• Title, Summary, Keyword: pore-forming toxin

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Purification of a Pore-forming Peptide Toxin, Tolaasin, Produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii 6264

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Tae;Kim, Young-Kee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2007
  • Tolaasin, a pore-forming peptide toxin, is produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes brown blotch disease of the cultivated mushrooms. P. tolaasii 6264 was isolated from the oyster mushroom damaged by the disease in Korean. In order to isolate tolaasin molecules, the supernatant of bacterial culture was harvested at the stationary phase of growth. Tolaasin was prepared by ammonium sulfate precipitation and three steps of chromatograpies, including a gel permeation and two ion exchange chromatographies. Specific hemolytic activity of tolaasin was increased from 1.7 to 162.0 HU $mg^{-1}$ protein, a 98-fold increase, and the purification yield was 16.3%. Tolaasin preparation obtained at each purification step was analyzed by HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Two major peptides were detected from all chromatographic preparations. Their molecular masses were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and they were identified as tolaasin I and tolaasin II. These results demonstrate that the method used in this study is simple, time-saving, and successful for the preparation of tolaasin.

Expression and Biochemical Characterization of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4B ${\alpha}1$-${\alpha}5$ Pore-forming Fragment

  • Puntheeranurak, Theeraporn;Leetacheewa, Somphob;Katzenmeier, Gerd;Krittanai, Chartchai;Panyim, Sakol;Angsuthanasombat, Chanan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2001
  • Tryptic activation of the 130-kDa Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4B $\delta$-endotoxin produced protease-resistant products of ca. 47 kDa and ca. 21 kDa. The 21-kDa fragment was identified as the N-terminal five-helix bundle (${\alpha}1-{\alpha}5$,) which is a potential candidate for membrane insertion and pore formation. In this study, we constructed the recombinant clone over-expressing this putative pore-forming (PPF) fragment as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The partially purified inclusions were composed of a 23-kDa protein, which cross-reacted with Cry4B antibodies, and whose N-terminus was identical to that of the 130-kDa protein. Dissimilar to protoxin inclusions, the PPF inclusions were only soluble when the carbonate buffer, pH 9.0, was supplemented with 6 M urea. After renaturation via a stepwise dialysis, the refolded PPF protein appeared to exist as an oligomer and was structurally stable upon trypsin treatment. Unlike the 130kDa protoxin, the refolded protein was able to release entrapped glucose from liposomes, and showed comparable activity to the full-length activated toxin, although it lacks larvicidal activity These results, therefore, support the notion that the PPF fragment that consists of ${\alpha}1-{\alpha}5$ of the activated Cry4B toxin is involved in membrane pore-formation.

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Various Pathogenic Pseudomonas Strains that Cause Brown Blotch Disease in Cultivated Mushrooms

  • Mu, Lin-Lin;Yun, Yeong-Bae;Park, Soo-Jin;Cha, Jae-Soon;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 2015
  • Brown blotch disease in cultivated mushrooms is caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, which secretes a lipodepsipeptide, tolaasin. Tolaasin is a pore-forming toxin in the cell membranes, thus destroying the fruiting body structure of mushroom. In this study, we isolated pathogenic bacteria from mushrooms that had symptoms of brown blotch disease. In order to identify these bacteria, their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and analyzed. Pathogenic bacteria identified as Pseudomonas species were thirty five and classified into five subgroups: P1 to P5. Each subgroup showed different metabolic profile measured by API 20NE kit. Fifty percent of the bacteria were identified as P. tolaasii (P1 subgroup). All five subgroups caused the formation of brown blotches on mushroom tissues and the optimum temperature was 25oC, indicating that they may be able to secrete causal factors, such as tolaasin and similar peptide toxins. These results show that there are at least five different pathogenic Pseudomonas species as blotch-causing bacteria and, therefore, strains from the P2 to P5 subgroups should be also considered and studied as pathogens in order to improve the quality and yield of mushroom production.

Development and Validation of a Perfect KASP Marker for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance Gene Fhb1 in Wheat

  • Singh, Lovepreet;Anderson, James A;Chen, Jianli;Gill, Bikram S;Tiwari, Vijay K;Rawat, Nidhi
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2019
  • Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating wheat disease with a significant economic impact. Fhb1 is the most important large effect and stable QTL for FHB resistance. A pore-forming toxin-like (PFT) gene was recently identified as an underlying gene for Fhb1 resistance. In this study, we developed and validated a PFT-based Kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) marker for Fhb1. The KASP marker, PFT_KASP, was used to screen 298 diverse wheat breeding lines and cultivars. The KASP clustering results were compared with gelbased gene specific markers and the widely used linked STS marker, UMN10. Eight disagreements were found between PFT_KASP and UMN10 assays among the tested lines. Based on the genotyping and sequencing of genes in the Fhb1 region, these genotypes were found to be common with a previously characterized susceptible haplotype. Therefore, our results indicate that PFT_KASP is a perfect diagnostic marker for Fhb1 and would be a valuable tool for introgression and pyramiding of FHB resistance in wheat cultivars.

