• 제목, 요약, 키워드: pollution

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국민 건강의 결정 요인 2 : 환경요인 (Determinants of Heath : Environmental Factors)

  • 임현술
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.480-507
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    • 1993
  • Environmental pollution is common problem of the present world that is intimately related to the future survival of human beings. The problems of environmental pollution originate from the pursuit of benefit by enterprises, insufficient countermeasure of government and ignorant life style of the people. Health hazards due to environmental pollution have characteristics of irreversibility, difficulty in measurement and ineffectiveness of personal prevention. Objects of this article are to review the various aspects of environmental pollution, to outline the present status of environmental pollution and strategy to control environmental pollution in Korea. In the first part of this article, causes of environmental pollution are presented. International relationships, world-wide status of environmental pollution and health hazards due to environmental pollution are briefly reviewed. In the second part, present status of air, water, soil and ocean pollution in Korea is presented. Pollution by radioactive materials, noise, vibrations, odor, wastes and chemicals is reviewed. Climate changes related to environmental poisoning, problems of workplace environment, pesticide and defoliants are also reviewed. Finally, control measures for environmental pollution including the role of government are reviewed.

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Perceived Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health in China, Japan, and South Korea

  • Kamimura, Akiko;Armenta, Bianca;Nourian, Maziar;Assasnik, Nushean;Nourian, Kimiya;Chernenko, Alla
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.188-194
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: Environmental pollution is a significant global issue. Both objective (scientifically measured) environmental pollution and perceived levels of pollution are important predictors of self-reported health. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between perceived environmental pollution and health in China, Japan, and South Korea. Methods: Data were obtained from the East Asian Social Survey and the Cross-National Survey Data Sets: Health and Society in East Asia, 2010 (n=7938; China, n=3866; Japan, n=2496; South Korea, n=1576). Results: South Koreans perceived environmental pollution to be the most severe, while Japanese participants perceived environmental pollution to be the least severe. Although the Japanese did not perceive environmental pollution to be very severe, their self-rated physical health was significantly related to perceived environmental pollution, while the analogous relationships were not significant for the Chinese or Korean participants. Better mental health was related to lower levels of perceived air pollution in China, as well as lower levels of perceived all types of pollution in Japan and lower levels of perceived noise pollution in South Korea. Conclusions: Physical and mental health and individual socio-demographic characteristics were associated with levels of perceived environmental pollution, but with different patterns among these three countries.

선박의 해양오염 자율점검제도에 관한 연구 (A Study on the Self Monitoring System of Marine Pollution from ship)

  • 김영환;고성덕;최현규;임병만
    • 해양환경안전학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.101-104
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    • 2008
  • 1978년도부터 2007년도까지 30년간 해양경찰청 소속 해양환경감시원이 선박에 직전 승선하여 해양오염방지설비의 정상가동 여부 및 각종 오염물질 기록부의 비치 기록 관리여부와 폐유 및 폐기물 처리 실적을 확인하고 선외 배출여부 등을 점검하여 오던 해양환경관리법 제 115조에 좌한 사후적 해양오염 점검 성격의 선박출입검사 제도를 선박이 스스로 해양오염을 관리 점검하고 선박 종사자의 불편과 경제적 활동에 대한 부담을 덜어 주기 위해 해양오염을 사전에 예방할 수 있는 선박자율점검 제도에 대하여 제시하였다.

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비점오염원의 효율적 관리를 위한 국민의식연구 (A Study of People's Consciousness for Efficient Management of Nonpoint Pollution Source)

  • 오형은
    • 한국환경생태학회지
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.803-813
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    • 2015
  • 본 연구는 수질오염 및 비점오염에 대한 일반인들의 의식을 알아보고, 비점오염 저감을 위한 교육의 필요성과 참여의사 등을 파악함으로써 비점오염 예방과 관리에 있어 일반인들의 참여를 이끌고자 수행되었다. 이를 위해, Onpanel에 가입된 전국 20대 이상 성인 남녀 1,000명을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하였다. 설문의 구성은 수질오염 인식현황, 비점오염 예방활동, 비점오염 예방을 위한 대책마련, 비점오염원 저감을 위한 국민교육 필요성, 홍보 및 캠페인 참여의식, 비점오염 저감을 위한 조직 활성화 방안 등으로 구성하였다. 설문조사 결과 응답자들의 수질오염에 대한 관심도가 높게 나타났으며 특히 비점오염 관심도는 연령, 학력, 소득이 높을수록 더욱 높은 관심도를 보여 비점오염원에 대한 홍보 교육의 실효성을 높일 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. 비점오염에 대한 관심도, 정보, 교육, 저감활동 관련 경험이 많을수록 비점오염 저감교육의 효과를 긍정적으로 인식하였으며, 비점오염 저감교육의 효과를 긍정적으로 인식할수록 교육 참여의사가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 비점오염의 관리를 위해서는 국민의 공감대 형성이 반드시 필요하며, 비점오염 관련 정보, 교육, 저감활동에 대한 참여경험을 높이는 시민 활동 프로그램의 공급과 쉽고 전달력 강한 홍보가 지속적으로 이루어져야 할 것이다.

