• Title, Summary, Keyword: prestress load

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Behavioral Mechanism of Hybrid Model of ABG: Field Test (현장시험을 통한 ABG 하이브리드 공법의 거동 메커니즘 분석)

  • Seo, Hyung-Joon;Kim, Hyun-Rae;Jeong, Nam-Soo;Lee, In-Mo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.523-534
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    • 2010
  • A hybrid system of soil-nailing and compression anchor is proposed in this paper; the system is composed of an anchor bar (installed at the tip) with two PC strands and a steel bar. After drilling a hole, installing proposed hybrid systems, and filling the hole with grouting material, prestress is applied to the anchor bar to restrict the deformation at the head and/or to prevent shallow slope failures. However, since the elongation rate of PC strand is much larger than that of steel bar, yield at the steel bar will occur much earlier than the PC strand. It means that the yield load of the hybrid system will be overestimated if we simply add yield loads of the two - anchor bar and PC strands. It might be needed to try to match the yielding time of the two materials by applying the prestress to the anchor bar. It means that the main purpose of applying prestress to the anchor bar should be two-fold: to restrict the deformation at the nail head; and more importantly, to maximize the design load of the hybrid system by utilizing load transfer mechanism that transfers the prestress applied at the tip to the head through anchor bar. In order to study the load transfer mechanism in a systematic way, in-situ pullout tests were performed with the following conditions: soil-nailing only; hybrid system with the variation of prestress stresses from 0kN to 196kN. It was found that the prestress applied to the anchor system will induce the compressive stress to the steel bar; it will result in decrease in the slope of load-displacement curve of the steel bar. Then, the elongation at which the steel bar will reach yield stress might become similar to that of PC strands. By taking advantage of prestress to match elongations at yield, the pullout design load of the hybrid system can be increased up to twice that of the soil-nailing system.

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Monitoring of tension force and load transfer of ground anchor by using optical FBG sensors embedded tendon

  • Kim, Young-Sang;Sung, Hyun-Jong;Kim, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Jae-Min
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.303-317
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    • 2011
  • A specially designed tendon, which is proposed by embedding an FBG sensor into the center king cable of a 7-wire strand tendon, was applied to monitor the prestress force and load transfer of ground anchor. A series of tensile tests and a model pullout test were performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed smart tendon as a measuring sensor of tension force and load transfer along the tendon. The smart tendon has proven to be very effective for monitoring prestress force and load transfer by measuring the strain change of the tendon at the free part and the fixed part of ground anchor, respectively. Two 11.5 m long proto-type ground anchors were made simply by replacing a tendon with the proposed smart tendon and prestress forces of each anchor were monitored during the loading-unloading step using both FBG sensor embedded in the smart tendon and the conventional load cell. By comparing the prestress forces measured by the smart tendon and load cell, it was found that the prestress force monitored from the FBG sensor located at the free part is comparable to that measured from the conventional load cell. Furthermore, the load transfer of prestressing force at the tendon-grout interface was clearly measured from the FBGs distributed along the fixed part. From these pullout tests, the proposed smart tendon is not only expected to be an alternative monitoring tool for measuring prestress force from the introducing stage to the long-term period for health monitoring of the ground anchor but also can be used to improve design practice through determining the economic fixed length by practically measuring the load transfer depth.

Nonlinear stability analysis of a radially retractable hybrid grid shell in the closed position

  • Cai, Jianguo;Zhang, Qian;Jiang, Youbao;Xu, Yixiang;Feng, Jian;Deng, Xiaowei
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2017
  • The buckling capacity of a radially retractable hybrid grid shell in the closed position was investigated in this paper. The geometrically non-linear elastic buckling and elasto-plastic buckling analyses of the hybrid structure were carried out. A parametric study was done to investigate the effects rise-to-span ratio, beam section, area and pre-stress of cables, on the failure load. Also, the influence of the shape and scale of imperfections on the elasto-plastic buckling loads was discussed. The results show that the critical buckling load is reduced by taking account of material non-linearity. Furthermore, increasing the rise-to-span ratio or the cross-section area of steel beams notably improves the stability of the structure. However, the cross section area and pre-stress of cables pose negligible effect on the structural stability. It can also be found that the hybrid structure is highly sensitive to geometric imperfection which will considerably reduce the failure load. The proper shape and scale of the imperfection are also important.

