• Title, Summary, Keyword: prevention

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The Dietary Effect of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Epidermal Levels of Filaggrin and Free Amino Acids during Menopause in Rats (폐경기 노화 유도 전후의 로얄제리 식이공급이 백서 표피의 필라그린과 유리아미노산 함량 및 관련 대사 효소의 단백질 발현 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yeaji;Han, Sang-Mi;Cho, Yunhi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2013
  • Epidermal hydration is mainly maintained by natural moisturizing factors (NMFs). Of these various NMFs, free amino acids (AAs) are major constituents generated by filaggrin degradation. The reduction of these AAs has been reported in aging skin induced during menopause. In this study, we examined whether the dietary supplementation of royal jelly (RJ) during the pre- and post-menopausal period alters epidermal levels of filaggrins, free AAs, and peptidylarginine deiminase-3 (PAD-3) (an enzyme involved in filaggrin degradation processes). Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: groups fed a control diet for 12 weeks, in which an ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (SHAM) were underwent at week 4; groups fed a diet with 1% RJ harvested in different area of Korea (RJ1 and RJ2); and a group fed a diet with isoflavone (IF), the typical functional food for menopause prevention, for 4 weeks before and 8 weeks after an ovariectomy operation. In the epidermis of group OVX, total filaggrins (including profilaggrin and filaggrin) were reduced; these levels in groups RJ1 and IF were similar or less than in group OVX. However, total AAs, which showed no apparent difference between groups SHAM and OVX, were highly increased in groups RJ1 and IF. Specifically, aspartate (Asp) and proline (Pro), the major AAs in functioning NMF, were highly increased in group RJ1. Although total filaggrins, profilaggrin, filaggrin and PAD3 increased, total AAs (including Asp and Pro) in group RJ2 were modest or less than in group RJ1. The PAD3 alteration was not apparent among the four other groups. Taken together, we demonstrate that the diet supplementation of RJ1 enhanced filaggrin degradation (but not through the increased protein expression of PAD3), and increased total AAs, Asp and Pro. RJ1 could be a dietary supplementation for preventing the skin aging induced during menopause.

Effects of Jeju Citrus unshiu Peel Extracts Before and After Bioconversion with Cytolase on Anti-Inflammatory Activity in RAW264.7 Cells (면역세포에서 Bioconversion 전후 제주 감귤 과피 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Seo, Jieun;Lim, Heejin;Chang, Yun-Hee;Park, Hye-Ryeon;Han, Bok-Kyung;Jeong, Jung-Ky;Choi, Kyoung-Sook;Park, Su-Beom;Choi, Hyuk-Joon;Hwang, Jinah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.331-337
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    • 2015
  • Citrus and its peels, which are by-products from juice and/or jam processing, have long been used in Asian folk medicine. Citrus peels show an abundant variety of flavanones, and these flavanones have glycone and aglycone forms. Aglycones are more potent than glycones with a variety of physiological functions since aglycone absorption is more efficient than glycones. Bioconversion with cytolase converted narirutin and naringin into naringenin and hesperidin into hesperetin. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of bioconversion of Citrus unshiu (CU) peel extracts with cytolase (CU-C) in RAW264.7 cells. HPLC chromatograms showed that CU and CU-C had 23.42% and 29.39% total flavonoids, respectively. There was substantial bioconversion of narirutin to naringenin and of hesperidin to hesperetin. All citrus peel extracts showed DPPH scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner, and CU-C was more potent than intact CU. RAW264.7 cells were pre-treated with $0{\sim}500{\mu}g/mL$ of citrus peel extracts for 4 h and then stimulated by $1{\mu}g/mL$ of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 8 h. All citrus peel extracts showed decreased mRNA levels and protein expression of LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose-dependent manner. Especially, CU-C markedly inhibited mRNA and protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 compared to intact citrus peel extracts. All citrus peel extracts showed decreased NO production by iNOS activity. This result suggests that bioconversion of citrus peel extracts with cytolase may provide potent functional food materials for prevention of chronic diseases attributable to oxidation and inflammation by boosting the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels.

