• Title, Summary, Keyword: pre-slaughter stress

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Pre-slaughter stress, animal welfare, and its implication on meat quality

  • Choe, Jeehwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.58-65
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    • 2018
  • Meat quality includes technological quality attributes, consumer acceptance, and credence characteristics. In terms of credence characteristics, animal welfare is one of the most interesting topics to both consumers and the livestock industry. Consumers prefer meat produced from livestock that has been raised in low stress and ecofriendly environments. The livestock industry cares about animal welfare to meet the requirements of consumers. Animal welfare is closely associated with the stress and physiological response of livestock to stress. Moreover, stress just before slaughter (i.e., pre-slaughter stress) has negative effects on not only animal welfare but also ultimately on meat quality. It is well-documented that pre-slaughter stress can influence ante- and post-mortem biological changes of the muscles, especially their metabolic properties and metabolites. The metabolic properties and metabolites contents also can modulate the postmortem changes of the muscles. Conversion of muscles to meat during postmortem is a very important process because it determines ultimately the meat quality. Thus, understanding pre-slaughter stress and physiological responses to stress in farm animals is important for animal welfare and meat quality. The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept of stress, physiological responses to stress, measurement of stress, and the relationships between stress indices and meat quality traits.

A Review: Influences of Pre-slaughter Stress on Poultry Meat Quality

  • Ali, Md. Shawkat;Kang, Geun-Ho;Joo, Seon Tea
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.912-916
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    • 2008
  • Pre-slaughter conditions affect poultry meat quality. Therefore, stresses before slaughter like heat stress, struggle and shackling on the shackle line, crating and transport and feed withdrawal are very important for the poultry industry in respect of quality as well as welfare of the birds. However, exposure to heat in oxidative stress can in turn lead to cytotoxicity in meat type birds. Chickens exposed to heat stress before slaughter showed the lowest ultimate pH and birds shackled for a longer time the highest. The abdominal fat content was higher in heat stressed birds. Struggling on the shackle line hastened the initial rate of the pH drop and increased the redness of breast meat. Again, with increasing struggling activity, lactate concentration in breast muscle of chicken increased. Paler meat was found in birds that were transported for a longer time than in those after a small journey or not transported. The pre-slaughter and eviscerated weights were decreased as the length of feed withdrawal period increased.

Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality - A review

  • Njisane, Yonela Zifikile;Muchenje, Voster
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.755-764
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    • 2017
  • The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals' wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

Studies of Fatal Stress on Erythrocytes and Total Leukocytes Counts in Korean Cattle (치명적(致命的) 충격(衝激)(도살(屠殺))이 우(牛)의 적혈구치(赤血球値)와 총백혈구치(總白血球値)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Choi, Hui In
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1967
  • Clinically healthy Korean adult cattle (20 females and 20 males) were selected and subjected to the experiments on the determination of erythrocytes and total leukocytes values at the stages of pre and post-slaughting. Throughout the studies the following results were obtained. 1. The erythrocytes values, at the stage of the pre-slaughter, of females and males were $6.070{\times}10^6/cmm$ and $6.175{\times}10^6/cmm$ respectively. In the case of post-slaughter stage, $7.780{\times}10^6/cmm$ and $7.705{\times}10^6/cmm$ were obtained for female and male respectively. In comparison on the values of erythrocytes between pre and post-slauglnter stages, the mean value of the latter has been increased significantly. 2. The total leukocytes value, at the stage of the pre-slaughter of females and males were 9,525/cmm and 9,630/cmm respectively. In the case of post-slaughter stage, 7,545/cmm and 7,510/cmm were obtained for females and males respectively. In comparison on the values of total leukocytes between pre and post-slaughter stages, the mean value of the latter has been decreased significantly.

