• Title, Summary, Keyword: postmenopausal

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Correlation of Anthropometric Data, Nutrient Intakes and Serum Lipids in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women (폐경 전·후 여성들의 체위, 영양소 섭취 상태 및 혈중 지질과의 관련성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Yun-Hee;Song, Tae-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.476-484
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the anthropometric data, nutrient intakes and serum profiles in premenopausal and postmenopausal women living in Gyeonggi-do Province, Republic of Korea. The subjects were 49 premenopausal women and 63 postmenopausal women who are not taking any hormone or cardiovascular drugs. Anthropometric measurements were taken by a trained practitioner and the data for dietary intakes were obtained by a 24-hour recall method. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for the total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein fractions. The mean age of the premenopausal women was $45.17{\pm}3.28$ years and that of the postmenopausal women was 2$62.5{\pm}4.14$ years. The height and weight were $157.86{\pm}$4.35 cm, $58.75{\pm}6.01$ kg in premenopausal women and $156.42{\pm}3.62$ cm, $57.63{\pm}5.38$ kg in postmenopausal women, respectively. WHR (waist hip ratio) in postmenopausal women was significantly higher than that of premenopausal women (p<0.05). There were no differences between the pre-and postmenopausal women in the intakes of energy, protein, fat, Ca, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, niacin, vitamin C and vitamin E. However carbohydrate and Na intakes in postmenopausal women were significantly higher than those of premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, Ca intake was below and Na intake was extremely high considering KDRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans). Serum triglyceride in postmenopausal women was positively correlated with age, BMI (body mass index) and WHR. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride in postmenopausal women showed significantly negative correlations with fiber intake. These results suggest that it is necessary to help postmenopausal women maintain a healthy body weight. Postmenopausal women needs to increase Ca (calcium) intakes and diet quality by decreasing the intakes of Na (sodium). In addition, an adequate intakes of fiber is recommended for postmenopausal women to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Clinical Usefulness of Korean Red Ginseng in Postmenopausal Women with Severe Climacteric Disturbance

  • Kikuchi, Yoshihiro;Tode, Takehiko;Hirata, Junko;Nakataand, Hideyui;Kita, Tsunekazu
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.98-102
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical usefulness of Korean red ginseng (RG) on various postmenopausal syndromes. Total plasminogen inhibitor-l (tPAI-l) in peripheral blood from 9 postmenopausal women with climacteric syndromes (CS) was measured before and 3 months after treatment with daily oral administration of 6 g RG and that from 8 postmenopausal women without any CS was also measured as healthy controls. Blood samples were collected in the early morning on the bed-rest. Psychological conditions of postmenopausal women with CS were measured before and 3 months after treatment with RG using simplified menopausal index (SMI). In addition, OKETSU (blood stagnation) syndrome scores and KI deficiency (generalized energy stagnation) scores proposed by Terasawa et al., were recorded before and 3 months after treatment with RG in postmenopausal women with CS and in healthy postmenopausal women. OKETSU syndrome scores and tPAI-l levels in postmenopausal patients with CS were significantly (P<0.001 and P<0.01) higher than those in healthy postmenopausal women without CS. Similarly, SMI scores and KI deficiency scores in postmenopausal patients with CS were about three-fold higher than those without any CS. When RG was administered for 3 months, KI deficiency scores and OKETSU scores as well as SMI scores declined around the levels of healthy postmenopausal women. Although tPAI-1 levels significantly (P<0.05) decreased after treatment with RG, those did not reach the levels of healthy postmenopausal women. Clinical usefulness of administration of RG to postmenopausal women with CS was confirmed from evaluation not only by modem medicine but also by traditional KAMPO medicine.

