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Relative contributions of weather systems to the changes of annual and extreme precipitation with global warming

  • Utsumi, Nobuyuki;Kim, Hyungjun;Kanae, Shinjiro;Oki, Taikan
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.234-234
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    • 2015
  • The global patterns of annual and extreme precipitation are projected to be altered by climate change. There are various weather systems which bring precipitation (e.g. tropical cyclone, extratropical cyclone, etc.). It is possible in some regions that multiple weather systems affect the changes of precipitation. However, previous studies have assessed only the changes of precipitation associated with individual weather systems. The relative contributions of the weather systems to the changes of precipitation have not been quantified yet. Also, the changes of the relative importance of weather systems have not been assessed. This study present the quantitative estimates of 1) the relative contributions of weather systems (tropical cyclone (TC), extratropical cyclone (ExC), and "others") to the future changes of annual and extreme precipitation and 2) the changes of the proportions of precipitation associated with each weather system in annual and extreme precipitation based on CMIP5 generation GCM outputs. Weather systems are objectively detected from twelve GCM outputs and six models are selected for further analysis considering the reproducibility of weather systems. In general, the weather system which is dominant in terms of producing precipitation in the present climate contributes the most to the changes of annual and extreme precipitation in each region. However, there are exceptions for the tendency. In East Asia, "others", which ranks the second in the proportion of annual precipitation in present climate, has the largest contribution to the increase of annual precipitation. It was found that the increase of the "others" annual precipitation in East Asia is mainly explained by the changes of that in summer season (JJA), most of which can be regarded as the summer monsoon precipitation. In Southeast Asia, "others" precipitation, the second dominant system in the present climate, has the largest contribution to the changes of very heavy precipitation (>99.9 percentile daily precipitation of historical period). Notable changes of the proportions of precipitation associated with each weather system are found mainly in subtropics, which can be regarded as the "hotspot" of the precipitation regime shift.

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Evaluation of Daily Precipitation Estimate from Integrated MultisatellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) Data over South Korea and East Asia (동아시아 및 남한 지역에서의 Integrated MultisatellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) 일강수량의 지상관측 검증)

  • Lee, Juwon;Lee, Eun-Hee
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.273-289
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    • 2018
  • This paper evaluates daily precipitation products from Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multisatellite (TRMM) Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), and the Climate Prediction Center Morphing Method (CMORPH), validated against gauge observation over South Korea and gauge-based analysis data East Asia during one year from June 2014 to May 2015. It is found that the three products effectively capture the seasonal variation of mean precipitation with relatively good correlation from spring to fall. Among them, IMERG and TMPA show quite similar precipitation characteristics but overall underestimation is found from all precipitation products during winter compared with observation. IMERG shows reliably high performance in precipitation for all seasons, showing the most unbiased and accurate precipitation estimation. However, it is also noticed that IMERG reveals overestimated precipitation for heavier precipitation thresholds. This assessment work suggests the validity of the IMERG product for not only seasonal precipitation but also daily precipitation, which has the potential to be used as reference precipitation data.

Analyzing the Variability of Spring Precipitation and Rainfall Effectiveness According to the Regional Characteristics (봄철 강수량 및 강수효율의 지역적 특성별 변화분석)

  • Kim, Gwang-Seob;Kim, Jong-Pil;Lee, Gi-Chun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2011
  • The temporal variability of spring (March, April, May) monthly precipitation, precipitation effectiveness, monthly maximum precipitation, monthly precipitation of different durations, and the precipitation days over several threshold (i.e. 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mm/day) of 59 weather stations between 1973 and 2009 were analyzed. Also to analyze the regional characteristics of temporal variability, 59 weather stations were classified by elevations, latitudes, longitudes, river basins, inland or shore (east sea, south sea, west sea) area and the level of urbanization. Results demonstrated that trends of variables increase in April and decrease in May except precipitation day. Overall trend of precipitation amount and precipitation effectiveness is same but precipitation effectiveness of several sites decrease despite the trend of precipitation amount increases which may be caused by the air temperature increase. Therefore more effective water supply strategy is essential for Spring season. Regional characteristics of Spring precipitation variability can be summarized that increase trend during May become stronger with the increase of latitude and elevation which is similar to that of Summer season. The temporal variability of variables showed different behaviors according to river basins, inland or shore (east sea, south sea, west sea) area and the level of urbanization.