In Vitro Hepatoprotective Effects of Fermented Curcuma longa L. by Aspergillus oryzae against Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress (알코올성 산화적 손상에 대한 발효울금의 간세포 보호 효과)

  • Sung, Heami;Lee, Yoo-Hyun;Jun, Woojin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.812-818
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    • 2016
  • Protective effects of fermented Curcuma longa L. (CL) against alcoholic liver damage were investigated in HepG2/2E1 cells. Fermented CL was extracted by cold water (FCC), hot water, 80% ethanol, and methanol. Of the four extracts, the strongest hepatoprotective effect against ethanol-induced oxidative stress was observed in FCC. Pretreatment with FCC also reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation compared to ethanol-alone treated cells. FCC also enhanced catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and non-enzymatic antioxidative activities such as glutathione compared to alcohol-treated HepG2/2E1 cells. Our findings suggest that FCC might be considered as a useful agent in the prevention of liver damage induced by oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant defense mechanism.

Evaluation of Biological Activity and Analysis of Functional Constituents from Different Parts of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Tree (뽕나무(Morus alba L.) 부위별 생리활성 측정 및 기능성 물질 분석)

  • Choi, Sang Won;Lee, Yu Jin;Ha, Se Bee;Jeon, Young Hee;Lee, Dong Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.823-831
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    • 2015
  • Evaluation of biological activity and analysis of functional constituents from water and ethanol extracts of four different parts of mulberry (Morus alba L.) tree were carried out to develop functional ingredients and foods using extracts of mulberry tree. The water and ethanol extracts of four different parts of mulberry tree were prepared and their biological activities and functional constituents determined by in vitro assays and HPLC, respectively. In general, ethanol extracts showed stronger biological activities and higher functional constituents than water extracts. Ethanol extracts of mulberry fruit, root bark, and twig showed stronger antioxidant ($IC_{50}=128.4{\mu}g/mL$), ${\alpha}$-glucosidase ($IC_{50}=12.0{\mu}g/mL$), and lipoxygenase ($IC_{50}=36.3{\mu}g/mL$) and tyrosinase ($IC_{50}=410.3{\mu}g/mL$) inhibitory activities, respectively, than those of other parts. Mulberry fruit and leaf showed the highest contents of anthocyanin (cyanidin 3-glucoside: 213.20 mg/100 g) and chlorogenic acid (514.97 mg/100 g), and especially ethanol extract of mulberry leaf contained higher quercetin 3-O-(6-O-malonyl)glucoside (143.25 mg/100 g) and kaempferol 3-O-(6-O-malonyl)glucoside (30.25 mg/100 g) contents without water extract of mulberry leaf. Meanwhile, mulberry twig contained both oxyresveratrol glycoside (48.90 mg/100 g) and its aglycone (21.88 mg/100 g), whereas mulberry root bark contained mostly oxyresveratrol glycoside (724.05 mg/100 g). Additionally, mulberry root bark and leaf contained much higher ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (223.90 mg/100 g) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (86.07 mg/100 g) contents, respectively, than other parts of mulberry tree. These results suggest that high quality processed foods and functional foods using mixtures of mulberry fruits, leaves, twigs, and root barks should be developed for prevention and inhibition of several pathological disorders.

Oxidative Stress Inhibitory Effects of Low Temperature-Aged Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extracts through Free Radical Scavenging Activity (저온숙성마늘의 라디칼 소거 활성을 통한 산화스트레스 억제 효과)

  • Hwang, Kyung-A;Kim, Ga Ram;Hwang, Yu-Jin;Hwang, In-Guk;Song, Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2016
  • Garlic has drawn attention as a food material for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties as well as for prevention and treatment of cancer. In order to increase efficiency, various aging methods for garlic have been attempted. In particular, thermally processed garlic is known to have higher biological activities due to its various chemical changes during heat treatment. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-oxidative effects of garlic extracts aged at low temperature ($60{\sim}70^{\circ}C$). In the results, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing ability of low temperature-aged garlic (LTAG) were similar to those of raw garlic. LTAG also showed decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of reactive oxygen species, although there were not significant differences among samples. In addition, xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited by LTAG; the 15 days and $60^{\circ}C$ extract showed outstanding inhibition compared with the others. To understand the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-oxidative activity of LTAG, we performed quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The 30 days and $70^{\circ}C$ extract upregulated mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes such as Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. This result indicates that LTAG can be a functional food as a nature antioxidant and antioxidant substance.

