• Title, Summary, Keyword: positive vaginal margin

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Predicting Factors for Positive Vaginal Surgical Margin Following Radical Hysterectomy for Stage IB1 Carcinoma of the Cervix

  • Sethasathien, Sethawat;Charoenkwan, Kittipat;Settakorn, Jongkolnee;Srisomboon, Jatupol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2211-2215
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    • 2014
  • Background: To examine the incidence of positive vaginal surgical margins and determine the predicting factors following radical hysterectomy for stage IB1 carcinoma of the cervix. Materials and Methods: The clinical and histological data of 656 FIGO stage IB1 cervical cancer patients who had radical hysterectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL) from January 2003 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed and were analyzed for their association with a positive vaginal surgical margin. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Thirty-five patients (5.3%) had positive vaginal surgical margins following RHPL; 24 (3.7%) for intraepithelial lesions and 11 (1.7%) for carcinoma. On multivariate analysis, microscopic vaginal involvement by high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and/or carcinoma (adjusted odd ratio (OR) 186.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 48.5-718.5) and squamous histology (OR 8.7; 95% CI 1.7-44.0), were significantly associated with positive vaginal surgical margin. Conclusions: Microscopic vaginal involvement by HSIL and/or carcinoma are strong predictors for positive vaginal surgical margins for stage IB1 cervical cancer patients undergoing radical hysterectomy. Preoperative 'mapping' colposcopy or other strategies should be considered to ensure optimal vaginal resection.

Adjuvant external beam radiation and brachytherapy for vaginal resection margin positive cervical cancer

  • Kim, Donghyun;Ki, Yongkan;Kim, Wontaek;Park, Dahl;Lee, Joohye;Lee, Jayoung;Jeon, Hosang;Nam, Jiho
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To evaluate the treatment outcomes of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and vaginal brachytherapy (VB) following radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer patients with involved vaginal resection margin (VRM). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 21 patients treated with postoperative EBRT and VB for positive VRM FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer between 2003 and 2015. Concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy was administered to all patients. Results: The median whole pelvis EBRT dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45 to 50.4 Gy). In the VB, the median dose per fraction, number of fractions, and total dose delivered were: 4 Gy (range, 3.0 to 4.0 Gy), 4 fractions (range, 3 to 5 fractions), and 16 Gy (range, 12 to 20 Gy), respectively. At a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 9 to 122 months), local recurrence was observed in 2 patients, and distant metastasis was present in 7 patients. All patients with local recurrence subsequently developed distant metastases. The 5-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 89.1%, 65.9%, and 62.9%, respectively. Of the 21 patients, 7 patients (33.3%) reported grade 2 acute toxicity; however, there were no grade 3 or higher acute adverse events. Grade 1-2 late toxicities were observed in 8 patients. Late grade 3 urinary toxicity was reported in 1 patient. Conclusions: Adjuvant EBRT and VB showed excellent local control and low toxicity in cervical cancer patients with positive VRM. Although limited by its retrospective nature, the findings from our study provide evidence supporting the use of additional VB in pathologically involved VRM.

Prognostic analysis of uterine cervical cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy: importance of positive or close parametrial resection margin

  • Kim, Yi-Jun;Lee, Kyung-Ja;Park, Kyung Ran;Kim, Jiyoung;Jung, Wonguen;Lee, Rena;Kim, Seung Cheol;Moon, Hye Sung;Ju, Woong;Kim, Yun Hwan;Lee, Jihae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS) in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in a single institute. Materials and Methods: Clinicopathologic data of 135 patients with clinical stage IA2 to IIA2 cervical cancer treated with PORT from 2001 to 2012 were reviewed, retrospectively. Postoperative parametrial resection margin (PRM) and vaginal resection margin (VRM) were investigated separately. The median treatment dosage of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to the whole pelvis was 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction. High-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy after EBRT was given to patients with positive or close VRMs. Concurrent platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered to 73 patients with positive resection margin, lymph node (LN) metastasis, or direct extension of parametrium. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for analyzing LRR, DM, and OS; Cox regression was applied to analyze prognostic factors. Results: The 5-year disease-free survival was 79% and 5-year OS was 91%. In univariate analysis, positive or close PRM, LN metastasis, direct extension of parametrium, lymphovascular invasion, histology of adenocarcinoma, and chemotherapy were related with more DM and poor OS. In multivariate analysis, PRM and LN metastasis remained independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion: PORT after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer showed excellent OS in this study. Positive or close PRM after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer correlates with poor prognosis even with CCRT. Therefore, additional treatments to improve local control such as radiation boosting need to be considered.

