• Title/Summary/Keyword: pretreatment

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The Predictive Values of Pretreatment Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score in Estimating Short- and Long-term Outcomes for Patients with Gastric Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Curative Gastrectomy

  • Jin, Hailong;Zhu, Kankai;Wang, Weilin
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.155-168
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    • 2021
  • Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score in nutritional assessment and survival prediction of patients with various malignancies. However, its value in advanced gastric cancer (GC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and curative gastrectomy remains unclear. Materials and Methods: The CONUT score at different time points (pretreatment, preoperative, and postoperative) of 272 patients with advanced GC were retrospectively calculated from August 2004 to October 2015. The χ2 test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to estimate the relationships between the CONUT score and clinical characteristics as well as short-term outcomes, while the Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate long-term outcomes. Survival curves were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: The proportion of moderate or severe malnutrition among all patients was not significantly changed from pretreatment (13.5%) to pre-operation (11.7%) but increased dramatically postoperatively (47.5%). The pretreatment CONUT-high score (≥4) was significantly associated with older age (P=0.010), deeper tumor invasion (P=0.025), and lower pathological complete response rate (CONUT-high vs. CONUT-low: 1.2% vs. 6.6%, P=0.107). Pretreatment CONUT-high score patients had worse progression-free survival (P=0.032) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.026). Adjusted for pathologic node status, the pretreatment CONUT-high score was strongly associated with worse OS in pathologic node-positive patients (P=0.039). Conclusions: The pretreatment CONUT score might be a straightforward index for immune-nutritional status assessment, while being a reliable prognostic indicator in patients with advanced GC receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and curative gastrectomy. Moreover, lower pretreatment CONUT scores might indicate better chemotherapy responses.

Anaerobic Bioconversion Potential of Blue Crab Processing Waste and Wastewater(II) -Enzymatic Pretreatment for Improving the Anaerobic Bioconversion Potential of Blue Crab Processing Wastes- (꽃게(Blue Crab) 가공 식품 제조 공정상 발생된 폐수 및 폐기물의 혐기성 생분해 가능성(II) -공정상 발생된 폐기물의 혐기성 생분해 가능성 증대를 위한 효소적 전처리-)

  • Lee, Hyung-Jib
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.115-126
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    • 1998
  • In use of anaerobic bioconversion shellfish wastes present special problems, since the chitinous structures in the shell faction degrade very slowly in an anaerobic environment. Enzymatic pretreatment method was evaluated for improving the anaerobic bioconversion potential of blue crab processing wastes. An enzymatic pretreatment using chitinase enhanced the ultimate methane yield and biodergradation rate constant for total crab solid wastes by 15% and 19% respectively, above those of the untreated wastes. When the enzymatic pretreatment applied to the shell fraction alone, it resulted in increase of 34% in the ultimate methane yield and 38% in the reaction rate. The results indicate that anaerobic bioconversion of these wastes is technically feasible and enzymatic pretreatment will improve the efficiency of the process.

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Drying Characteristics of Apple Slabs after Pretreatment with Supercritical CO2

  • Lee, Bo-Su;Choi, Yong-Hee;Lee, Won-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.261-266
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    • 2011
  • Supercritical $CO_2$ pretreatment before dehydration leads to a faster dehydration rate. The best supercritical $CO_2$ pretreatment conditions for the most effective dehydration were $45^{\circ}C$, 25 MPa and $55^{\circ}C$, 25 MPa. Increasing pressure of the supercritical $CO_2$ pretreatment system tended to accelerate the dehydration rate more than increasing temperature did. Samples pretreated at higher temperatures and pressures showed greater shrinking and pore distribution on scanning electron microscopy. Control samples maintained their cell walls, whereas samples pretreated at higher temperatures and pressures showed more cell disruption, and more pores were observed. Pore sizes of control and pretreated samples were about 100 and $70{\sim}80\;{\mu}m$, respectively. Samples pretreated at higher temperatures and pressures had smaller pores and a denser distribution.

