• Title, Summary, Keyword: preparation method

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A Preliminary Study on Diagnostic Process for Premarital Preparation by Using a Delphi Method : With Purpose of Developing Tools (델파이조사를 이용한 결혼준비진단에 관한 기초연구)

  • 김혜선;박희성
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.125-144
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to make a preliminary investigation about the diagnostic process for marital preparation against future divorce which will be necessary for developing tools for the process. Delphi tests have been twice held among 23 professionals regarding the concept of marital diagnosis and the areas of marital preparation to be estimated including definitions of the marital preparation for marriage and the status in which marriage has been prepared, and the categorization of the preparation The result of the study is as follows : Firstly, the concept of marital preparation is comprehensive, for it does include various kinds of preparation necessary for adjustment to marital life except the preparation for wedding ceremony. Secondly, the status in which marriage has been prepared can be divided into individual preparation, a couple's relational preparation, and preparation for marital life. Thirdly, premarital preparation education or counselling will be provided for young persons who are not in status of marital preparation. The areas of marital preparation to be estimated are maturity, independence from parents, and good health in terms of individual preparation, and the depth of love, understanding each other, similarity, harmonization, supplementation, capacity of communication, self-control, and all that sort of thing in terms of relational preparation, sex, views about marriage, information about marital life, role division, giving birth to child and rearing, financial management, and understanding both families of husband and wife.

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Studies on the Method of Decoction Preparation in the Prescription of Crude Drugs. -on the prevention to the loss of volatile oil- (생약처방(生藥處方)의 탕(湯)(전(煎))제(劑) 제조(製造)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -유효휘발성분(有效揮發成分)의 손실방지(損失防止)에 관(關)하여-)

  • Chung, Myung-Hyun;Lee, Choon-Heung
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.69-72
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    • 1977
  • The investigation is involved with the development of the new method of decoction preparation in order to prevent the loss of volatile oil from crude drugs. Volatile oil in crude drug containig volatile oil ranged from 1 to 2.2% in content. Volatile oil content in crude drung prescription which main component is a crude drug containing volatile oil was $0.11{\sim}0.39\;ml$. It was found that traditional method of decoction preparation has caused to lose almost all of the volatile oil. Application of method of Pharmacopoea (Kp II) for the preparation of decoction prevented the loss of volatile oil from one half to two-third of its content. The method of Pharmacopoea to which air condenser was attached could completely prevented the loss of volatile oil from the preparation.

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Focused Ion Beam-Based Specimen Preparation for Atom Probe Tomography

  • Lee, Ji Yeong;Ahn, Jae-Pyoung
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.14-19
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    • 2016
  • Currently, focused ion beams (FIB) are widely used for specimen preparation in atom probe tomography (APT), which is a three-dimensional and atomic-scale compositional analysis tool. Specimen preparation, in which a specific region of interest is identified and a sharp needle shape created, is the first step towards successful APT analysis. The FIB technique is a powerful tool for site-specific specimen preparation because it provides a lift-out technique and a controllable manipulation function. In this paper, we demonstrate a general procedure containing the crucial points of FIB-based specimen preparation. We introduce aluminum holders with moveable pin and an axial rotation manipulator for specimen handling, which are useful for flipping and rotating the specimen to present the backside and the perpendicular direction. We also describe specimen preparation methods for nanowires and nanopowders, using a pick-up method and an embedding method by epoxy resin, respectively.