Synergic identification of prestress force and moving load on prestressed concrete beam based on virtual distortion method

  • Xiang, Ziru;Chan, Tommy H.T.;Thambiratnam, David P.;Nguyen, Theanh
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.917-933
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    • 2016
  • In a prestressed concrete bridge, the magnitude of the prestress force (PF) decreases with time. This unexpected loss can cause failure of a bridge which makes prestress force identification (PFI) critical to evaluate bridge safety. However, it has been difficult to identify the PF non-destructively. Although some research has shown the feasibility of vibration based methods in PFI, the requirement of having a determinate exciting force in these methods hinders applications onto in-service bridges. Ideally, it will be efficient if the normal traffic could be treated as an excitation, but the load caused by vehicles is difficult to measure. Hence it prompts the need to investigate whether PF and moving load could be identified together. This paper presents a synergic identification method to determine PF and moving load applied on a simply supported prestressed concrete beam via the dynamic responses caused by this unknown moving load. This method consists of three parts: (i) the PF is transformed into an external pseudo-load localized in each beam element via virtual distortion method (VDM); (ii) then these pseudo-loads are identified simultaneously with the moving load via Duhamel Integral; (iii) the time consuming problem during the inversion of Duhamel Integral is overcome by the load-shape function (LSF). The method is examined against different cases of PFs, vehicle speeds and noise levels by means of simulations. Results show that this method attains a good degree of accuracy and efficiency, as well as robustness to noise.

Wireless Impedance Sensor with PZT-Interface for Prestress-Loss Monitoring in Prestressed Concrete Girder

  • Nguyen, Khac-Duy;Lee, So-Young;Kim, Jeong-Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.616-625
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    • 2011
  • Ensuring the designed prestress force is very important for the safety of prestressed concrete bridge. The loss of prestress force in tendon could significantly reduce load carrying capacity of the structure. In this study, an automated prestress-loss monitoring system for prestressed concrete girder using PZT-interface and wireless impedance sensor node is presented. The following approaches are carried out to achieve the objective. Firstly, wireless impedance sensor nodes are designed for automated impedance-based monitoring technique. The sensor node is mounted on the high-performance Imote2 sensor platform to fulfill high operating speed, low power requirement and large storage memory. Secondly, a smart PZT-interface designed for monitoring prestress force is described. A linear regression model is established to predict prestress-loss. Finally, a system of the PZT-interface interacted with the wireless sensor node is evaluated from a lab-scale tendon-anchorage connection of a prestressed concrete girder.

Smart PZT-interface for wireless impedance-based prestress-loss monitoring in tendon-anchorage connection

  • Nguyen, Khac-Duy;Kim, Jeong-Tae
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.489-504
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    • 2012
  • For the safety of prestressed structures such as cable-stayed bridges and prestressed concrete bridges, it is very important to ensure the prestress force of cable or tendon. The loss of prestress force could significantly reduce load carrying capacity of the structure and even result in structural collapse. The objective of this study is to present a smart PZT-interface for wireless impedance-based prestress-loss monitoring in tendon-anchorage connection. Firstly, a smart PZT-interface is newly designed for sensitively monitoring of electro-mechanical impedance changes in tendon-anchorage subsystem. To analyze the effect of prestress force, an analytical model of tendon-anchorage is described regarding to the relationship between prestress force and structural parameters of the anchorage contact region. Based on the analytical model, an impedance-based method for monitoring of prestress-loss is conducted using the impedance-sensitive PZT-interface. Secondly, wireless impedance sensor node working on Imote2 platforms, which is interacted with the smart PZT-interface, is outlined. Finally, experiment on a lab-scale tendon-anchorage of a prestressed concrete girder is conducted to evaluate the performance of the smart PZT-interface along with the wireless impedance sensor node on prestress-loss detection. Frequency shift and cross correlation deviation of impedance signature are utilized to estimate impedance variation due to prestress-loss.