Drug Interaction of Cimetidine and Isoniazid (시메티딘과 이소니아짓의 약물 상호작용)

  • Lee, Chong-Ki;Lee, Jin-Hwan;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 1988
  • Pharmacokinetic interaction of cimetidine and isoniazid was investigated in the rabbits. Isoniazid was administered orally at a dose of 30mg/kg to six rabbits after 10, 20, and 30mg/kg pretreatment of cimetidine twice a day for 10days. Concentration of the free and the total isoniazid in the blood and the urine was determined by spectrophotometer. Relative bioavailability and biological half-life($t\frac{1}{2}{\beta}$) were increased significantly by cimetidine pretreatment. Overall elimination rate constant and total clearance of isoniazid were decreased significantly by cimetidine pretreatment. The ratio of metabolites to isoniazid in the blood and the urine was decreased significantly by cimetidine pretreatment. Relative bioavailability, INAH to metabolites ratio in the blood and decrease in total clearance were highly correlated with the does of cimetidine pretreated. This result might be due to the inhibition of isoniazid metabolism in the liver by cimetidine pretreatment.

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Development of Cellulosic Woven Fabric for Digital Textile Printing (전처리약제에 따른 셀룰로오스 디지털텍스타일 프린팅소재의 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Son Eun Jong;Lee Young Mok;Jang Se Chan;Yi Sung Chul
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 2005
  • For developing digital printing textiles, special pretreatment processes are necessary. These processes include developing formulation of coating agent and coating processes. The pretreatment were investigated with the variation concentration of anti-migration agent, fixation chemical etc.. The printing qualities according to pretreatment conditions were studied with color yield, printed capital letter sharpness and washing fastness. It was observed that the concentration of anti-migration agent, fixation agent(alkali) was closely related to printing qualities. For developing industrial technology of cellulosic digital printing textiles, optimum viscosity of pretreatment coating formulation is very important factor.

Conversion of Woody Biomass for Utilization(II) - Preparation of Dissolving Pulp by Solvolysis from Woody Biomass - (목질계 Biomass의 변환 이용(II) - 목질계 바이오매스로부터 solvolysis법에 의한 용해용 펄프의 제조 -)

  • Yang, Jae-Kyung;Lim, Bu-Kug;Chang, Jun-Pok;Lee, Jong-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 1997
  • This research was studied for dissolving pulp preparation as the raw material of viscose rayon from woody biomass by solvolysis pretreatment. In the change of pulp characteristic after solvolysis pretreatment, the following results were obtained. In the case of solvolysis pretreatment, we have obtained pulp that high purity cellulose, and degree of polymerization was inclined to decrease less than 440 on the phosphoric acid as catalyst. Comparing phosphoric acid and formic acid as catalyst in the solvolysis pretreatment, using on formic acid catalyst is superior to phosphoric acid catalyst for making dissolving pulp.

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Morphological and Physicochemical Changes of NBKP by Alkali Pretreatment (알카리 전처리에 의한 NBKP의 형태학적 및 이화학적 변화)

  • Mun, Sung-Phil;Jang, Min-Hwan
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.58-64
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to prepare high porosity pulp for oil and air filter media from commercial grade NBKP with 6 - 20% NaOH treatment. The fiber width of NBKP remarkably decreased by NaOH pretreatment. The air permeability of the test sheet prepared from alkali-pretreated NBKP increased with increasing NaOH concentration up to 15%. The burst factor was greatly decreased by alkali pretreatment. By 15 - 20% NaOH pretreatment of NBKP, it could be possible to prepare a high porosity pulp. It seems that the high porosity of the pulp was due to a strong swelling and a great change of the cellulose crystalline lattice from cellulose I to cellulose II with NaOH treatment of NBKP. The study suggested that alkali- pretreated NBKP could be used for manufacturing oil and air filter media.