Methodology of Lymphocytes Culture for Animal Chromosome Preparation (동물 염색체 분리를 위한 최적 혈액배양 조건에 관한 연구)

  • Sohn, Sea-Hwan;Lee, Jung-Up
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.257-263
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    • 2011
  • In general, the blood cell culture is a common method for animal chromosome preparation. However, every animal and its cells have unique physiological characteristics and functions. Hence, it is very difficult to find the suitable method of chromosome preparation using animal lymphocyte culture. This study was carried out to fine the suitable method of chromosome preparation using lymphocytes cultures in mammalians and aves including cattle, rat, mouse and chicken. To seek the optimal method of lymphocyte culture in each animal, $2^3$ factorial experiment was designed. The design evaluated three main effects in culture duration, kinds of mitogen supplements and colcemid exposure time with two levels within each effect. The mitotic index and the score of chromosome morphology were analyzed. In results, the suitable methods of lymphocyte culture for chromosome preparation were 72 hours culture, pokeweed mitogen(PWM) supplement and 90 minutes of colcemid exposure in cattle, 72 hours culture, PWM supplement and 50 minutes of colcemid exposure in chicken, 96 hours culture, concanavalin A supplement and 90 minutes of colcemid exposure in rat, and 72 hours culture, PWM supplement and 50 minutes of colcemid exposure in mouse, respectively. In conclusion, kinds of mitogen, culture duration and colcemid exposure time significantly affected the mitotic index and chromosome morphology, in animal lymphocyte culture. The interaction effects between/among treatment factors were also statistically significant.

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES OF DIFFERENT SIMULATED CANALS ACCORDING TO THE PREPARATION METHOD (근관형성방법(根管形成方法)에 따른 모의근관형태(模擬根管形態)의 변화(變化)에 대(對)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Hwang, Ho-Keel;Cho, Jae-O;Cho, Young-Kgon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.161-171
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    • 1988
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the morphological changes of different simulated canals according to the preparation procedures. With the use of clear casting resin, simulated straight and curved canals were created so that canal preparation procedures could be directly visualized and compared. Thirty clear polyester casting resin blocks which contained four simulated canals divided into three groups; Group A($0^{\circ}$), Group B($15^{\circ}$), and Group C($30^{\circ}$). In each block, 3 canals were prepared different preparation techniques, which were conventional method, step-back method, and giromatic filing. But, one canal was not prepared as a control group. The results were as follows: 1. There was no difference on canal shape among three canal preparation methods in straight canals (Group A). 2. When conventional method and Giromatic filing were used in curved canals (Group B, C), elbow, zip and hour-glass shape were formed in apical third. 3. When conventional method and Giromatic filing were used in curved canals (Group B, C), tear-drop appearance developed at the site of the canal exit in curved canals. 4. In curved canals (Group B, C), file tend to straighten within the canal. 5. There was no difference on canal shape according to curved angle in step-back method (p > 0.1). But there was significant difference on canal shape according to curved angle in conventional method and Giromatic filing (p < 0.001). 6. Step-back method was significantly more effective than conventional method and Giromatic preparation in morphologic aspects of apical third of original canals.

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The Effect of a Preparation Method using Hospital Play on Anxiety and Role Behaviors of Children Undergoing Tonsillectomy (병원놀이 교육이 편도선 적출술 아동의 수술 전 불안과 수술 후 환아 역할행위에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Dong-Sun;Shin, Hee-Sun;Lee, Ok-Ju;Jun, Yu-Mi;Yang, Hyun-Hee;Cho, Yun-Ji
    • Korean Parent-Child Health Journal
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.160-167
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a preparation method using hospital play on anxiety and role behaviors of children undergoing tonsillectomy. Method: Twenty-eight children aged 5 to 7 years who were admitted for tonsillectomy were assigned to either an experimental group or a control group purposefully. The preparation method included provision of information using hospital play. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test and Chi-square test. Result: There was no Significant difference in anxiety before surgery between the experimental and control groups. Also, there was no Significant difference in role behaviors on the 1st and the 2nd day of surgery. Conclusion: Even though there was no statistical significance, the result showed that the preparation method had some positive effect on children and parents. It is needed to develop systematic preparation methods for children undergoing surgery to enhance their coping.