An Experimental Study to Determine the Effective Prestress force of PSC Beam (PSC 부재의 유효 프리스트레스력 평가를 위한 실험적 연구)

  • Chung, Chul-Hun;Park, Jae-Gyun;Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2008
  • To evaluate the structural integrity of the NPP containment building more rigorously, the effective prestress, which is one of the most affecting elements, needs to be estimated exactly. This paper presents the results of an experimental study to determine the effective prestress force in prestressed concrete beams. It is possible to improve the effective prestress measuring method by test beam, which is being applied for the investigation of the nuclear power plant in operation. If experimentally evaluated Lift-Off method in this study can be coupled with test beam test currently being used in in-service nuclear power plant, it is possible to measure prestress loss of the tendon and the level of the effective prestress load.

Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of RC Slabs with Expansive Additives (팽창재를 혼입한 철근콘크리트 슬래브의 휨 거동에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 박홍용;김철영;최익창;배상욱;이호석
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 2000
  • This study aims to improve serviceability of concrete by inducing chemical prestress with the application of expansive additives for concrete. For this purpose, material tests and 4 point-bending tests of RC slabs were performed to verify the effect of expansive additives on the concrete. and the critical aspects of the structural behavior were investigated. The results of the material tests show that the optimal proportion of expansive additives is 13% of total cement weigth and the properties of expansive concrete in that proportion are the same as those of plain concrete. Both the experimental cracking load and service load of the expansive concrete slabs are increased in comparison with those of the plain concrete. In addition to the above results, the deflection of expansive concrete is smaller than that of plain concrete, and permanent strains resulting from cyclic load are decreased. It can be concluded that the use of expansive additives to induce chemical prestress in RC slabs greatly improves the serviceability.

Effects of Load Carrying Capacity with Method of Application of Prestress on Long-Span Temporary Bridges (장지간 가설교량에서 프리스트레스의 도입방법과 텐던배치에 따른 내하력의 영향)

  • Sim, Jai-Hyun;Park, Jeong-Ung;Park, Kil-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.1275-1280
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    • 2009
  • In recent bridge design, studies on application of external prestress have actively been conducted. When prestress is applied to steel structures, the limit value of elastic strain with large load increases with reduction of steels, this method is economic in cost. According to study by Brodka (1969), steel plate bridges with prestress has an effect on cost saving of about 15% compared with structures without prestress. For that reason, our country recently adopted this method in construction of temporary bridges and various engineering technologies have been developed which made stress correction, droop correction and long-span construction possible with relatively small cross sections. This study verifies the method of application of prestress in temporary steel structures, the influence of high-strength tendon arrangement and the effects of composite structures of steel plates and high-strength tendons based on existing method.

Chemically Prestressed Precast Concrete Box Culvert with Expansive Additives

  • Park, Hong-Yong;Kim, Chul-Young;Park, Ik-Chang;Bae, Sang-Wook;Ryu, Jong-Hyun
    • KCI Concrete Journal
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 2001
  • Although portland cement concrete is one of the most universal construction materials, it has some disadvantage such as shrinkage, which is an inherent characteristic. Because of this shrinkage, combined with the low tensile strength of the material, cracks of varying sizes can be found in every reinforced concrete. To prevent this cracking, keeping the concrete in compression by mechanical prestress has been used. This study discusses application of expansive additives for concrete to improve the serviceability of precast concrete box culvert by inducing chemical prestress. For this purpose, both expansive concrete slabs and normal concrete slabs are tested to verify the effect of expansive additives. Then the failure tests of the fullscale precast box culverts were carried out and the critical aspects of the structural behavior were investigated. The result of the material testis shows that the optimal proportion of expansive additives is 13 percent of cement weight, and the properties of expansive concrete are the same as those of normal concrete in that proportion. Both the experimental cracking load and service load of the expansive concrete members are increased in comparison with those of the normal concrete, but the ultimate load is decreased slightly. In addition to the above results, the deformation of expansive concrete member is lets than that of normal concrete member, and permanent strain which results from cyclic load is decreased. It can be concluded that the use of expansive additives to induce chemical prestress in precast concrete box culvert greatly improves the serviceability.

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