasion into normal liver parenchyma, regional lymph node metastasis and higher staging. The combination of cancer cell and stromal OPN expression demonstrated a positive trend for linkage with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis identified gender, the presence of lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis, but not OPN expression, as independent prognostic factors. This study confirms the presence of stromal OPN expression in tumor aggressiveness but not survival in CCA patients.

SPINK1 promotes cell growth and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma and acts as a novel prognostic biomarker

  • Xu, Liyun;Lu, Changchang;Huang, Yanyan;Zhou, Jihang;Wang, Xincheng;Liu, Chaowu;Chen, Jun;Le, Hanbo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.12
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    • pp.648-653
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    • 2018
  • Serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) plays a role in protecting the pancreas against premature activation of trypsinogen and is involved in cancer progression. SPINK1 promoted LAC cells growth, migration, and invasion. Mechanistically, we found that SPINK1 promoted LAC cells migration and invasion via up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12). We observed that SPINK1 expression was only up-regulated in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) tissues, and was an independent prognostic factor for poor survival. Our results indicate that SPINK1 might be a potential biomarker for LAC that promotes progression by MMP12.

FOXA1: a Promising Prognostic Marker in Breast Cancer

  • Hu, Qing;Luo, Zhou;Xu, Tao;Zhang, Jun-Ying;Zhu, Ying;Chen, Wei-Xian;Zhong, Shan-Liang;Zhao, Jian-Hua;Tang, Jin-Hai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2014
  • Accurate diagnosis and proper monitoring of cancer patients remain important obstacles for successful cancer treatment. The search for cancer biomarkers can aid in more accurate prediction of clinical outcome and may also reveal novel predictive factors and therapeutic targets. One such prognostic marker seems to be FOXA1. Many studies have shown that FOXA1 is strongly expressed in a vast majority of cancers, including breast cancer, in which high expression is associated with a good prognosis. In this review, we summarize the role of this transcription factor in the development and prognosis of breast cancer in the hope of providing insights into utility of FOXA1 as a novel biomarker.

DNA Methylation Biomarkers for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools

  • Jiang, Wei;Cai, Rui;Chen, Qiu-Qiu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8059-8065
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    • 2016
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in southern China and south-eastern Asia. Effective strategies for the prevention or screening of NPC are limited. Exploring effective biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of NPC continues to be a rigorous challenge. Evidence is accumulating that DNA methylation alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of NPC. Over the past few decades, aberrant DNA methylation in single or multiple tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in various biologic samples have been described in NPC, which potentially represents useful biomarkers. Recently, large-scale DNA methylation analysis by genome-wide methylation platform provides a new way to identify candidate DNA methylated markers of NPC. This review summarizes the published research on the diagnostic and prognostic potential biomarkers of DNA methylation for NPC and discusses the current knowledge on DNA methylation as a biomarker for the early detection and monitoring of progression of NPC.

BLT2, a leukotriene B4 receptor 2, as a novel prognostic biomarker of triple-negative breast cancer

  • Park, JaeIn;Jang, Jae-Hyun;Park, Geun-Soo;Chung, Yunro;You, Hye Jin;Kim, Jae-Hong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.8
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    • pp.373-377
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    • 2018
  • Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered to be a notorious type of cancer due to its aggressive metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Recent evidence suggests that BLT2, a low-affinity $LTB_4$ receptor is critically associated with the phenotypes of TNBC cells, including invasion, metastasis, and survival. Furthermore, in a group of 545 breast cancer patients with metastasis, we observed that the high-BLT2 subgroup had a lower disease-free-survival rate than the low-BLT2 subgroup. Thus, we theorized that anti-BLT2 strategies could facilitate the development of new therapies used for TNBC. This review focuses on recent discoveries regarding BLT2 and its roles in as a novel prognostic biomarker in TNBC.