Radiotherapy Results of Carcinoma of the Cervix with Positive Resection Margin (절제연 양성 자궁경부암의 수술후 방사선치료)

  • Huh Seung Jae;Kim Won Dong;Wu Hong Gyun;Kim Dae Yong;Ha Sung Whan;Ahn Yong Chan;Kim Il Han;Park Charn Il
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : Patients with cervical cancer who have positive resection margins after radical hysterectomy are at increased risk for local recurrence. The result of postoperative pelvic radiotherapy for cervix cancer with positive resection margins were analyzed to evaluate the role of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods : Between n 1979 and 1992, 60 patients of cervix carcinoma were treated with postoperative radiotherapy after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy because of positive vaginal (48 patients) or parametrial resection margins (12 patients). Patients were treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone (12 Patients) or EBRT plus vaginal ovoid irradiation (VOI) (48 patients). The median followup period was 55 months. Results : The 5-year actuarial disease free and overall survival rates for all patients were $75.2\%$, $84.1\%$, respectively. The overall recurrence rate was $23\%$ (14/60). In 48 patients with Positive vaginal resection margins, the pelvic recurrence was $8\%$ (4/48). Distant metastasis was $15\%$(7/48). Of the 43 patients with positive vaginal resection margins treated with EBRT and VOI, recurrence rate was $21\%$(9/43) , while recurrence rate was $40\%$(2/5) in the EBRT only treated group. In 12 patients with positive parametrial margins, three patients ($25\%$) had distant metastases. The most significant prognostic factor was lymph node metastasis. Complications resulting from radiotherapy occurred at a rate of $32\%$(19/60) and grade III complications occurred in three patients ($5\%$). Conclusion : Postoperative radiotherapy can produce excellent pelvic control rates in patients with positive resection margins. In patients with positive vaginal margins, whole pelvic EBRT and VOI is recommended.

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Adjuvant Radiotherapy Following Radical Hysterectomy and Bilateral Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection for the Uterine Cervical Cancer : Prognostic Factors and Failure Patterns (근칙적 절제술과 술후 방사선치료를 시행한 자궁경부암 환자의 치료성적, 예루인자와 실패양상)

  • Choi, Doo-Ho
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.357-367
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : To identify variable prognostic factors and analyse failure patterns in the uterine cervix cancer after radical operation and adjuvant radio-therapy, a retrospective analysis was undertaken. Materals and Methods : I analysed one hundred and twenty four patients with uterine cervix cancer, FIGO stage IB, IIA and IIB, treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection followed by adjuvant radio-therapy between May 1985 and May 1994. Minimum follow up period was 24 months. All of them were treated with full dose external radiotherapy with linear accelerator and/or high dese rate intracavitary radiation. Results : Overall 5 year survival rate and relapse free survival rate were $75.4\%,\;73.5\%$, respectively. Significant prognostic factors by relapse free survival were wall involvement thickness, lymph node location and number, parametrium involvement, tumor size, stage, uterine body involvement, vaginal resection margin involvement. By multivariate analysis, lymph node matastasis. tumor size and vaginal resection margin involvement were significant prognostic factos. Treatment related failure were 33 cases. Locoregional failure were more likely in the stage IIB, lymph node positive or vaginal resection margin positive patients whereas distant failures were relatively more frequent in stage IB, IIA and lymph node, vaginal resection negative patients. In stage IIB, 5 year relapse free survival rate was only $56\%$ and nine of twenty two patients recurred. Conculsion : Postoperative radiotherapy results are good for patients with relatively low risk factor. But the results are poor for patients with multiple, high risk factors or stage IIB. To control recurrence for patients with high risk factors, postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy is not sufficient treatment method. To raise control rate adding other methods such as radiosensitizing agent or chemotherapy is necessary and prospectively randomized study is needed for evaluation of postoperative radiotherapy efficacy and /or other methods. And it is reasonable to treat primary radical radiotherapy for patients with stage IIB cervical cancer instead of radical operation and adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy regimen.