Antioxidant, Physiological Activities, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Portulaca oleracea Extracts with Different Extraction Methods (추출방법에 따른 쇠비름의 항산화, 생리활성 및 Acetylcholinesterase 저해활성)

  • Kwon, Yu-Ri;Cho, Sung-Mook;Hwang, Seung-Pil;Kwon, Gi-Man;Kim, Jae-Won;Youn, Kwang-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2014
  • The physiological properties of 70% ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea with different extraction methods (reflux extraction, RE; autoclave extraction, AE; low temperature high pressure extraction, LTPE) were investigated. The freeze-dried powder yields of RE, AE, and LTPE were 33.78%, 30.80%, and 11.05%, respectively. The color values of L and b were higher in LTPE, and the chroma values were higher in AE and LTPE compared to RE. The total polyphenolics and proanthocyanidin contents in LTPE were significantly higher than in other extracts. The amount of substances related to flavonoids contents was highest in RE (4.30 mg/g), followed by AE (4.06 mg/g), and LTPE (4.00 mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging ability with a concentration of 500 mg% (w/v) were in the following order; LTPE (88.87%)> RE (83.84%)> AE (80.67%). Further, the reducing power, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and nitrite scavenging activity was observed in the same tendency as seen with the DPPH radical scavenging ability. However, the ferrous ion chelating activity of RE (85.45%) and AE (83.88%) was significantly higher than that of LTPE (75.60%). ${\alpha}$-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of RE and LTPE with a concentration of 100 mg% were significantly higher than AE. Xanthine oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of LTPE were higher than the other extracts. These results suggest that the extracts from Portulaca oleracea have the potential to act as functional materials, and components of Portulaca oleracea could be effective in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease, and may be used to develop various functional food products.

Anti-Obesity Effects of Jeju Hallabong Tangor (Citrus kiyomi${\times}$ponkan) Peel Extracts in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (제주산 한라봉 과피 추출물의 지방세포에서의 항비만 효과)

  • Lim, Heejin;Seo, Jieun;Chang, Yun-Hee;Han, Bok-Kyung;Jeong, Jung-Ky;Park, Su-Beom;Choi, Hyuk-Joon;Hwang, Jinah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.1688-1694
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    • 2014
  • Jeju Hallabong Tangor (Citrus kiyomi${\times}$ponkan) is a Citrus species with a variety of physiological properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity. We investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hallabong Tangor peel extracts before (HLB) and after (HLB-C) bioconversion with cytolase based on modulation of adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment with cytolase decreased flavanone rutinoside forms (narirutin and hesperidin) and increased flavanone aglycone forms (naringenin and hesperetin). During adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 0.5 mg/mL of Sinetrol (a positive control), HLB or HLB-C. Adipocyte differentiation was inhibited in both citrus groups, but not in control and Sinetriol groups. HLB and HLB-C tended to reduce insulin-induced mRNA levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ${\alpha}$ ($C/EBP{\alpha}$) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Compared to the control and Sinetrol groups, HLB and HLB-C markedly suppressed insulin-induced protein expression of $C/EBP{\alpha}$ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$). The HLB and Sinetrol groups, but not HLB-C group, significantly increased adipolytic activity with higher release of free glycerol compared to the control group in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that bio-conversion of Hallabong Tangor peel extracts with cytolase increases aglycone flavonoids. Irrespective of bioconversion, both Hallabong Tangor peel extracts exert anti-obesity effects that may contribute to prevention of obesity through inhibition of adipocyte differentiation or induction of adipolytic activity.

Survey on the Foodborne Illness Experience and Awareness of Food Safety Practice Among Korean Consumers (식중독 경험 및 식품안전에 대한 인식 조사)

  • Park, Gyung-Jin;Chun, Seok-Jo;Park, Ki-Hwan;Hong, Chong-Hae;Kim, Jeong-Weon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness and practice of Korean consumer on food safety. A telephone survey was conducted from 1,040 adults randomly selected from each province and large city of Korea. Therefore, 12.4% of the subjects experienced foodborne illness at least once a year and 0.3% was hospitalized due to the illness. General restaurant (37.2%) and home (21.2%) were the main causative place of foodborne illness, and the most frequently associated foods were meat and meat products (41.7%) and fish and fish products (18.7%). Regarding the causative agent of foodborne illness, the respsondents were aware of Cholera (75.5%), Vibrio gastroenteritis (73%), Shigellosis (65.5%), Bacillary dysentery (65.5%) and Salmonellosis (47.5%) very well; however very few were aware of Listeriosis (9.9%) and brucellosis (8.3%) and ever believed they were not food-related illness. When the survey data were analyzed based on 3 models (Model 1: Knowledge about the pathogens associated food and water, Model 2: The awareness of food safety, Model 3: Attitudes and behavior about foodborne disease prevention and measure) by Multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the awareness of the causative agent of foodborne illness was significantly related with the previous experience of foodborne illness (OR: 1.714) followed by education level (OR: 0.536) and married status (OR: 0.527). The awareness of food safety was significatly related with education level (OR: 0.702). Education (OR: 0.816) and gender (OR:0.650) were the main factors affecting the awareness of the practice to prevent foodborne illness. However, the previous experience of foodborne illness and food safety education, and the awareness of food safety did not show any correlation, suggesting that the experience and awareness of foodborne illness do not affect the real practice of food safety.

