• Title, Summary, Keyword: potential therapeutic target

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Apelin-APJ Signaling: a Potential Therapeutic Target for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

  • Kim, Jongmin
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.196-201
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    • 2014
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by the vascular remodeling of the pulmonary arterioles, including formation of plexiform and concentric lesions comprised of proliferative vascular cells. Clinically, PAH leads to increased pulmonary arterial pressure and subsequent right ventricular failure. Existing therapies have improved the outcome but mortality still remains exceedingly high. There is emerging evidence that the seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor APJ and its cognate endogenous ligand apelin are important in the maintenance of pulmonary vascular homeostasis through the targeting of critical mediators, such as Kr$\ddot{u}$ppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Disruption of this pathway plays a major part in the pathogenesis of PAH. Given its role in the maintenance of pulmonary vascular homeostasis, the apelin-APJ pathway is a potential target for PAH therapy. This review highlights the current state in the understanding of the apelin-APJ axis related to PAH and discusses the therapeutic potential of this signaling pathway as a novel paradigm of PAH therapy.

Using reverse docking to identify potential targets for ginsenosides

  • Park, Kichul;Cho, Art E.
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.534-539
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    • 2017
  • Background: Ginsenosides are the main ingredients of ginseng, which, in traditional Eastern medicine, has been claimed to have therapeutic values for many diseases. In order to verify the effects of ginseng that have been empirically observed, we utilized the reverse docking method to screen for target proteins that are linked to specific diseases. Methods: We constructed a target protein database including 1,078 proteins associated with various kinds of diseases, based on the Potential Drug Target Database, with an added list of kinase proteins. We screened 26 kinds of ginsenosides of this target protein database using docking. Results: We found four potential target proteins for ginsenosides, based on docking scores. Implications of these "hit" targets are discussed. From this screening, we also found four targets linked to possible side effects and toxicities, based on docking scores. Conclusion: Our method and results can be helpful for finding new targets and developing new drugs from natural products.

TOMM20 as a potential therapeutic target of colorectal cancer

  • Park, Sang-Hee;Lee, Ah-Reum;Choi, Keonwoo;Joung, Soyoung;Yoon, Jong-Bok;Kim, Sungjoo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.12
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    • pp.712-717
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    • 2019
  • Translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20 (TOMM20) plays an essential role as a receptor for proteins targeted to mitochondria. TOMM20 was shown to be overexpressed in various cancers. However, the oncological function and therapeutic potential for TOMM20 in cancer remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of TOMM20's contribution to tumorigenesis and to explore the possibility of its therapeutic potential using colorectal cancer as a model. The results show that TOMM20 overexpression resulted in an increase in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, while siRNA-mediated inhibition of TOMM20 resulted in significant decreases in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. TOMM20 expression directly impacted the mitochondrial function including ATP production and maintenance of membrane potential, which contributed to tumorigenic cellular activities including regulation of S phase cell cycle and apoptosis. TOMM20 was overexpressed in CRC compared to the normal tissues and increased expression of TOMM20 to be associated with malignant characteristics including a higher number of lymph nodes and perineural invasion in CRC. Notably, knockdown of TOMM20 in the xenograft mouse model resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth. This is the first report demonstrating a relationship between TOMM20 and tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer and providing promising evidence for the potential for TOMM20 to serve as a new therapeutic target of colorectal cancer.

OIP5 is a highly expressed potential therapeutic target for colorectal and gastric cancers

  • Chun, Ho-Kyung;Chung, Kyung-Sook;Kim, Hee-Cheol;Kang, Jung-Eun;Kang, Min-Ah;Kim, Jong-Tae;Choi, Eun-Hwa;Jung, Kyeong-Eun;Kim, Moon-Hee;Song, Eun-Young;Kim, Seon-Young;Won, Mi-Sun;Lee, Hee-Gu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 2010
  • Previously, we reported that overexpression of Opa (Neisseria gonorrhoeae opacity-associated)-interacting protein 5 (OIP5) caused multi-septa formation and growth defects, both of which are considered cancer-related phenotypes. To evaluate OIP5 as a possible cancer therapeutic target, we examined its expression level in 66 colorectal cancer patients. OIP5 was upregulated about 3.7-fold in tumors and over 2-fold in 58 out of 66 colorectal cancer patients. Knockdown of OIP5 expression by small interfering RNA specific to OIP5 (siOIP5) resulted in growth inhibition of colorectal and gastric cancer cell lines. Growth inhibition of SNU638 by siOIP5 caused an increase in sub-G1 DNA content, as measured by flow cytometry, as well as an apoptotic gene expression profile. These results indicate that knockdown of OIP5 may induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, we suggest that OIP5 might be a potential cancer therapeutic target, although the mechanisms of OIP5-induced carcinogenesis should be elucidated.