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Role of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Management of Cervical Cancer (자궁경부암에서 수술 후 방사선치료의 역할)

  • Chun, Ha-Chung;Lee, Myung-Za
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative radiation therapy in cervical cancer patients and define the prognostic factors to affect survival rates. Materials and Methods: Eighty one patients with cervical cancer who were treated with postoperative radiation therapy following surgery at our institution between May 1992 and April 2000 were retrospectivelv analyzed. Forty two patients had stage IB disease, 17 had stage IIA disease, and remaining 22 had stage IIB disease, respectively. Histological examination revealed 76 squamous cell carcinoma and 5 adenocarclnoma. Sixty one patients were noted to have stromal invasion greater than 8 mm and 20 patients were noted to have stromal invasion 7 mm or less. Sixteen patients had parametrial invasion and 65 patients did not. Positive vaginal resection margin was documented in only eight patients and positive lymphovascular invasion was in twelve patients. All of the patients were treated with external beam radiation therapy alone. Majority of the patients were treated with 4 field brick technique to encompass whole pelvis. Total of 5,500 cGy was delivered to the primary surgical tumor bed. Minimum follow up period was four years. Results: Actuarial disease free survival rates for entire group of the patients were 95% and 89% at 2 and 5 years, respectively Five year disease free survival rates for patients with stage IB, IIA, and IIB disease were 97%, 87% and 70%, respectivelv. Local recurrences were documented in 5 patients. Cumulative local failure rate at 3 years was 6% Five year disease free survival rates for patients with stromal invasion greater than 8 mm and 7 mm or less were 88% and 92%, respectively (p>0.05). Five year disease free survival rate for patients with parametrial invasion was significantly lower than those with no invasion (72% vs 92%, p<0.05). Also there was significantly lower survival in patients with positive vaginal resection margin, compared with patients with negative resection margin (64% vs 94%, p<0.05). However, lymphovascular invasion was not a statistically significant prognostic factor Parametrial invasion and positive surgical resection margins were noted to be significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Postoperative radiation therapy appears to be beneficial in controlling local disease in cervical cancer patients with high pathologic risk factors. Parametrial invasion and positive resection margins were noted to be significant prognostic factors to affect survival and more effective treatment should be investigated in these patients.

Prognostic Value of Pathological Characteristics of Invasive Margins in Early-stage Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Uterine Cervix

  • Khunamornpong, Surapan;Settakorn, Jongkolnee;Sukpan, Kornkanok;Suprasert, Prapaporn;Lekawanvijit, Suree;Siriaunkgul, Sumalee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5165-5169
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    • 2013
  • Background: To evaluate the pathological characteristics of invasive margins in early-stage cervical squamous cell carcinomas and their association with other clinicopathological features including clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: Patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical squamous cell carcinomas who received surgical treatment and had available follow-up information were identified. Their histological slides were reviewed for prognostic variables including tumor size, grade, extent of invasion, lymphovascular invasion, involvement of vaginal margin or parametrium, and lymph node metastasis. The characteristics of invasive margins including invasive pattern (closed, finger-like, or spray-like type), degree of stromal desmoplasia, and degree of peritumoral inflammatory reaction were evaluated along the entire invasive fronts of tumours. Associations between the characteristics of invasive margins and other clinicopathological variables and disease-free survival were assessed. Results: A total of 190 patients were included in the study with a median follow-up duration of 73 months. Tumour recurrence was observed in 18 patients (9%). Spray-like invasive pattern was significantly more associated as compared with closed or finger-like invasive pattern (p=0.005), whereas the degree of stromal desmoplasia or peritumoral inflammatory reaction was not. Low degree of peritumoral inflammatory reaction appeared linked with lymph node metastasis (p=0.021). In multivariate analysis, a spray-like invasive pattern was independently associated with marked stromal desmoplasia (p=0.013), whilst marked desmoplasia was also independently associated with low inflammatory reactions (p=0.009). Furthermore, low inflammatory reactions were independently associated with positive margins (p=0.022) and lymphovascular invasion (p=0.034). The patients with spray-like invasive pattern had a significantly lower disease-free survival compared with those with closed or finger-like pattern (p=0.004). Conclusions: There is a complex interaction between cancer tissue at the invasive margin and changes in surrounding stroma. A spray-like invasive pattern has a prognostic value in patients with early-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Management of Early Cervical Cancer (초기 자궁경부암의 수술 후 방사선치료의 효과)