Orographic and Ocean Effects Associated with a Heavy Snowfall Event over Yeongdong Region (영동지역 겨울철 강수와 연관된 산악효과와 해양효과)

  • Cho, Kuh-Hee;Kwon, Tae-Young
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.57-71
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    • 2012
  • Influences of orographic and ocean effect, which depend on the detailed geographic characteristics, upon winter time (December-February) precipitation in the Yeongdong region are investigated. Most of precipitation events in the Yeongdong region during the wintertime are associated with moist northeasterly (coming from the northeast direction) winds and also the spatial distribution of precipitation shows a great difference between Mountain area (Daegwallyeong) and Coastal area (Gangneung). The linear correlation coefficient between the meteorological variables obtained from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data and precipitation amount for each precipitation type is calculated. Mountain type precipitation is dominated by northeasterly wind speed of the low level (1000 hPa and 925 hPa) and characterized with more precipitation in mountain area than coastal area. However, Coastal type precipitation is affected by temperature difference between ocean and atmosphere, and characterized with more precipitation in coastal area than mountain area. The results are summarized as follows; In the case of mountain type precipitation, the correlation coefficient between wind speed at 1000 hPa (925 hPa) and precipitation amount at Daegwallyeong is 0.60 (0.61). The correlation is statistical significant at 1% level. In the case of coastal type precipitation, the correlation coefficient of temperature difference between ocean and 925 hPa (850 hPa) over the East sea area and precipitation amount at Gangneung is 0.33 (0.34). As for the mountain type precipitation, a detailed analysis was conducted in order to verify the relationship between precipitation amount at Daegwallyeong and low level wind speed data from wind profiler in Gangneung and Buoy in the East Sea. The results also show the similar behavior. This result indicates that mountain type precipitation in the Yeongdong region is closely related with easterly wind speed. Thus, the statistical analysis of the few selected meteorological variables can be a good indicator to estimate the precipitation totals in the Yeongdong region in winter time.

Analysis of Diurnal and Semidiurnal Cycles of Precipitation over South Korea (한반도 강수의 일주기 및 반일주기 성분 분석)

  • Lee, Gyu-Hwan;Seo, Kyong-Hwan
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.475-483
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    • 2008
  • The hourly precipitation data from 1973 to 2007 observed at 60 weather stations over Korea are used to characterize the diurnal and semidiurnal cycles of total precipitation amount, intensity and frequency and examine their spatial patterns and interannual variations. The results show that the diurnal cycle peaks in the morning (03-09LST) and the semidiurnal cycle peaks in the late afternoon (16-20LST). It is found that the spatial variations of the peak phase of diurnal or semidiurnal cycle relative to their corresponding seasonal mean cycle are considerably small (large) for total precipitation amount and intensity (frequency, respectively) in both winter and summer seasons. Also, the diurnal phase variations for individual years relative to the seasonal mean precipitation show the significant interannual variability with dominant periods of 2-5 years for all three elements of precipitation and the slightly decreasing trend in total precipitation amount and intensity. To compare the relative contributions of frequency and intensity to the diurnal and semidiurnal cycles (and their sum) of total precipitation amount, the percentage variance of each cycle of precipitation amount explained by frequency is estimated. The fractional variance accounted for by precipitation intensity is greater than that of frequency for these three cycles. All above analyses suggest that intensity plays a more important role than frequency in the diurnal variations of total precipitation amount.

The Variation of Extreme Values in the Precipitation and Wind Speed During 56 Years in Korea (56년간 한반도 강수 및 풍속의 극값 변화)

  • Choi, Eu-Soo;Moon, Il-Ju
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.397-416
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    • 2008
  • This study investigates a long-term variation of the annual extreme value for the instantaneous wind speed and the daily precipitation during 56 years (1951-2006) in Korea. Results show that there is a uptrend for both wind and precipitation extreme records, although regional trends are different from overall pattern in some places, particularly for wind speed. The estimated linear trends are 230 mm/56 yr in the daily precipitation and $15ms^{-1}$/56 yr in the maximum instantaneous wind speed. For precipitation, other indexes such as total annual precipitation, the number of extreme precipitation event, and precipitation intensity have dramatically increased as well, while there has been a clear downtrend for the number of strong wind events (> $14ms^{-1}$). It is found that the minimum surface pressure recorded during typhoon attacks in Korea tends to be decreasing, about 10 hPa/56 yr. This partly explains why the extreme values in the precipitation are increasing in Korea.

Interannual Variations of the Precipitation in Korea and the Comparison with Those in China and Japan (한국 강수량의 연 변동과 중국 및 일본 강수량과의 비교 연구)

  • Jo, Wan-Kuen;Weisel, C.P.
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.345-356
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    • 1995
  • Examining the precipitation data collected during the period from 1960 to 1993, we found that Taegu Station represents an optimum station for explaining the interannual variations of the precipitation in Korea. Using the variations derived from Taegu, the secular trends of the precipitation in Korea have been studied. It was 삽so found that the interannual variations of summer monsoon precipitation are consistent with those of the annual precipitation. To explore the interannual variations of the summer monsoon precipitation, comparisons of the summer precipitation in Korea with that in China and Japan were made. The results of the empirical orthogonal function analysis showed that Korea, the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valley, and the south Japan are all located in the same climate system during summer. The detailed analysis was carried out on the comparison of the summer precipitation in Korea with that in the eastern part of the the mainland China. We found that the correlation pattern is similar to the East Asia/pacific pattern. The probable effects of the sea surface temperature on the precipitation in Korea were also discussed. Key Words : Precipitation in Korea, rainy seasons in East Asia, monsoon precipitation, interannual variations.