Pollution error를 이용한 개선된 요소생성 알고리즘 (A Modified Mesh Generation Algorithm Using Pollution Error)

  • 유형선;장준환
    • 한국전산구조공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, we study on a modified mesh generation method based on the pollution error estimate. This method is designed for the control of the pollution error in any patch of elements of interest. It is a well-known fact that the pollution error estimates are much more than the local one. Reliable a posteriori error estimation is possible by controlling the pollution error in the patch through proper design of the mesh outside the patch. This design is possible by equally distributing the pollution error indicators over the mesh outside the patch. The conventional feedback pollution-adaptive mesh generation algorithm needs many iterations. Therefore, the solution time is significant. But we use the remeshing scheme in the proposed method. We will also show that the pollution error reduces less than the local error.

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GIS의한 대기오염과 토지이용상태와의 상관성분석에 관한 연구 (Study of Air Quality and Land Use Correlation using GIS)

  • 최병길;라영우
    • 한국측량학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.345-352
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    • 2004
  • This study analyzes interrelationship with air pollution quality and land use patterns using GIS. The relationship can be obtained via three steps: (1) making out air pollution map from air pollution information of study area, (2) dividing land use patterns into residential area, commercial area, industrial area, traffic concentrated area, and non-polluted area, and (3) spatial overlaying analysis of GIS. Moreover, through analyzing air pollution quality by land use patterns, pollution sources can be identified. The results also coincide with the characteristics of conventional air pollution finding. More detailed analyses using articulated on site air pollution quality measurement databases are needed to correctly identify the pollution sources through finding interrelationship with land use patterns and air pollution Quality using GIS. The developed method can help trace the path of pollution sources and plan urban land use projects.

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GIS based Non-Point Source Pollution Assessment

  • Sadeghi-Niaraki, Abolghasem;Kim, Kye-Hyun;Lee, Chol-Young
    • 대한원격탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.437-440
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    • 2008
  • In recent years, pollution load calculation has become a topic for research that resulted in the development of numerous GIS modeling methods. The existing pollution method for nonpoint source (NPS) can not be indentified and calculated the amount of the pollution precisely. This research shows that the association of typical pollutant concentrations with land uses in a watershed can provide a reasonably accurate characterization of nonpoint source pollution in the watershed using Expected Mean Concentrations (EMC). The GIS based pollution assessment method is performed for three pollutant constituents: BOD, TN, and TP. First, the runoff grid by means of the precipitation grid and runoff coefficient is estimated. Then, the NPS pollution loads are calculated by grid based method. Finally, the final outputs are evaluated by statistical technique. The results illustrate the merits of the approach. This model verified that GIS based method of estimating spatially distributed NPS pollution loads can lead to more accurate representation of the real world.

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수질오염총량관리 배출부하량에 대한 강우영향 분석연구 (Rainfall Effects on Discharged Pollution Load in Unit Watershed Area for the Management of TMDLs)

  • 박준대;오승영
    • 한국물환경학회지
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.648-653
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    • 2010
  • Discharged pollution load for the management of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) is calculated on the basis of rainfall data for reference year. Rainfall has an influence on discharged pollution load in unit watershed with combined sewer system. This study reviewed the status of discharged pollution load and rainfall conditions. We also investigated rainfall effects on discharged pollution load by analyzing change of the load in accordance with increase of rainfall. The change ratio of discharged pollution load was 18.6% while inflow load only 5.8% for 5 years from 2004 to 2008 in Daejeon district. The greatest rainfall and rain days were over 2 times than the least during the period. This change in rainfall could have great effect on discharged pollution load. The analysis showed that discharged pollution load increased 2.1 times in case rainfall increased 2 times and 1.2 times in case rain days increased 2 times. Rainfall effects, therefore, should be considered to make resonable evaluation of discharged pollution load in the assessment of annual performances.

새로운 Pollution Index를 이용한 배출 최소화 공정 연구 (New Pollution Indices for Use in Minimizing Environmental Impacts from Industrial Processes)

  • 최경희;유계상;문승현;장영수
    • 청정기술
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 1997
  • 환경 문제에 대한 사회적 관심이 높아지고 정부의 환경 규제도 강화되면서 환경 오염물질을 줄이기 위한 공정개선의 필요성이 대두되고 있다. 공정 개선을 위해서는 각 공정이 환경에 미치는 영향을 나타내는 정량적인 기준이 필요하다. 본 연구에서는 물질수지식으로부터 정의되는 오염 지수(Pollution Index)를 폐기물의 질량(mass), BOD, toxicity에 따라 세 가지로 구분하여 정의하였으며, 각 Pollution Index는 최적의 대안을 결정할 때 환경영향평가에 대한 정량적인 척도를 제시할 수 있으므로 비용평가와 더불어 공정 선택의 객관적인 기준이 될 수 있다. 정의된 Pollution Index를 문헌에 보고된 세제 제조 공정에 적용하여 기존의 공정과 개선된 공정에 대하여 Pollution Index를 계산하여 각 공정이 환경에 미치는 영향을 정량적인 수치로 비교하였다.

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