Facilitation of tolaasin-induced hemolysis by phospholipids composed of medium-chain fatty acids (중간크기 탄소사슬의 지방산으로 이루어진 인지질에 의한 tolaasin의 용혈활성 촉진)

  • Yun, Yeong-Bae;Kim, Min-Hee;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.221-225
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    • 2016
  • Tolaasin is a pore-forming peptide toxin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes a brown blotch disease by disrupting membrane structures of cultivated mushrooms. The mechanism and characteristics of tolaasin pore formation are not known in detail; however, tolaasin pores have been demonstrated in the artificial lipid bilayer. Since the tolaasin pore appeared less frequently and unstable in lipid bilayer, a mismatch between the length of tolaasin pore and the thickness of lipid membrane had been suggested. Therefore, tolaasin-induced hemolyses were measured by the additions of phospholipids composed of various fatty acids with different carbon numbers. When phosphatidylethanolamines made with two decanoic acids (C10:0, 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine; DDPE), myristic acids (C14:0, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), and stearic acids (C18:0, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) were added to the buffer containing RBCs and tolaasin peptides, DDPE facilitated the tolaasin-induced hemolysis while the other two phospholipids showed no effects. At various concentrations of DDPE, the tolaasin-induced hemolysis was stimulated as a dose-dependent manner. The phospholipids composed of mediumchain fatty acids stabilize the tolaasin pore probably by binding between the pore structure and membrane phospholipids and making the membrane thickness thinner around the pore. These results showed that tolaasin molecules make more stable pores in the membrane made with phospholipids composed of medium length fatty acids, suggesting that the length of tolaasin pore is a little shorter than the thickness of RBC membrane.

Temperature and Concentration-dependences of Tolaasin-induced Hemolysis

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Bhan, Sung-Soo;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.41-41
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    • 2002
  • Tolaasin, a pore-forming 1.9 kDa peptide toxin released by Pseudomonas tolaasii, produces brown blotch disease on cultivated oyster mushrooms. To investigate the mechanism of tolaasin-induced cell disruption, we studied the effect of temperature on the hemolytic process. In the kinetic analyses, single exponential function was fitted to the data obtained from temperature-dependent velocity of hemolysis(1/t$\_$50/, implying that there is a major time-limiting factor on the temperature-dependent hemolysis.(omitted)

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Directed Mutagenesis of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11A Toxin Reveals a Crucial Role in Larvicidal Activity of Arginine-136 in Helix 4

  • Angsuthanasombat, Chanan;Keeratichamreon, Siriporn;Leetacheewa, Somphob;Katzenmeier, Gerd;Panyim, Sakol
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.402-407
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    • 2001
  • Based on the currently proposed toxicity model for the different Bacillus thuringiensis Cry $\delta$-endotoxins, their pore-forming activity involves the insertion of the ${\alpha}4-{\alpha}5$ helical hairpin into the membrane of the target midgut epithelial cell. In this study, a number of polar or charged residues in helix 4 within domain I of the 65-kDa dipteranactive Cry11A toxin, Lys-123, Tyr-125, Asn-128, Ser-130, Gln-135, Arg-136, Gln-139 and Glu-141, were initially substituted with alanine by using PCR-based directed mutagenesis. All mutant toxins were expressed as cytoplasmic inclusions in Escherichia coli upon induction with IPTG. Similar to the wild-type protoxin inclusion, the solubility of each mutant inclusion in the carbonate buffer, pH 9.0, was relatively low When E. coli cells, expressing each of the mutant proteins, were tested for toxicity against Aedes aegypti mosquito-larvae, toxicity was completely abolished for the alanine substitution of arginine at position 136. However, mutations at the other positions still retained a high level of larvicidal activity Interestingly, further analysis of this critical arginine residue by specific mutagenesis showed that conversions of arginine-136 to aspartate, glutamine, or even to the most conserved residue lysine, also abolished the wild-type activity The results of this study revealed an important determinant in toxin function for the positively charged side chain of arginine-136 in helix 4 of the Cry11A toxin.