Evaluation of Anthropometric Characteristics, Bone Density, Food Intake Frequency, Nutrient Intakes, and Diet Quality of Pre- and Postmenopausal Women - Based on 2008~2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - (폐경 전후 여성의 신체계측, 골밀도, 식품섭취빈도, 영양소섭취 및 식사의 질 평가 - 국민건강영양조사 2008~2011에 기초하여 -)

  • Choi, Soon Nam;Jho, Kwang Hyun;Chung, Nam Yong
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.500-511
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the anthropometric data, bone density, serum profiles, nutrient intakes and diet quality of premenopausal and postmenopausal women. For the study, we obtained data for analysis from the combined 2008~2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The height and weight were 157.8 cm and 58.7 kg in premenopausal women and 155.5 cm and 58.3 kg in postmenopausal women, respectively. The obesity rate was 27.49% in premenopausal women and 34.98% in postmenopausal women (p<0.001). Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase in postmenopausal women were significantly higher than those in premenopausal women (p<0.001). The prevalence of osteoporosis was 0.0~0.89% in premenopausal women and 0.48~13.22% in postmenopausal women (p<0.001). In postmenopausal women, rates of hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, depression, and diabetes were significantly higher than those in premenopausal women. Water, fat. ash, sodium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intakes in premenopausal women were significantly higher than those in postmenopausal women. Water, fiber, Ca, and, K intakes were below KDRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans) in both groups. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) of premenopausal women was higher than that of postmenopausal women (p<0.001). The index of nutritional quality (INQ) in premenopausal women was also higher than that of postmenopausal women except iron and vitamin C. Therefore dietary guidelines and an education program should be developed for desirable improvement of health, bone density, nutrient status and dietary quality of postmenopausal women.

The Study of Correlations between Body Compositions and Bone Mineral Density in Young Women and Postmenopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density (젊은 여성과 대퇴경부 저골밀도 폐경기 여성의 신체조성과 골밀도의 상관관계 연구)

  • Shin, Seung-Sub
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2011
  • Purpose : The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between body compositions and bone mineral density in young women and postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. Methods : Eleven young women (age, $25.85{\pm}1.96yrs$; height, $160.28{\pm}2.16cm$; weight, $56.89{\pm}9.66kg$) and ten postmenopausal women (age, $25.85{\pm}1.96yrs$; height, $160.28{\pm}2.16cm$; weight, $56.89{\pm}9.66kg$) with low bone density on femur neck were participated in this study. All subjects performed the measure of body composition and BMD on lumbar body and femur neck. Results : The results were as follows. Percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and body mass index(BMI) were significantly increased in postmenopausal women. BMD in lumbar body and femur neck were significantly decreased in postmenopausal women. There were negative strong correlation between BMD of the femur and age in young women. There were negative strong correlation between BMD of the femur and age or the years of menopause in postmenopausal women. There were positive strong correlation between BMD of the femur and BMD of lumbar body. Conclusion : Percent body fat and BMI were more increased in young women than in postmenopausal women. And there were negative strong correlation between BMD and age or the years of menopause in postmenopausal women.

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A Study on Bone Mineral Density, Anthropometric Measurements, Maternal Factors, and Exercise and Their Correlation in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Gyeonggi-do Korea (경기 지역 폐경 전.후 여성들의 골밀도와 신체 계측, 모성요인 및 운동과의 상관성 연구)

  • Choi, Yun-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Oh
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.630-638
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to assess the relationships among bone mineral density, anthropometric measurements, maternal factors and exercise in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Anthropometric measurements were taken by a trained practitioner and the maternal factors of the 78 subjects in Gyeonggi-do were acquired by an interview questionnare. The BMD of the lumbar spine(L2~L4), femoral neck, Ward's triangles and trochanters were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean age of the premenopausal women was 45.23 years and that of the postmenopausal women whose ase of menopause was 49.37 years was 61.27 years. The age, waist and waist to hip ratio of postmenopausal women were significantly higher than those of premenopausal women. BMD of the lumbar spine(L2~L4) in postmenopausal women was significantly higher than that of premenopausal women. Number of children and age at last delivery were significantly higher in postmenopausal women than those in premenopausal women. The BMDs of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of premenopausal women was positively correlated with weight, body mass index, waist and WHR and the BMDs of these two sites in postmenopausal women were positively correlated with height, and weight. In postmenopausal women, BMD of the lumbar spine was negatively correlated with duration time after menopause and BMD of the femoral neck was positively correlated with age at last delivery. These results suggest that it is necessary to maintain adequate body weight. Health management and education about performing more exercise are recommended for postmenopausal women to prevent osteoporosis.