Knockdown of Pyruvate Kinase M Inhibits Cell Growth and Migration by Reducing NF-κB Activity in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

  • Ma, Chaobing;Zu, Xueyin;Liu, Kangdong;Bode, Ann M.;Dong, Zigang;Liu, Zhenzhen;Kim, Dong Joon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.9
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    • pp.628-636
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    • 2019
  • Altered genetic features in cancer cells lead to a high rate of aerobic glycolysis and metabolic reprogramming that is essential for increased cancer cell viability and rapid proliferation. Pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the final step of glycolysis. Herein, we report that PKM is a potential therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We found that PKM1 or PKM2 is highly expressed in TNBC tissues or cells. Knockdown of PKM significantly suppressed cell proliferation and migration, and strongly reduced S phase and induced G2 phase cell cycle arrest by reducing phosphorylation of the CDC2 protein in TNBC cells. Additionally, knockdown of PKM significantly suppressed $NF-{\kappa}B$ (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) activity by reducing the phosphorylation of p65 at serine 536, and also decreased the expression of $NF-{\kappa}B$ target genes. Taken together, PKM is a potential target that may have therapeutic implications for TNBC cells.

Target Therapy for Colorectal Cancer (대장암의 표적치료)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2006
  • In the past decade, the median duration of survival among patients with advanced colorectal cancer has increased from 12 months to about 18 months, primarily as a results of the introduction of irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of cancer have resulted in the discovery of new therapeutic interventions that target specific molecular abnormalities. Their specificity, and therefore their potential to bind preferentially and modify tumor-specific targets, sparing normal tissues and causing fewer side-effects compared to conventional cytotoxic agents, makes them an attractive therapeutic option. The future of this approach for the treatment of solid tumors is promising.

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A comprehensive review of the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of ginseng and ginsenosides in central nervous system

  • Kim, Hee Jin;Kim, Pitna;Shin, Chan Young
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.8-29
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    • 2013
  • Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in human. Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are most widely investigated diseases among all others in respect to the ginseng's therapeutic effects. These include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia, depression, and many other neurological disorders including neurodevelopmental disorders. Not only the various types of diseases but also the diverse array of target pathways or molecules ginseng exerts its effect on. These range, for example, from neuroprotection to the regulation of synaptic plasticity and from regulation of neuroinflammatory processes to the regulation of neurotransmitter release, too many to mention. In general, ginseng and even a single compound of ginsenoside produce its effects on multiple sites of action, which make it an ideal candidate to develop multi-target drugs. This is most important in CNS diseases where multiple of etiological and pathological targets working together to regulate the final pathophysiology of diseases. In this review, we tried to provide comprehensive information on the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on neurodegenerative and other neurological diseases. Side by side comparison of the therapeutic effects in various neurological disorders may widen our understanding of the therapeutic potential of ginseng in CNS diseases and the possibility to develop not only symptomatic drugs but also disease modifying reagents based on ginseng.

Cell signaling and therapeutic drug target for the treatment of liver cirrhosis

  • Kim, Sang-Geon
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.115-130
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    • 2002
  • Signal transduction refers to the processes by which cells perceive the environment and/or internal status. In many physiological responses, cellular signals are activated by the transducers attached to the cell surface plasma membrane in response to chemical modulators. Advances in information technology are required in the pharmaceutical sciences to screen and explore the potential therapeutic agents. (omitted)

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Butein Disrupts Hsp90's Molecular Chaperoning Function and Exhibits Anti-proliferative Effects Against Drug-resistant Cancer Cells

  • Seo, Young Ho
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.3345-3349
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    • 2013
  • Hsp90 shows great promise as a therapeutic target due to its potential to disable multiple signaling pathways simultaneously. In this study, we discovered that a natural product, butein moderately inhibited the growth of drug-resistant cancer cells (A2780cis and H1975), and brought about the degradation of oncogenic Hsp90 client proteins. The study demonstrated that butein would be a therapeutic lead to circumvent drug-resistance in cancer chemotherapy. The structure-based screening, synthesis, and biological evaluation of butein are described herein.

Validation of Neurotensin Receptor 1 as a Therapeutic Target for Gastric Cancer

  • Akter, Hafeza;Yoon, Jung Hwan;Yoo, Young Sook;Kang, Min-Jung
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.591-602
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    • 2018
  • Gastric cancer is the fifth most common type of malignancy worldwide, and the survival rate of patients with advanced-stage gastric cancer is low, even after receiving chemotherapy. Here, we validated neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) as a potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer. We compared NTSR1 expression levels in sixty different gastric cancer-tissue samples and cells, as well as in other cancer cells (lung, breast, pancreatic, and colon), by assessing NTSR1 expression via semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry and western blot. Following neurotensin (NT) treatment, we analyzed the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and further determined the effects on cell migration and invasion via wound-healing and transwell assays. Our results revealed that NTSR1 mRNA levels were higher in gastric cancer tissues than non-cancerous tissues. Both of NTSR1 mRNA levels and expression were higher in gastric cancer cell lines relative to levels observed in other cancer-cell lines. Moreover, NT treatment induced MMP-9 expression and activity in all cancer cell lines, which was significantly decreased following treatment with the NTSR1 antagonist SR48692 or small-interfering RNA targeting NTSR1. Furthermore, NT-mediated metastases was confirmed by observing epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers SNAIL and E-cadherin in gastric cancer cells. NT-mediated invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells were reduced by NTSR1 depletion through the Erk signaling. These findings strongly suggested that NTR1 constitutes a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of gastric cancer invasion and metastasis.