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Identification of Muscle Proteins Related to Objective Meat Quality in Korean Native Black Pig

  • Hwang, I.H.;Park, B.Y.;Cho, S.H.;Kim, J.H.;Choi, Y.S.;Lee, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1599-1607
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    • 2004
  • This study examined the effects of pre-slaughter fasting, chasing stress and chiller ageing on objective meat quality, and their relations to the proteome profile of longissimus muscle using 20 male Korean native black pigs. Treatments were composed of two levels of pre-slaughter feed withdrawal, two levels of pre-slaughter stress and four chiller ageing times. A 15 min chasing stress immediately prior to slaughter significantly (p<0.05) decreased detectable levels of $\mu$-calpain activity during rigor development and chiller ageing, but did not have any direct effect on objective meat quality. On the other hand, pigs fed until the morning of slaughter resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher hunter L* value and cooking loss than those which received an 18 h feed withdrawal prior to slaughter. Cooking loss and hunter L* value were constant during 7 d of chiller ageing, followed by significant increases at 14 d. The fed animals showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher hunter a* value at both 3 and 7 d, while the other group maintained a stable redness for 7 d. WB-shear force was not affected by the pre-slaughter treatments, but had significant (p<0.05) linear reduction from 1 to 7 d. A gelbased proteome analysis was performed on selected animals for low and high hunter L* values at 1 d. Ten and five spots had greater than two-fold spot densities for the low and high hunter L* groups, respectively. The ten spots included chain A, deoxyribounclease I complex with actin, heat shock protein 27 kDa, a protein similar to cardiac $Ca^{2+}$ release channel, and myosin heavy chain, while the five spots included chain A aldehyde dehydrogenase, glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase, and hemoglobin alpha chain. In general, feeding until the morning of slaughter resulted in more desirable meat color, but appeared to reduce palatability due to increased cooking loss. Proteome analysis demonstrated that various proteins were concomitantly involved in the determination of final meat color. The most noticeable observation in the current study was that various isoforms for a particular protein differed in degradation and/or expression rate depending on meat quality.

The Effects of Pre-slaughter Stress and Season on the Activity of Plasma Creatine Kinase and Mutton Quality from Different Sheep Breeds Slaughtered at a Smallholder Abattoir

  • Chulayo, A.Y.;Muchenje, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1762-1772
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    • 2013
  • The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pre-slaughter stress, season and breed on the activity of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and the quality of mutton. One hundred and seventy-three (173) castrated sheep from Dormer (DM), South African Mutton Merino (SAMM), Dorper (DP) and Blackhead Persian (BP) sheep breeds were used in the study. The animals were grouped according to age-groups as follows: Group 1 (6 to 8 months), Group 2 (9 to 12 months) and Group 3 (13 to 16 months). Blood samples were collected during exsanguinations using disposable vacutainer tubes for CK analysis. Representative samples of the Muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL) were collected from 84 castrated sheep, of different breeds (28 per breed) 24 h after slaughter. The following physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined; meat pH ($pH_{24}$), color ($L^*$, $a^*$ and $b^*$), thawing and cooking losses and Warner Braztler Shear Force (WBSF). The activity of plasma CK was significantly higher (p<0.001) in summer ($1,026.3{\pm}105.06$) and lower in winter ($723.3{\pm}77.75$). There were higher values for $L^*$ ($33.7{\pm}0.94$), $b^*$ ($11.5{\pm}0.48$) and WBSF ($29.5{\pm}1.46$) in summer season than in winter season; $L^*$ ($29.4{\pm}0.64$), $b^*$ ($10.2{\pm}0.33$) and WBSF ($21.2{\pm}0.99$). The activity of plasma CK was influenced by the type of breed with Dormer having the highest (p>0.001) levels ($1,358.6{\pm}191.08$) of CK. South African Mutton Merino had higher values for $pH_{24}$ ($5.9{\pm}0.06$), $L^*$ ($34.2{\pm}0.97$), $b^*$ ($12.2{\pm}0.50$) and WBSF ($26.8{\pm}1.51$) and Blackhead Persian had higher values ($35.5{\pm}2.17$) for cooking loss (CL%) than the other breeds. Computed Principal Component Analyses (PCA) on the activity of plasma CK and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton revealed no correlations between these variables. However, positive correlations were observed between $pH_{24}$, $L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$, CL% and WBSF. Relationships between pre-slaughter stress, CK activity and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were also observed. It was therefore concluded that although mutton quality and creatine kinase were not related, pre-slaughter stress, season and breed affected the activity of creatine kinase and mutton quality.