Effects of Anthropometric Indices and Nutrients Intake on Bone Mineral Density and Biochemical Markers of Bone Metabolism in Korean Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women (폐경 전$\cdot$후 여성의 신체 계측치와 영양소 섭취량이 골밀도 및 골밀대사 지표에 미치는 영향)

  • Joo Eun-Jung
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.531-541
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    • 2005
  • This study investigated the influence of anthropometric data and nutrient intake on bone mineral density(BMD) and biochemical markers of bone metabolism The mean age of 21 premenopausal women were 47.0 years and that of 41 postmenopausal women whose menopausal age was 49.46 years were 60.56 years. The waist and WHR of postmenopausal women were significantly higher than those of premenopausal ones. The animal protein intake of premenopausal and postmenopausal women were 38.5 and 21.03 g which comprised 54.35 and $31.84\%$ of total protein intake, respectively. The calcium intake of premenopausal and postmenopausal women were 446.45 and 546.97mg which was 63.78 and $78.14\%$ of Korean RDA, respectively. The ALP(Alkaline phosphatase) of premenopausal women was 65.81 U/L, which was significantly lower than that(90.24 U/L) of postmenopausal women (p<0.01). BMD of lumbar spine of premenopausal women was correlated significantly with body weight(r=0.690, p<0.01), waist(r=0.682, p<0.01), WHR(r=0.672, p<0.01), BMI(r=0.559, p<0.01), and body fat(r=0.457, p<0.01). Urinary Ca/creatinine ratio of the premenopausal women was negatively correlated with plant protein(r=-0.529, p<0.05) and plant calcium(r=-0.579, p<0.05). BMD of lumbar spine of postmenopausal women showed positive correlation with lean body mass(r=0.469, p<0.01) and body weight(r=0.383, p<0.05). Urinary Ca/creatinine ratio for the postmenopausal women was positively correlated with ALP(r=0.404, p<0.01) and urinary Na/creatinine ratio(r=0.389, p<0.05). In conclusion, it is necessary to maintain adequate body weight and to increase calcium intake for the premenopausal women. It is also important to increase muscle mass and reduce salt intake for the postmenopausal women.

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The Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate on Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Korea (우리나라 성인의 당질섭취가 혈청 중성지방수준에 미치는 영향)

  • 오경원;남정모;김초일;이양자
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.448-454
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    • 2004
  • The relationship between dietary carbohydrate (CHO) and fasting triglyceride (TG) concentrations was examined in 2,689 men, 1,908 premenopausal women, and 966 postmenopausal women aged 20-69 years in the 1998-Korean Health and Nutrition Survey. The serum TG concentrations in fasting blood samples were measured and dietary CHO intake was assessed by using 24-hour recall method. As CHO intake increased, the TG concentrations were significantly affected (127.4 mg/dl, 132.4 mg/dl, 134.8 mg/dl, 142.6 mg/dl, 147.2 mg/dl) in postmenopausal women, while CHO intake was not significantly associated with TG concentrations in men and in premenopausal women. For the lowest to the highest quintiles of CHO, the mean TG concentrations were 120.0 mg/dl and 140.3 mg/dl in postmenopausal women with body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m$^2$ and 135.6 mg/dl & 155.3 mg/dl in postmenopausal women with BMI$\geq$25 kg/m$^2$. In multivariate analysis, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR), glucose, smoking, and drinking habit were associated with serum TG concentrations in men. In premenopausal women, BMI, WHR, and glucose levels were associated with serum TG concentrations, while age, BMI, WHR, glucose levels, and CHO intake were associated with serum TG concentrations in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, CHO intake is related to serum TG concentrations in postmenopausal women in Korea.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women in Brazil

