• Title, Summary, Keyword: poverty

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Income Poverty and Multidimensional Poverty of Elderly Households (노인가구의 소득빈곤과 다차원빈곤에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Soon-Mi
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.175-193
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    • 2018
  • This study identified the rate of income poverty and multidimensional poverty, correlation between income poverty and multidimensional poverty, and adjusted multidimensional poverty rate. We also analyzed the factors that affected the number of poverty dimension and the probability of belonging to the poor or not in 3,159 elderly households including 474 poor households and 2,685 middle class households. First, in poor households, the employment poverty rate was the highest and the housing poverty rate was the lowest. In middle class households, the relation poverty rate was the highest and the employment poverty rate was the lowest. Second, in poor households, correlation between asset poverty and relation poverty had the highest coefficient of .205 and asset poverty and housing poverty had the lowest coefficient of .149. In middle class households, the correlation between income poverty and relation poverty had highest coefficient of -.290 and employment poverty and relation poverty had the lowest coefficient of .038. Third, in poor households, the number of average poverty dimension was 4.30, but the number of average poverty dimensions of middle class households was 2.310. Fourth, the variable affecting the number of poverty dimensions in poor households were gender, age, level of education, marital status; however, the significant variables were gender, education level, marital status, income poverty in the middle class households. The variable that affected the probability of belonging to the poor or not in poor households was age. However, the significant variables were gender, education level, marital status, residence, and income poverty in middle class households.

Multidimensional Poverty Analysis of Elderly Households by Cohort (노인가구의 코호트별 다차원빈곤 분석)

  • Kim, Soon-Mi;Cho, Kyung-Jin
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.51-71
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed the poverty rate by poverty dimension, correlation between multidimensional poverty, variables that affected the number of poverty dimension and the probability of the poor or not. The sample consisted of 6,361 elderly households (1,561 baby boom birth cohort, 1,793 post-liberation birth cohort, 3,007 Japanese colonial period birth cohort) taken from the $12^{th}$ Korean Welfare Panel Study. First, the highest poverty rate among the baby boom birth cohort was 62.8% of employment poverty. The highest rate among the post-liberation birth cohort and Japanese colonial period birth cohort, was 82.5%, 92.3% of health poverty, respectively. Second, the highest coefficient in the baby boom birth cohort was .354 for asset poverty and relation poverty. In the remaining two cohorts, the coefficient for asset poverty and relation poverty was the highest at .268, .284, respectively. Third, the average number of poverty dimensions was 2.318 of the baby boom birth cohort, 2.921 of the post-liberation birth cohort, 3.564 of the poverty in the Japanese colonial period birth cohort. Also, the poverty rate for each cohort was 20.179%, 28.779%, and 50.083%, respectively. Fourth, the significant variables in all cohorts were gender, education, marital status, residence, and equalized ordinary income for the multiple regression analysis on the number of poverty dimensions. Additionally, age of the post-liberation birth cohort was significant, age and family numbers of the Japanese colonial period birth cohort were significant. Significant variables in logistic analysis on the probability of poverty or not were the same as those of regression analysis.

Theoretical Review to Draw Poverty Lines (빈곤가계의 복지지원을 위한 빈곤선 설정의 이론적 고찰)

  • 박명희
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 1995
  • Absolute poverty is redefined as biological existence level poverty and relative poverty is also redefinded as 'the state that relatively insufficient compared to the specific society's average living standard under the condition that basic needs on the biological existence level has been satisfied.' Then absolute poverty and relative poverty lies on the same welfare continuum. Therefore these two can be regarded as one unified concept. Theoretical bottom line of poverty is the biological existence level and ceiling is average income. Poverty line for the social policy is to be drawn between ceiling and floor. Using these standard lines three poverty bands are categorized : minimum subsistence level, minimum decency level.