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Design of Precipitation/non-precipitation Pattern Classification System based on Neuro-fuzzy Algorithm using Meteorological Radar Data : Instance Classifier and Echo Classifier (기상레이더를 이용한 뉴로-퍼지 알고리즘 기반 강수/비강수 패턴분류 시스템 설계 : 사례 분류기 및 에코 분류기)

  • Ko, Jun-Hyun;Kim, Hyun-Ki;Oh, Sung-Kwun
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.64 no.7
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    • pp.1114-1124
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, precipitation / non-precipitation pattern classification of meteorological radar data is conducted by using neuro-fuzzy algorithm. Structure expression of meteorological radar data information is analyzed in order to effectively classify precipitation and non-precipitation. Also diverse input variables for designing pattern classifier could be considered by exploiting the quantitative as well as qualitative characteristic of meteorological radar data information and then each characteristic of input variables is analyzed. Preferred pattern classifier can be designed by essential input variables that give a decisive effect on output performance as well as model architecture. As the proposed model architecture, neuro-fuzzy algorithm is designed by using FCM-based radial basis function neural network(RBFNN). Two parts of classifiers such as instance classifier part and echo classifier part are designed and carried out serially in the entire system architecture. In the instance classifier part, the pattern classifier identifies between precipitation and non-precipitation data. In the echo classifier part, because precipitation data information identified by the instance classifier could partially involve non-precipitation data information, echo classifier is considered to classify between them. The performance of the proposed classifier is evaluated and analyzed when compared with existing QC method.

Observed Characteristics of Precipitation Timing during the Severe Hazes: Implication to Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions (연무 종류별 강수 발생시간 관측 특성 및 에어로졸-강수 연관성 분석)

  • Eun, Seung-Hee;Zhang, Wenting;Park, Sung-Min;Kim, Byung-Gon;Park, Jin-Soo;Kim, Jeong-Soo;Park, Il-Soo
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.175-185
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    • 2018
  • Characteristics of precipitation response to enhanced aerosols have been investigated during the severe haze events observed in Korea for 2011 to 2016. All 6-years haze events are classified into long-range transported haze (LH: 31%), urban haze (UH: 28%), and yellow sand (YS: 18%) in order. Long-range transported one is mainly discussed in this study. Interestingly, both LH (68%) and YS (87%) appear to be more frequently accompanied with precipitation than UH (48%). We also found out the different timing of precipitation for LH and YS, respectively. The variations of precipitation frequency for the LH event tend to coincide with aerosol variations specifically in terms of temporal covariation, which is in contrast with YS. Increased aerosol loadings following precipitation for the YS event seems to be primarily controlled by large scale synoptic forcing. Meanwhile, aerosols for the LH event may be closely associated with precipitation longevity through changes in cloud microphysics such that enhanced aerosols can increase smaller cloud droplets and further extend light precipitation at weaker rate. Notably, precipitation persisted longer than operational weather forecast not considering detailed aerosol-cloud interactions, but the timescale was limited within a day. This result demonstrates active interactions between aerosols and meteorology such as probable modifications of cloud microphysics and precipitation, synoptic-induced dust transport, and precipitation-scavenging in Korea. Understanding of aerosol potential effect on precipitation will contribute to improving the performance of numerical weather model especially in terms of precipitation timing and location.

Precipitation Anomalies Around King Sejong Station, Antarctica Associated with E1Niño/Southern Oscillation

  • Kwon, Tae-Yong;Lee, Bang-Yong
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.19-31
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    • 2002
  • Precipitation variability around King Sejong Station related with E1 $Ni\~{n}o$/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using the gauge-based monthly data of its neighboring stations. Though three Ant-arctic Stations of King Sejong (Korea), Frei (Chile), and Artigas (Uruguay) are all closely located within 10 km, their precipitation data show mostly insignificant positive or rather negative correlations among them in the annual, seasonal and monthly precipitation. This result indicates that there are locally large variations in the distribution of precipitation around King Sejong Station. The monthly data of Frei Station for 31 years (1970-2000) are analyzed for examining the ENSO signal in precipitation because of its longer precipitation record compared to other two stations. From the analysis of seasonal precipitation, it is seen that there is a tendency of less precipitation than the average during E1 $Ni\~{n}o$ events. This dryness is more distinct in fall to spring seasons, in which the precipitation decreases down to about 30% of seasonal mean precipitation. However, the precipitation signal related with La $Ni\~{n}a$ events is not significant. From the analysis of monthly precipitation, it is found that there is a strong negative correlation during 1980s and in the late 1990s, and a weak positive correlation in the early 1990s between normalized monthly precipitation at Frei Station and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the $Ni\~{n}o$ 3.4 region. However, this relation may be not applied over the region around King Sejong Station, but at only one station, Frei.