PSE (pale, soft, exudative) Pork : The Causes and Solutions - Review -

  • Lee, Y.B.;Choi, Y.I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.244-252
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    • 1999
  • Intensive selection for muscle development and against fat deposition in pigs during the last 50 years has contributed to the increased incidence of porcine stress syndrome (PSS) and pale soft exudative pork (PSE). Genetics, nutrition and management, preslaughter animal handling, stunning, dehairing and carcass chilling influence the incidence and magnitude of the PSE condition. The normal incidence of PSE has been reported to range from 10 to 30%, but in some isolated instances is up to 60%. The elimination of halothane-positive pigs in breeding programs has reduced PSS and PSE. Further improvements in meat quality by terminal sire evaluation and selection can be achieved within halothane-negative populations because around 20% of the variation in meat color and water binding capacity seems to be genetically related. Pre-slaughter handling on the farm, during transit to the packing plant and at the packing plant can greatly influence the meat quality, contributing 10 to 25% of the variation. An effective stunning method, skinning instead of scalding/dehairing and rapid post-slaughter chilling further reduce the incidence of PSE pork. In addition to proper care and handling a carcass-merit based marketing system, that reflected the value differential between desirable and undesirable meat quality in the pricing system for pigs, would provide a great incentive to change pork production systems in order to improve meat quality, thus improving the image and usefulness of pork as food.

Effects of Practical Variations in Fasting, Stress and Chilling Regime on Post-slaughter Metabolic Rate and Meat Quality of Pork Loin (절식, 스트레스 및 냉각속도가 돼지도체의 사후 대사속도와 등심근의 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, I.H.;Park, B.Y.;Cho, S.H.;Kim, J.H.;Lee, J.M.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.97-106
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    • 2004
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effects of practical variations in feed restriction, pre-slaughter handing and chilling regime on pork quality during ageing. A total of twenty male landraces were allocated into three treatments(i.e., pre-slaughter feeding, stress and chilling regime) in a factorial arrangement. pH, temperature, free calcium ions, WB-shear force, sarcomere length, cooking loss, drip loss and objective color were determined during rigor development and/or 1, 3, 7 d postmortem. Pre-slaughter chasing stress for approximately 15 min had no effects on pH/temperature profile and objective meat quality. There was an interaction(P < 0.05) between the fasting treatment and chi1ling regime for muscle temperature at pH 6.2. Sarcomere length indicated that the current experiment conditions did not induce muscle shortening, with 1.7 to 1.8 ${\mu}m$, in spite of a significant effect of the fasting treatment (P<0.01). Pigs fed until the morning of slaughter showed a low WB-shear force(P < 0.05) until 3 d at I "C. The treatment also resulted in a higher Hunter L* and a*(P < 0.05) at 24 h and 7 d. Fasted pigs showed a significantly(P < 0.05) reduced cooking loss. The current results indicated that feeding upon the morning of slaughter became detrimental on meat color and the negative effect on cooking loss were linearly elevated with increased ageing time. On the other hand, WB-shear force did not distinguishable after 3 d. Collectively, it appeared that feed restriction from a day before slaughter could produce more a desirable meat quality at the time of consuming. However, the limited effect of animal handling and chilling rate on meat quality is not necessarily to extend to that these do not affect pork quality, as that largely depends on experimental design.