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Poverty Dynamics in Korea: Poverty Duration and its Determinants (빈곤의 동태적 분석: 빈곤지속기간과 그 결정요인)

  • Ku, In-Hoe
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.351-374
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    • 2005
  • This study examines dynamics of poverty in Korea, focusing on poverty duration and its determinants. Data come from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS), 1998-2003. KLIPS is a longitudinal survey of 5,000 families and their members which are representative of urban residents in Korea. Respondents of KLIPS annually report detailed information on their income, economic activities, and other socio-economic characteristics. This study use poverty exit probabilities to generate distributions of spell lengths, following Bane and Ellwood(1986)'s methodology. This study finds a high level of poverty exit rates in Korea. About three quarters of those beginning a poverty spell exit from poverty within two years. Only 14.3 percent of all the poverty spells consist of long spells which persists five years or more. Yet, a different picture emerges when spells of the poor persons at a given time are analysed. Persistent poor occupy a considerable share of all the poor. Almost 50 percent of those who would be in poverty at a given time are in the midst of poverty spells lasting five years or more. When repeat spells of poverty are also included in the analyses, the proportion of long-term poor increases further. 63 percent of persons poor at a given time are long-termers. The majority of long-term poor are members of families headed by the aged. They show both a low level of poverty exit rates and a high level of reentry rates, and thus are most likely to experience long-term poverty. In the first place, they occupy a substantial share of all the poor. The second who are likely to be poor longer is members of families headed by non-aged women. Researchers have recentlty paid much attention to the working poor who have increased since the economic crisis in 1997. Yet, it is very likely that families headed by non-aged male who largely consist of the working poor temporarily experience poverty. Findings for this study suggest that further studies and policy proposals addressing persistent poverty are necessary.

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Poverty in Korea, Why It Remains High?: Analysis of the Trend in Poverty since the 1990s (한국의 빈곤, 왜 감소하지 않는가? - 1990년대 이후 빈곤 추이의 분석 -)

  • Ku, In-Hoe
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.57-78
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    • 2004
  • The economic crisis in $1997{\sim}1998$ caused massive unemployment and unprecedentedly increased the number of the poor in Korea. As many unemployed families fell into poverty, the poverty rate skyrocketed to higher than 10 percent. Not later than 2000, unemployment late got back to normal and real average income among urban households approached to the income level prior to the economic crisis. Although the economic crisis has been passed through, poverty was not decreased to the low level prior to the crisis by 2000. Why does it remain high? This study attempts to provide an answer to this question by analysing the poverty trend over the 1990s. Data come from the National Survey of Household Income and Expenditures 1991, 1996, and 20001. Results show that poverty was rapidly reduced in the first half period of the 1990s. This reduction in poverty is largely explained by steady and rapid economic growth. Modest improvement in income inequality also contributed. In contrast, the poverty rate considerably increased in the latter half of the 1990s. Average income was not fully recovered to its prior level, which reflected the economic crisis and the subsequent economic stagnation. Worsened income inequality led to higher poverty rate too. In addition, demographic changes increased the share of economically vulnerable types of families, such as families headed by single parents and the elderly. The most significant factor in explaining the higher poverty rate was extended income differential among non-elderly adults, while the next was the increased number of the elderly families. Yet, findings a little differ depending on which concepts of poverty to adopt. In the analyses based on the concept of absolute poverty, economic growth the most significantly affected the poverty trends in the 1999s. Changes in income inequality played the most important role in explaining the trend in relative poverty. Adopting the concepts of quasi-absolute poverty, which is preferred in this study, results show that rapid economic growth significantly reduced poverty in the first half of the 1990s and both worsened income inequality and stagnated economic growth increased poverty in the latter 1990s.

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A Dynamic Analysis of Poverty Durations in Korea (우리나라 빈곤가구의 빈곤지속기간에 대한 동태적 분석)

  • Kim, Hwanjoon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.65 no.3
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    • pp.183-206
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    • 2013
  • Using Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (wave 1~11) database, this study analyzed the poverty duration of the poor as a whole and by households' characteristics. For this purpose, I first estimated poverty exit rates and reentry rates applying discrete-time hazard model to the sample, and then calculated poverty duration combining these two probability rates. The results show that about a half of poor households are transitory (short-term) poor with 1~2 years of poverty duration. A quarter is chronic (long-term) poor lasting for 5 or more years of poverty duration. The remained quarter can be categorized as the recurrent or mid-term poor. The socioeconomic characteristics of households greatly affect poverty duration. Long-term poverty is prevalent among female-head households, elderly households, single households, or households headed by a person with a lower level of education. If households' heads do not work, or work as temporary or daily-employed workers, the poverty duration tends to be longer. The findings suggest that the poor consist of various social classes with different characteristics. Efficient anti-poverty policy should be based on thoroughly identifying the specific characteristics and needs of each class.