  • Kim, Jae-Chul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.164-170
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    • 2006
  • [ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: This study identified the result of postoperative radiation therapy and the prognostic factors to affect survival rates in cancer patients. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: One hundred and thirty three patients with cervical cancer who were treated with postoperative radiation therapy following surgery at our institution between June 1985 and November 2002 were retrospectively analyzed. One hundred and thirteen patients had stage IB disease, and 20 patients had stage IIA disease. Histological examination revealed 118 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 15 adenocarcinoma patients. Sixty seven patients were noted to have stromal invasion greater than 10 mm, and 45 patients were noted to have stromal Invasion 10 mm or less. Positive lymphovascular invasion was found in 24 patients, and positive pelvic lymph nodes were noted in 39 patients. Positive vaginal resection margin was documented in 8 patients. All of the patients were treated with external beam radiation therapy to encompass whole pelvis and primary surgical tumor bed. Intracavitary radiation therapy was added to 19 patients who had positive or close surgical margins. $\underline{Results}$: Actuarial overall and disease-free survival rates for entire group of the patients were 88% and 84% at 5 years, respectively. Five-year disease-free survival rates for patients with stromal invasion greater than 10 mm and 10 mm or less were 76% and 97%, respectively (p<0.05). Also there was a significantly lower survival in patients with positive pelvic lymph nodes compared with patients with negative pelvic lymph nodes (p<0.05). However, lymphovascular invasion, positive vaginal resection margins were not statistically significant prognostic factors. Addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or type of surgery did not affect disease-free survival. $\underline{Conclusion}$: Postoperative radiation therapy appears to achieve satisfactory local control with limited morbidity in cervical cancer patients with high pathologic risk factors. Distant metastasis was a dominant failure pattern to affect survival in cervical cancer patients after radical surgery and radiation and more effective systemic treatment should be investigated in these high-risk patients.

Values of Three Different Preoperative Regimens in Comprehensive Treatment For Young Patients with Stage Ib2 Cervical Cancer

  • Zhao, Yi-Bing;Wang, Jin-Hua;Chen, Xiao-Xiang;Wu, Yu-Zhong;Wu, Qiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1487-1489
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and intracavity brachytherapy in comprehensive treatment for young patients with stage Ib2 cervical cancer. Methods: One hundred and twelve young patients with stage Ib2 cervical cancer were enrolled retrospectively in our hospital from January 2003 to June 2005. They were categorized into three groups according to preoperative regimens, including the concurrent chemoradiotherapy group (Group 1, n=38), the neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Group 2, n=49), and the intracavity brachytherapy group (Group 3, n=25). Radical hysterectomy was performed following these regimens. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were given according to pelvic lymph node metastasis, deep cervical stromal invasion, intravascular cancer emboli, histological grading, vaginal stump and positive surgical margin. Results: The cancer disappearance and superficial muscle invasion rates were statistically significantly better in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy group than in the other two groups (P<0.01). No statistically significant difference was noted in the deep muscle invasion rate, surgical time and intraoperative blood loss among three groups, but significantly more postoperative complications occurred in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy group. The 2-year pelvic recurrence was statistically significantly lower in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy group compared to other two groups, while the 5-year survival was higher. Conclusion: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is efficacious for young patients with stage Ib2 cervical cancer.

Adjuvant Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix (자궁경부암의 수술 후 방사선치료)

  • Lee Kyung-Ja;Moon Hye Seong;Kim Seung Cheol;Kim Chong Il;Ahn Jung Ja
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy, and to investigate the prognostic factors for FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer patients who were treated with simple hysterectomy, or who had high-risk factors following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Materials and Methods: Between March 1986 and December 1998, 58 patients, with FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer were included in this study. The indications for postoperative radiation therapy were based on the pathological findings, including lymph node metastasis, positive surgical margin, parametrial extension, lymphovascular invasion, invasion of more than half the cervical stroma, uterine extension and the incidental finding of cervix cancer fellowing simple hysterectomy. All patients received external pelvic radiotherapy, and 5 patients, received an additional intracavitary radiation therapy. The radiation dose from the external beam to the whole pelvis was $40\~50$ Gy. Vagina cuff Irradiation was peformed, after completion of the external beam irradiation, at a low-dose rate of Cs-137, with the total dose of $4488\~4932$ chy (median: 4500 chy) at 5 mm depth from the vagina surface. The median follow-up period was 44 months ($15\~108$ months). Results: The 5-yr actuarial local control rate, distant free survival and disease-free survival rate were $98\%,\;95\%\;and\;94\%$, respectively. A univariate analysis of the clinical and pathological parameters revealed that the clinical stage (p=0.0145), status of vaginal resection margin (p=0.0002) and parametrial extension (p=0.0001) affected the disease-free survival. From a multivariate analysis, only a parametrial extension independently influenced the disease-free survival. Five patients ($9\%$) experienced Grade 2 late treatment-related complications, such as radiation proctitis (1 patient), cystitis (3 patients) and lymphedema of the leg (1 patient). No patient had grade 3 or 4 complications. Conclusion: Our results indicate that postoperative radiation therapy can achieve good local control and survival rates for patients with stages IB-IIB cervical cancer, treated with a simple hysterectomy, as well as for those treated with a radical hysterectomy, and with unfavorable pathological findings. The prognostic factor for disease-free survival was invasion of the parametrium. The prognosic factor identified in this study for treatment failure can be used as a selection criterion for the combined treatment of radiation and che motherapy.