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Determination of Protoberberine Alkaloids in Phellodendri Cortex and Preparation by Spectrophotometric Method (흡광도측정법에 의한 황백과 제제 중 프로토베르베린 알칼로이드의 정량)

  • 엄동옥;정윤철
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.34-38
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    • 2001
  • The Phellodendri Cortex of Phellodendron amurense (Rutaceae) is known to contain a number of isoquinoline alkaloid, and berberine, palmatine, jateorrhizine, phellodendrine and magnoflorine are the major constituents of protoberberine alkaloids. For the determination of protoberberine alkaloids from Phellodendri Cortex and berberine chloride from the preparation, the new spectrophotometric method was developed with a simple and selective sample clean-up using thiocyanatocobaltate[II] complex ion. Samples were extracted with 0.1 mM hydrochloric acid, potassium biphthalate reagent, thiocyanatocobaltate reagent and 1.2-dichloroethane for 60 min. The absorbance of protoberberine alkaloid complexes in 1.2-dichloroethane solution was measured at 625 nm. Calibration curve for berberine was linear over the concentration range of 0.05~0.30 mg/ml 1.2-dichloroethane. The method proved to be rapid, simple and reliable for the determination of protoberberine alkaloids from Phellodendri Cortex and berberine chloride from the preparation.

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A Simple Spectrofluorimetric Method for Determination of Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical Preparation and Urine

  • Tabrizi, Ahad Bavili
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1199-1202
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    • 2006
  • A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for determination of mefenamic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and human urine. The procedure is based on the oxidation of mefenamic acid with cerium (IV) to produce cerium (III), and its fluorescence was monitored at 354 nm after excitation at 255 nm. The variables affecting oxidation of drug were studied and optimized. Under the experimental conditions used, the calibration graphs were linear over the range 0.03-1.5 mg $L^{-1}$. The limit of detection was 0.009 mg $L^{-1}$ and the relative standard deviation for 5 replicate determinations of mefenamic acid at 1.0 mg $L^{-1}$ concentration level was 1.72%. Good recoveries in the range of 102-107 and 102-109% were obtained for pharmaceutical preparation and human urine, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of MF in one pharmaceutical preparation and human urine. The amounts of mefenamic acid found are very similar to those obtained by a standard method.

An Analysis of Economic Value of the Old-age Preparation Service (노후준비서비스의 경제적 가치 분석)

  • Ahn, Kyung Ae;Rhee, Hae Chun
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2018
  • Background: The purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance and necessity of the government's old-age preparation service by measuring the economic value of the old-age service and the policy direction and policy implications of the government's old-age preparation service project. Methods: Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used as an analytical method. CV methodology was used to calculate the Willingness to pay (WTP) for old-age preparation service and its value was estimated and the economic benefit of the project was estimated. Results: As a result of the analysis, the average monthly payment amount for the old service was calculated as 5,100 won, and the annual average payment amount was estimated to be 61,197.1 won. Conclusion: The present value of the benefit for 10 years with the discount rate of 5.5% is 484,651 won. Based on the value of peruser benefit, the total benefit value calculation result of the old-age preparation service considering the Willingness to pay for the next 10 years shows that the total benefit value of the old service, which occurs during the period from 2016 to 2025(10 years) was estimated at 415.1 billion won. As a result of calculating the benefit for each scenario, the present value of basic service is higher in all scenarios than the linked service.

Transmission Electron Microscopy Specimen Preparation of Delicate Materials Using Tripod Polisher

  • Cha, Hyun-Woo;Kang, Min-Chul;Shin, Keesam;Yang, Cheol-Woong
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.110-115
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    • 2016
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful tool for analyzing a broad range of materials and provides localized information about the microstructure. However, the analysis results are strongly influenced by the quality of the thin foil specimen. Sample preparation for TEM analysis requires considerable skill, especially when the area of interest is small or the material of interest is difficult to thin because of its high hardness and its mechanical instability when thinned. This article selectively reviews recent advances in TEM sample preparation techniques using a tripod polisher. In particular, it introduces two typical types (fl at type and wedge type) of TEM sample preparation and the benefits and drawbacks of each method; finally, a method of making better samples for TEM analysis is suggested.