The Effect of LDL on Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia (비브리오 패혈증에 미치는 LDL의 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Hyeon;Kim, Jong-Suk;Yoo, Wan-Hee;Hur, Hyeon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.213-217
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    • 2006
  • The halophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is known to be a foodborne pathogen that causes septicemia in human. V. vulnificus infection is characterized by the high fatality rates and the primary attack against a person who have underlying diseases such as liver cirrhosis. However, there is no effective treatment for V. vulnificus septicemia except for classical treatments such as antibiotics. Recently, it has been known that lipoprotein (LDL) plays a major role in the protection against infection and inflammation. Consequently in this paper we analyzed the effects of LDL on V. vulnificus septicemia. We purified V. vulnificus cytolysin, a major virulent factor of V. vulnificus infection and measured inhibitory effects of mouse serum, cholesterol, and LDL on its hemolytic activity. Next experiments were performed to investigate whether LDL has a protective role against septicemia induced by V. vulnificus in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of LDL (1mg as protein) into mice 3hr before V. vulnificus $(1\times10^6\;CFU)$ injection, and V. vulnificus -induced lethality was determined. For the determination the relationship between LDL or cholesterol and prognosis, we determined serum levels of cholesterol and lipoprotein from V. vulnificus septicemia patients (n=15) who had visited the Chonbuk National University Hospital in Chonju. V. vulnificus cytolysin -induced hemolysis of mice erythrocytes was completely inhibited by serum, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein. V. vulnificus- induced lethality of mice injected with LDL showed only 40% compared to 100% of control. In survival groups (n=4) of V. vulnificus septicemia patients (n=15), their serum LDL and cholesterol revealed normal levels ($153.3{\pm}40.7,\;LDL;\;190.8{\pm}16.3$, Total cholesterol). However, in death groups (n=11) showed very low levels ($35.6{\pm}13.9,\;LDL;\;59.2{\pm}15.1$, Total cholesterol). Our study indicates that cholesterol and LDL are a prognosis indicator of V. vulnificus septicemia as well as an inhibitor of virulent action of V. vulnificus cytolysin. We suggested that the serum levels of cholesterol or LDL would be major index in the treatment and prevention of V. vulnificus septicemia.

Quantitative Evaluation of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Commercial Sangshik (시판 생식에서 식중독균의 정량적 평가)

  • Kwak Hyo-Sun;Whang In-Kyun;Park Jong-Seok;Kim Mi-Gyeung;Lee Kyun-Young;Gho Young-Ho;Bae Yoon-Young;Moon Sung-Yang;Byun Ju-Sun;Kwon Ki-Sung;Woo Gun-Jo
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to survey the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in Sangshik products and their raw materials far the purpose of ensuring safety of those products in market, and establishing microbial regulatory standard. From 2002 to 2004, a total of 191 Sangshik products were purchased from market or mail-order sales, and major foodborne pathogens; E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio parahaemolyticus were tested. B. cereus, C. perfringens and E. coli were detected from 29 samples (15.2%), 21 samples (11.0%) and 1 sample (0.5%), respectively. But other tested bacteria were not detected. For the identification of contamination source, 53 Sangshik ingredients were collected from 9 different manufacture factories. The results were similar with the Sangshik products. Aerobic plate counts were ranging from $1.0X10^3cfu/g\;to\;1.5X10^8cfu/g$. B. cereus was detected from 13 samples (24.5%), and counted as less than 100 cfu/g. C. perfringens were detected from 2 samples (3.8%), and counted as less than 100 cfu/g. Other foodborne pathogens were not detected except for B. cereus and C. perfringens. From the results, it was revealed that potential of microbial hazard by Sangshik was relatively low. However, it would be suggested that hygienic management and controling be needed for the prevention of growing contaminated pathogens and cross contamination during process and sale due to improper storage and management.