• Title, Summary, Keyword: prediction of Kp value

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Interactive Effect of Food Compositions on the Migration Behavior of Printing Ink Solvent

  • An, Duek-Jun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 2009
  • The partitioning behavior of the five printing ink solvents in nine lab-made cookies with various sugar and water content at 25${^{\circ}C}$ was studied to find out the presence and effects of interaction between the two ingredients on partitioning behavior in cookies. Solvents were ethyl acetate, hexane, isopropanol, methyl ethyl ketone and hexane. It was observed that the partition coefficient (the solvent concentration in food compared to that in air, Kp) decreased as sugar increased in all case and increased as water content increased for all compounds except toluene. Statistical analysis by the F-test method was used to determine the significance of sugar-water interactions, as well as other single factors on partitioning behavior of each solvent. Sugar content alone had no significant effects, but the crystallinity of sugar, as changed by water content, affected the partitioning behavior of the five solvents significantly. Parameter estimation for each significant factor by SAS program yielded a regression equation, which was used to predict the partitioning behavior in the finished cookie. Kp values from the regression equation could be determined more precisely by applying a correction term for the interaction between sugar and water to the Kp values of each ingredient after baking.

Space Weather Monitoring System for Geostationary Satellites and Polar Routes

  • Baek, Ji-Hye;Lee, Jae-Jin;Choi, Seong-Hwan;Hwang, Jung-A;Hwang, Eun-Mi;Park, Young-Deuk
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.101.2-101.2
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    • 2011
  • We have developed solar and space weather monitoring system for space weather users since 2007 as a project named 'Construction of Korea Space Weather Prediction Center'. In this presentation we will introduce space weather monitoring system for Geostationary Satellites and Polar Routes. These were developed for satisfying demands of space weather user groups. 'Space Weather Monitoring System for Geostationary Satellites' displays integrated space weather information on geostationary orbit such as magnetopause location, nowcast and forecast of space weather, cosmic ray count rate, number of meteors and x-ray solar flux. This system is developed for space weather customers who are managing satellite systems or using satellite information. In addition, this system provides space weather warning by SMS in which short message is delivered to users' cell phones when space weather parameters reach a critical value. 'Space Weather Monitoring System for Polar Routes' was developed for the commercial airline companies operating polar routes. This provides D-region and polar cap absorption map, aurora and radiation particle distribution, nowcast and forecast of space weather, proton flux, Kp index and so on.

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Predicting Parturition Time through Ultrasonic Measurement of Posture Changing Rate in Crated Landrace Sows

  • Wang, J.S.;Wu, M.C.;Chang, H.L.;Young, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.682-692
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    • 2007
  • This study presents an automatic system to predict parturition time in the crated sows. The system relies on ultrasonic transducers mounted from above along the length of the crate. Using a 40 kHz time of flight (TOF) single envelope wave, the momentary distances between the sensors are measured. Therefore, the local momentary height of the sow and the momentary posture, i.e. standing posture (SDP), kneeling posture (KP), sitting posture (STP) and lateral lying posture (LLP) are determined. Crated sows change their postures from standing to lying and vice versa which follows a characteristic pattern. As parturition approaches, sows exhibit uneasiness, restlessness and the stand up sequence (SUS, the posture transition from LLP to SDP) rate increases because of labor pains. In time series, the SUS rate demonstrates a peak and it happens approximately 0-12 h before parturition. In this paper, the basic parturition threshold value method (BPTVM) and the same hour method (SHM) are proposed for predicting parturition, both of which are based on the SUS rate. The BPTVM mainly detects the peak of the SUS rate. As the SUS rate exceeds the threshold value, the parturition becomes predictable. Moreover, the SHM calculates the difference in the SUS rates between a particular time of day and the corresponding time of the preceding day. Compared to the BPTVM, the SHM can eliminate the circadian rhythm of the SUS rate influenced by feeding behavior. Using the SHM the parturition can be approximately predicted within hours. In an attempt to define the threshold parameters of predicting parturition, a data set with 32 sows of the SUS rate are used to estimate assumable predicting probability. The results show the assumable probability of the parturition prediction within 9 h is 96.9% for the SHM and 84.4% for the BPTVM. Moreover, the SHM can even reach a 75% probability of prediction within three hours of parturition. We conclude that the SHM is more accurate and is more useful for parturition time prediction. When parturition is detected, the proposed algorithm generates a warning signal which can inform human personnel to protect the mother and newborn piglets.