Effects of Pre-slaughter Fasting and Chiller Ageing on Objective Meat Quality in Longissimus Dorsi, Biceps Femoris, and Triceps Brachii Muscles of Korean Native Black Pigs (도축전 절식과 냉장숙성이 재래돼지 Longissimus Dorsi, Biceps Femoris와 Triceps Brachii의 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, I.H.;Park, B.Y.;Cho, S.H.;Kim, M.J.;Lee, J.M.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.405-414
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    • 2004
  • This study evaluated the effects of preslaughter feed withdrawal and chiller ageing on objective meat quality traits in longissimus dorsi (LD), biceps femoris(BF), and triceps brachii(TB) muscles of Korean native black pigs. Twenty males were assigned into a 2(pre-slaughter feeding) ${\times}$ 2(pre-slaughter stress) ${\times}$ 4(chiller ageing) factorial. Pre-slaughter fasting for 18 h resulted in significantly(P < 0.05) higher pHs at 1.5 h for both LD and BF. On the other hand, muscle temperature did not differ between the fasted and fed animals. The result implied that pigs with different pre-slaughter feedings experienced different pH-temperature profiles during rigor development. This was reflected by the significan(P < 0.05) increase in cooking loss and hunter $L^*$ for LD of the fed pigs. However, WB-shear force of LD was not affected by the treatment. Furthermore, objective meat quality of BF and TB did not differ between the treatments. Hunter $L^*$ value and cooking loss for LD were constant for 7 d, followed by a significant(P < 0.05) increase at 14 d. BF and TB had significantly(P < 0.05) higher hunter $L^*$ value and cooking loss at 14 d than at 1 d. Significant(P < 0.05) linear reductions in LD WB-shear force took place from 1 to 7 d, while BF and TB WB-shear forces were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at 14 d. Simple correlation for WB-shear force between LD and BF, and between LD and TB indicated that 6 kg of shear force for LD was equivalent to approximately 3.5 and 6 kg for TB and BF, respectively. On the basis of the current result, feeding until the morning of slaughter appeared to contribute to favourable meat color for LD. However, negative effect on palatability due to increase in cooking loss should be taken into account. A 7-d chiller ageing was likely the best practice for LD, while TB appeared not to require chiller ageing. A 14-d ageing could improve the tenderness of BF, but could likely reduce juiciness.

Histone acetyltransferase inhibitors antagonize AMP-activated protein kinase in postmortem glycolysis

  • Li, Qiong;Li, Zhongwen;Lou, Aihua;Wang, Zhenyu;Zhang, Dequan;Shen, Qingwu W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.857-864
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation on protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle to better understand the mechanism by which AMPK regulates postmortem glycolysis and meat quality. Methods: A total of 32 mice were randomly assigned to four groups and intraperitoneally injected with 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-${\beta}$-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a specific activator of AMPK), AICAR and histone acetyltransferase inhibitor II, or AICAR, Trichostatin A (TSA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase I and II) and Nicotinamide (NAM, an inhibitor of the Sirt family deacetylases). After mice were euthanized, the Longissimus dorsi muscle was collected at 0 h, 45 min, and 24 h postmortem. AMPK activity, protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle were measured. Results: Activation of AMPK by AICAR significantly increased glycolysis in postmortem muscle. At the same time, it increased the total acetylated proteins in muscle 45 min postmortem. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase inhibitors reduced AMPK activation induced increase in the total acetylated proteins and glycolytic rate in muscle early postmortem, while histone deacetylase inhibitors further promoted protein acetylation and glycolysis. Several bands of proteins were detected to be differentially acetylated in muscle with different glycolytic rates. Conclusion: Protein acetylation plays an important regulatory role in postmortem glycolysis. As AMPK mediates the effects of pre-slaughter stress on postmortem glycolysis, protein acetylation is likely a mechanism by which antemortem stress influenced postmortem metabolism and meat quality though the exact mechanism is to be elucidated.