Stem cell niche as a prognostic factor in leukemia

  • Lee, Ga-Young;Kim, Jin-A;Oh, Il-Hoan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.8
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    • pp.427-428
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    • 2015
  • Despite high interests on microenvironmental regulation of leukemic cells, little is known for bone marrow (BM) niche in leukemia patients. Our recent study on BMs of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients showed that the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are altered during leukemic conditions in a clinical course-dependent manner. Leukemic blasts caused reprogramming of transcriptomes in MSCs and remodeling of niche cross-talk, selectively suppressing normal primitive hematopoietic cells while supporting leukemogenesis and chemo-resistance. Notably, differences in BM stromal remodeling were correlated to heterogeneity in subsequent clinical courses of AML, i.e., low numbers of mesenchymal progenitors at initial diagnosis were correlated to complete remission for 5-8 years, and high contents of mesenchymal progenitor or MSCs correlated to early or late relapse, respectively. Thus, stromal remodeling by leukemic cell is an intrinsic part of leukemogenesis that can contribute to the clonal dominance of leukemic cells over normal hematopoietic cells, and can serve as a biomarker for prediction of prognosis. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(8): 427-428]

MicroRNA-374a Expression as a Prognostic Biomarker in Lung Adenocarcinoma

  • Kim, Yeseul;Sim, Jongmin;Kim, Hyunsung;Bang, Seong Sik;Jee, Seungyun;Park, Sungeon;Jang, Kiseok
    • Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.354-360
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    • 2019
  • Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, and adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic subtype. MicroRNA is a small non-coding RNA that inhibits multiple target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and is commonly dysregulated in malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of microRNA-374a (miR-374a) in lung adenocarcinoma and correlate its expression with various clinicopathological characteristics. Methods: The expression level of miR-374a was measured in 111 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung adenocarcinoma tissues using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The correlation between miR-374a expression and clinicopathological parameters, including clinical outcome, was further analyzed. Results: High miR-374 expression was correlated with advanced pT category (chi-square test, p=.004) and pleural invasion (chi-square test, p=.034). Survival analysis revealed that patients with high miR-374a expression had significantly shorter disease-free survival relative to those with low miR-374a expression (log-rank test, p=.032). Conclusions: miR-374a expression may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for predicting recurrence in early stage lung adenocarcinoma after curative surgery.

Tumor-associated autoantibodies as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers

  • Heo, Chang-Kyu;Bahk, Young Yil;Cho, Eun-Wie
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.677-685
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    • 2012
  • In the process of tumorigenesis, normal cells are remodeled to cancer cells and protein expression patterns are changed to those of tumor cells. A newly formed tumor microenvironment elicits the immune system and, as a result, a humoral immune response takes place. Although the tumor antigens are undetectable in sera at the early stage of tumorigenesis, the nature of an antibody amplification response to antigens makes tumor-associated autoantibodies as promising early biomarkers in cancer diagnosis. Moreover, the recent development of proteomic techniques that make neo-epitopes of tumor-associated autoantigens discovered concomitantly has opened a new area of 'immuno-proteomics', which presents tumor-associated autoantibody signatures and confers information to redefine the process of tumorigenesis. In this article, the strategies recently used to identify and validate serum autoantibodies are outlined and tumor-associated antigens suggested until now as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in various tumor types are reviewed. Also, the meaning of autoantibody signatures and their clinical utility in personalized medicine are discussed.

Legumain Protein as a Potential Predictive Biomarker for Asian Patients with Breast Carcinoma

  • Wu, Mei;Shao, Guang-Rui;Zhang, Fei-Xue;Wu, Wen-Xiu;Xu, Ping;Ruan, Zheng-Min
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10773-10777
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    • 2015
  • Background: Treatment for breast cancer is mainly performed by surgical resection of primary tumors and chemotherapy. However, after tumor invasion and metastases, breast cancer is hard to control. Clarification of the pathogenic mechanisms would be helpful to the prognosis or therapy for the breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and prognostic implications of legumain protein Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined mastectomy specimens from 114 breast cancer and matching, 26 adjacent non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry. Results: The results indicated that positive expression of legumain protein in breast cancer was 51.8 % (59/114) and the positive expression of legumain protein in adjacent non-cancerous tissue was 11.5% (3/26). It appeared to be related with lymph node metastasis of breast cancer (p=0.02) and correlation analysis indicated that legumain expression was correlated positively with the estrogen receptor (ER) and mutant-type p53 expression (both p<0.05). Positive legumain expression was significantly associated with shorter overall survival time in breast cancer patients (log-rank p<0.01). Multivariate survival analysis suggested that the positive legumain expression was an independent predictor of poorer overall survival in patients with breast cancer (HR=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.65, p=0.03). Conclusions: Legumain might be a new potential biomarker for breast cancer, which may reflect the prognosis and overall survival.