Pretreatment with SAENGCHINYANGHYOLTANG to prevent the pancreatic enzymes changes by streptozotocin in rats (고혈당(高血糖) 쥐의 췌장(膵臟) 효소활성(酵素活性)에 미치는 생진양혈탕(生津養血湯)의 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Shin-Soek;Choi, Jong-Won;Lee, Cheol-Whan
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.429-444
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    • 1994
  • The present study was undertaken in order to elucidate the effect of pretreatment with Saengchinyanghyoltang(SYT) on changes in serum glucose level, body weight. water consumption. serum insulin concentration and activities of pancreatic enzymes in rats treated with streptozocin(STZ)-induced diabetic state. Histological studies were also carried out to elevate the effects on pancreatic tissues and Langelhans islet cells. SYT pretreatment in STZ diabetic rats inhibited the rise of fasting serum glucose concentration and water consumption. Pretreatment with SYT significantly increased the concentration of blood insulin and body weight changes compared to the STZ-treated group. Pancreatic lipase and trypsin activities were increased. but amylase activity was decreased and pancreatic ${\beta}-cell$ was destroyed by STZ but. pretreatment with SYT prevented these STZ-induced changes.

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Biofilter pretreatment for the control of microfiltration membrane fouling

  • Park, Jae-Hyung;Satoshi Takizawa;Hiroyuki Katayama;Shinichiro Ohgaki
    • Proceedings of the Membrane Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2003
  • A pilot scale biofilter pretreatment-microfiltration system (BF-MF) was operated to investigate the effect of biofilter treatment in fouling reduction of microfiltration. Biofiltration was expected to reduce the membrane fouling by removal of turbidity and metal oxides. The hollow-fiber MF module with a nominal pore size of 0.1$\mu$m and a surface area of 8m$^2$ was submerged in a filtration tank and microfiltration was operated at a constant flux of 0.5 m/d. Biofiltration using polypropylene pellets was performed at a high filtration velocity of 320 m/d. Two experimental setups composed of MF and BF/MF, i.e., without and with biofilter pretreatment, were compared. Throughout the experimental period of 9 months, biofilter pretreatment was effective to reduce the membrane fouling, which was proved by the result of time variations of trans-membrane pressure and backwash conditions. The turbidity removal rate by biofiltration varied between 40% to 80% due to the periodic washing for biofilter contactor and raw water turbidity. In addition to turbidity, metals, especially Mn, Fe and Al were removed effectively with average removal rates of 89.2%, 67.8% and 64.9%, respectively. Further analysis of foulants on the used membranes revealed that turbidity and metal removal by biofiltration was the major effect of biofiltration pretreatment against microfiltration fouling.

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Effect of potassium permanganate pretreatment of pitch on the textural properties of pitch-based activated carbons

  • Kim, Dae-Won;Park, Soo-Jin
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.167-170
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    • 2011
  • Petroleum pitch-based activated carbons (ACs) were obtained in this work from a combination of pretreatment with different amounts of potassium permanganate ($KMnO_4$) and chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. The surface characteristics of the pitch after the $KMnO_4$ pretreatment were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The structural characteristics of the pitch after the $KMnO_4$ pretreatment were determined by means of X-ray diffraction. The influence of the $KMnO_4$ treatment on the textural properties of the petroleum pitch-based ACs was investigated by means of $N_2$/77K adsorption isotherms. The investigation also involved the use of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation and the Dubinin-Radushkevich method. The FT-IR results show that the pretreatment promotes the formation of surface oxygen functionalities and leads to an increase of the interplanar distance ($d_{002}$) of the functional groups induced between carbon layers. Moreover, the specific surface area of the pitch-based ACs increases in proportion to the amount of $KMnO_4$ pretreatment and reaches its highest value of 2334 $m^2$/g with 2 g of $KMnO_4$ because the surface oxygen groups of the pitch act as an active site during chemical activation.