  • Borghesan, Deise Helena Pelloso;Dell'Agnolo, Catia Millene;Gravena, Angela Andreia Francam;de Oliveira Demitto, Marcela;Lopes, Tiara Cristina Romeiro;de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva;Pelloso, Sandra Marisa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3587-3593
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To analyze risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Methods: The present case-control study included 600 women treated at a cancer center reference hospital in a municipality in the South of Brazil. Results: Totals of 100 patients and 500 control subjects were evaluated. The mean age of the women was $52.5{\pm}11.9$ years; the average was $57.4{\pm}11.8$ years, and the average age of the control subjects was $51.5{\pm}11.7$ years. The risk factors for breast cancer that were considered included an age ${\geq}40$ years, postmenopausal status, a body mass index $(BMI){\geq}30kg/m^2$, and reduced physical activity. Variables like postmenopausal status and an obese BMI were associated with cases of breast cancer. Women who were postmenopausal or obese were 3.80 or 1.80 times more likely to develop breast cancer, respectively, and physically inactive women were 1.72 times more likely to develop breast cancer. Conclusions: Obesity and postmenopausal status are associated with the occurrence of breast cancer in this population. Being over 40 years of age was also a statistically significant factor for postmenopausal women.

Effect of Childbirth Age on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

  • We, Ji Sun;Han, Kyungdo;Kwon, Hyuk-Sang;Kil, Kicheol
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.33 no.48
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    • pp.311.1-311.10
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    • 2018
  • Background: In postmenopausal women, there is rapid bone loss due to estrogen depletion. In women, reproductive factors such as age at menarche, breastfeeding, and parity are considered risk factors of osteoporosis. Many reports suggest that obesity is associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis. This nationwide, population-based study aims to identify the association between maternal age and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal women of different obesity classifications. Methods: We assessed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. The study included 1,328 postmenopausal women, after excluding women with missing data for reproductive history among 4,546 postmenopausal women in the survey. Multivariate regression was used to identify the association between childbirth age and postmenopausal bone mineral density after adjustments for confounding factors. Results: The prevalence of postmenopausal osteoporosis was 35.24% (n = 468). After dividing the subjects into obese and non-obese groups based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, there were significant differences between non-osteoporosis and osteoporosis groups with regard to age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, and parity in the BMI-based general obesity group. The prevalence of osteoporosis was highest in women older than 35 years old at last childbirth. The prevalence of osteoporosis was also greater in women with parity ${\geq}4$ compared to those with lower parity levels. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women of older age at last childbirth and higher parity were at increased risk of osteoporosis in the BMI-based non-general obesity group.

Intake of dietary phytoestrogen and indices of antioxidant and bone metabolism of pre- and post-menopausal Korean women

  • Jang, Jeong-Hee;Yoon, Ji-Young;Cho, Sung-Hee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2007
  • A group of 101 women, aged 40-65 years consisted of 48 premenopausal subjects and 53 postmenopausal ones living in Daegu and Gyeongbuk area in Korea were evaluated with their general characteristics, lifestyle factors, nutrient and phytoestrogen intakes, blood and urinary indices concerning antioxidant status and bone metabolism. Body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the postmenopausal women were significantly higher (23.8, 0.86, and 126.9 mmHg, respectively) than those of the premenopausal women (22.6, 0.82, and 115.9 mmHg; respectively). Nutrient intakes of the postmenopausal and premenopausal groups were not different except lower fat intake and higher dietary fiber and iron intakes in the postmenopausal group. Daily total phytoestrogen intake was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group (48.54 mg) than the premenopausal (31.41 mg) and was resulted mostly from higher intakes of daidzein and genistein from soy and soy products (45.42 mg vs 28.91 mg). Serum genistein level and excretion of enterolactone, major lignan metabolite, were not very different between the two groups. Serum retinal and ${\alpha}$- tocopherol levels were higher in the postmenopausal group but TBARS levels were not different between the two groups. Serum osteocalcin (7.18 ng/mL) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (7.15 nmol/mmol creatinine), in the postmenopausal group were significantly higher than those in the premenopausal group (4.80 ng/mL, 5.95 nmol/mmol creatinine). Urinary excretion of enterolactone was positively correlated with serum osetocalcin in premenopausal women and serum genistein negatively correlated with the urinary DPD in postmenopausal women. Dietary phytoestrogen intake was negatively correlated with serum level of TBARS in all subjects. It is concluded that the effect of total phytoestrogen intake is beneficial on body antioxidant status in all middle-aged women regardless of menopause but the effect on bone metabolism appears different by the type of the phytoestrogen and the menopausal state.