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Dynamic Relationships of Poverty and Delinquency Trajectories (빈곤과 비행 발달궤적의 역동적 관계)

  • Chung, Ick-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2009
  • This study advances knowledge of developmental patterns in poverty and delinquency; data was obtained from waves 1-5 (2003-2007) of the Korea Youth Panel Survey. Semi-parametric group-based modeling (SGM) identified 4 trajectories of poverty from age 13 to 17 : non-poor, poverty increasing, low-level continuous poverty and chronic poverty groups and five developmental trajectories of delinquency : non-offending, late onset, low-level continuous, desisting, and chronic groups. A joint trajectory method predicted patterns of delinquency conditional on poverty trajectories. Chronic and low-level continuous poverty groups were more likely than others to follow chronic trajectories of delinquency; the non-poor group was more likely to be non-offending. Implications of this study for youth welfare were discussed to reduce risk for delinquency.

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Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty in Korea (한국에서의 빈곤의 세대간 이전)

  • Lee, Sang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.53-76
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    • 2008
  • This study analyze the intergenerational transmission of poverty in Korea, using the first wave of Korea Welfare Panel Study. For this analysis, I produced poverty transition tables across generation and estimated logistic models to explore the effects of parent's poverty on the children's adulthood poverty. As the results, I found that parent's poverty reduced children's education level and then the low education level increased the likelihood that children experience poverty in their adulthood. In other words, parent's poverty might increase children's adulthood poverty through the mediating effects of education level. This mediating effects were also identified in the analyses by group and cohort. From the analyses by group, daughters rather than sons, those from urban rather than rural area, and the older cohort rather than younger cohort showed greater intergenerational transmission of poverty.

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Life Satisfaction of Older Women Focused on Household Types and Poverty Levels (여성노인의 가구유형 및 빈곤여부에 따른 삶의 만족도)

  • Kang, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Yun-Jeong
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2009
  • This study aimed to identify and compare variables affecting life satisfaction of older women by focusing on household types and poverty levels. The study used data from the Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging administered by the Korea Labor Institute in 2006. The data for 1,017 older women ages over 65 including 427 single households and 590 couple households was analyzed. First, interaction effects of household types and poverty levels on life satisfaction were statistically significant. For the non-poverty households of older women, there was no explicit difference between single households and couple households in life satisfaction, but for the poverty households, single households were lower in life satisfaction than couple households. Second, as a result of reviewing four groups of older women (poverty-single household, poverty-couple household, non-poverty-single household, and non-poverty-couple household), besides religion, it was found that there were significant differences in age, education level, number of children, health level, residence area, and status of economic activity. Third, when analyzing variables affecting life satisfaction, common predictors for the four groups were health level and ownership of house. Older women who perceived to be healthier and owned their own homes were higher in life satisfaction. For poverty-single households, older women with over middle school graduation were also higher in life satisfaction, but for poverty-couple households, older women with over middle school graduation and more children were higher.

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The Effect of Occurrence and Reoccurrence of Catastrophic Health Expenditure on Transition to Poverty and Persistence of Poverty in South Korea (재난적 의료비 발생과 재발생이 빈곤화와 빈곤지속에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eunkyoung;Kwon, Soonman
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.172-184
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    • 2016
  • Background: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of occurrence and reoccurrence of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) on transition to poverty and persistence of poverty in South Korea. Methods: The data of the year 2008-2011 from the Korea Health Panel were used. CHE was defined as the share of total health expenditure in a household out of a household's total income at various threshold levels (more than 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). The effect of catastrophic expenditure on transition to poverty and persistence of poverty was analyzed through multivariate logistic regression. Results: The shares of households facing CHE at various threshold levels have increased gradually with 37.7%, 21%, 13.1%, and 9.5% in 2011. Households facing CHE were more likely to experience transition to poverty at thresholds level of more than 5% and 20% in 2010 set. Households facing CHE seemed to experience persistence of poverty, but it was not statistically significant. About 40% of households facing CHE in 2009 encountered another shock of CHE in 2010. Households without CHE seemed to experience more transition to poverty and persistence of poverty, but it was not statistically significant. For household with multiple CHE, those with medical aid were more likely to experience transition to poverty with statistical significance, but the statistical significance disappeared in case of persistence of poverty. Conclusion: The Korean health system needs to be improved to serve as a social security net for addressing transition to poverty and persistence of poverty due to facing CHE.