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Hemolytic Properties of Tolaasin Causing the Brown Blotch Disease on Oyster Mushroom (느타리버섯 갈반병 원인독소 Tolaasin의 용혈특성)

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Park, Kyoung-Sun;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.190-195
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    • 2000
  • Tolaasin is a peptide toxin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes a brown blotch disease forming brown, slightly sunken spots and blotches on the cultivated mushrooms. It is a lipodepsipeptide consisting of 18 amino acids and its molecular mass is 1,985 Da. It forms a pore in plasma membranes, resulting in the disruption of membranes of fungal, bacterial, plant, and animal cells as well as mushroom tissue. In order to measure the toxicity of tolaasin, erythrocytes of blood were used to evaluate the tolaasin-induced hemolysis. Hemolytic activity of tolaasin was measured by observing the absorbance change either at 420 nm, representing the release of hemoglobins from red blood cells(RBCs), or at 600 nm, representing the density of residual cells. The hemolytic activity of culture-extract of P. tolaasii increased at early-stationary phase of growth and was maximal at late stationary phase. The hemolytic activity of tolaasin appeared high in the RBCs of dog and rat. The RBCs of rabbit and hen were less susceptible to tolaasin. The effects of various cations were also measured. $Cd^{2+}$ and $La^{3+}$. as well as $Zn^{2+}$ appeared inhibitory to the tolaasin-induced hemolysis. The effects of various anions on tolaasin-induced hemolysis were measured and carbonate showed the greatest inhibition to the hemolysis. However, phosphate stimulated the tolaasin-induced hemolysis and no effects were observed by chloride and nitrate.

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pH-dependent Cytotoxicity of a Peptide Toxin, Tolaasin (펩티드 독소 Tolaasin에 의한 세포독성의 pH 의존성)

  • Kim, Sung-Tae;Choi, Tae-Keun;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.257-261
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    • 2007
  • Tolaasin, a peptide toxin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii, causes a serious disease on the cultivated mushrooms, known as brown blotch disease. Hemolysis using red blood cells was designed to measure the cytotoxicity of tolaasin molecules. Since tolaasin has two amine groups near the C-terminus, its membrane binding will be dependent on the ionic states of the amine groups. When the tolaasin peptide was titrated, its titration curve indicated the presence of titratable amine(s) at pH ranges from 7.0 to 9.6. When the pH-dependence of tolaasin-induced hemolysis was measured at various pHs, hemolysis was more efficient at alkaline pHs. In order to measure the membrane binding activity of tolaasin at different pHs, RBCs were incubated with tolaasin molecules for short time periods and washed out with fresh buffer. Because of the tolaasin binding during the preincubation period, fast hemolyses were observed at pH 8 or higher. These results imply that non-charged or less positively charged states of tolaasin molecules easily bind to membrane and show high hemolytic activity.

Inhibitory Effect of $Zn^{+2}$ on Tolaasin-induced Hemolysis ($Zn^{+2}$에 의한 Tolaasin의 용혈활성 저해효과)

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Tae;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.281-286
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    • 2006
  • Tolaasin, a pore-forming toxin, is a 1,985 Da peptide produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes a brown blotch disease on cultivated mushrooms. Tolaasin forms pores on the plasma membrane of various cells including fungi, bacteria, plant as well as erythrocytes, and destroys cell structure. $Zn^{+2}$ has been known to block the tolaasin activity by an unknown mechanism. Thus, we investigated the inhibitory effects of $Zn^{+2}$ on the tolaasin-induced hemolysis to understand the molecular mechanism of tolaasin-induced pore formation. $Zn^{+2}$ and $Cd^{+2}$ inhibited the tolaasin-induced hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner and their Ki values were 170 ${\mu}M$ and 20 mM, respectively. The effect of $Zn^{+2}$ was reversible since the subsequent addition of EDTA chelates $Zn^{+2}$ and removes the inhibitory effect of $Zn^{+2}$. When an osmotic protectant, PEG 2000, was added, the tolaasin-induced hemolysis was not observed. After the removal of osmotic protectant by centrifugation, resuspended erythrocytes with fresh medium were immediately hemolyzed, while the addition of $Zn^{+2}$ prevented from hemolysis, implying that tolaasin-induced pores on the membrane were already formed in the medium containing osmotic protectant. These results suggest that $Zn^{+2}$ inhibits the activity of tolaasin pores and it has minor effects on the membrane binding of tolaasin and the formation of pore.