• Title, Summary, Keyword: pollutant transport

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Application of the STEM II to air pollutant transport/chemistry/ deposition in the Korea and Eastern China Area (STEM II를 이용한 한국과 중국동부 지역의 대기오염물질 이동/화학/침착 모사에 관한 연구)

  • 이상인;조석연;심상규
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.163-170
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    • 1995
  • The STEM II(Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model II) was adapted to investigate air pollutant transport phenomena between Eastern China and Korea. The movement of the high concentration region was clearly identified for the sulfate but was mot visible for SO$_{2}$. The 10.sim. 16 times more amount of SO$_{2}$ is transported to Korea compared to that of the local emission while the amount of the sulfate transported to Korea is 1 .sim. 1.3 times more than that of the sulfate produced by photo-chemical reaction in Korea. APTIs(Air Pollutant Transport Indices) for SO$_{2}$ and sulfate are approximately 0.85, which implies that the most of the SO$_{2}$ and sulfate existed in Korea are transported from Eastern China.

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Effect of the Wind on the Pollutant Transport in Masan Bay (마산만의 오염물질 수송에 미치는 바람 효과)

  • Kim, Jong-Hwa;Lee, Mun-Ok;Gang, Ju-Bok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.385-397
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    • 1992
  • Current measurements at 3 sections and numerical experiments were carried out in Masan Bay to understand the effect of the wind on the residual currents and pollutant transport. The vertical distribution of horizontal velocities were directly affected by the wind at the depths of 1m and 2m beneath the sea surface. Analysis of the velocity data suggested that changes in the vertical gravitational circulation contributed to the net circulation. The net transport of water through the northern part of the bay was observed to be landward, with wind-induced transport of about 100m super(3)/s. Hence, wind is concluded to be the dominant mechanism driving the net circulation in the northern area of Masan Bay. Numerical experiments are shown that when S wind with 5m/s blew, northern area of the bay was generated the horizontal circulation of clockwise and local gyre. On the contrary of those, N wind made her to the anti-clockwise. In the case of no wind, the tidal residual current(constant flow) is very small or neglected except the bay-mouth. The inflow or outflow pattern of the mouth is considered as the flows generated by tidal residual current only. The distance of wind-induced transport of pollutant was as long as 2 times of no wind during the one tidal period.

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Development of Pollutant Transport Model Working In GIS-based River Network Incorporating Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Data (ADCP자료를 활용한 GIS기반의 하천 네트워크에서 오염물질의 이송거동모델 개발)

  • Kim, Dongsu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.6B
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    • pp.551-560
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    • 2009
  • This paper describes a newly developed pollutant transport model named ARPTM which was designed to simulate the transport and characteristics of pollutant materials after an accidental spill in upstream of river system up to a given position in the downstream. In particular, the ARPTM incorporated ADCP data to compute longitudinal dispersion coefficient and advection velocity which are necessary to apply one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. ARPTM was built on top of the geographic information system platforms to take advantage of the technology's capabilities to track geo-referenced processes and visualize the simulated results in conjunction with associated geographic layers such as digital maps. The ARPTM computes travel distance, time, and concentration of the pollutant cloud in the given flow path from the river network, after quickly finding path between the spill of the pollutant material and any concerned points in the downstream. ARPTM is closely connected with a recently developed GIS-based Arc River database that stores inputs and outputs of ARPTM. ARPTM thereby assembles measurements, modeling, and cyberinfrastructure components to create a useful cyber-tool for determining and visualizing the dynamics of the clouds of pollutants while dispersing in space and time. ARPTM is expected to be potentially used for building warning system for the transport of pollutant materials in a large basin.

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Numerical Simulation for Dispersion of Anthropogenic Pollutant in Northern Masan Bay using Particle Tracking Model (입자추적모델을 이용한 마산만 북부 해역에서의 육상오염물질 확산 수치모의)

  • KIM, Jin-Ho;JUNG, Woo-Sung;HONG, Sok-Jin;LEE, Won-Chan;CHUNG, Yong-Hyun;KIM, Dong-Myung
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.1143-1151
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    • 2016
  • To study the dispersion process and residence time of anthropogenic pollutant in Masan bay, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model coupled to a particle tracking model, EFDC, is applied. Particle tracking model simulated the instantaneous release of particles emulating discharge from river and wastewater treatment plant to show the behaviour of pollutant in terms of water circulation and water exchange. Modelled outcomes for water circulation were in good agreement with tidal elevation and current data. The results of particle tracking model show that over half of particles released from northern Masan bay transport to out of area while the particles from Dukdong wastewater treatment plant transport to northern area. This meant pollution source from inside and outside of the northern area can affect water quality of northern Masan bay.

Optimization of aircraft fuel consumption and reduction of pollutant emissions: Environmental impact assessment

  • Khardi, Salah
    • Advances in aircraft and spacecraft science
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.311-330
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    • 2014
  • Environmental impact of aircraft emissions can be addressed in two ways. Air quality impact occurs during landings and takeoffs while in-flight impact during climbs and cruises influences climate change, ozone and UV-radiation. The aim of this paper is to investigate airports related local emissions and fuel consumption (FC). It gives flight path optimization model linked to a dispersion model as well as numerical methods. Operational factors are considered and the cost function integrates objectives taking into account FC and induced pollutant concentrations. We have compared pollutants emitted and their reduction during LTO cycles, optimized flight path and with analysis by Dopelheuer. Pollutants appearing from incomplete and complete combustion processes have been discussed. Because of calculation difficulties, no assessment has been made for the soot, $H_2O$ and $PM_{2.5}$. In addition, because of the low reliability of models quantifying pollutant emissions of the APU, an empirical evaluation has been done. This is based on Benson's fuel flow method. A new model, giving FC and predicting the in-flight emissions, has been developed. It fits with the Boeing FC model. We confirm that FC can be reduced by 3% for takeoffs and 27% for landings. This contributes to analyze the intelligent fuel gauge computing the in-flight fuel flow. Further research is needed to define the role of $NO_x$ which is emitted during the combustion process derived from the ambient air, not the fuel. Models are needed for analyzing the effects of fleet composition and engine combinations on emission factors and fuel flow assessment.

Air Pollutant Variations Observed at Deokjeok Island in the Yellow Sea During April 1999 to June 2000 (1999년 4월부터 2000년 6월까지 황해 덕적도에서 관찰된 대기오염물질 변화 특성)

  • 김영성;이승복;김진영;배귀남;문길주;원재광;윤순창
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.347-361
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    • 2003
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO$_2$), ozone, total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM$_{2.5}$ were measured at Deokjeok Island in the Yellow Sea during April 1999 to June 2000. Although the emission amount of air pollutants is quite low in this small island of 36 km$^2$ with 1.4 thousand inhabitants, there are pollutant sources such as an oil -firing power plant and a wharf for ferryboat. The island is also influenced from the emissions from the greater Seoul area in the east and from China in the west. In order to characterize the pollutant variations due to interactions between transport and local emissions. the correlation between variations of SO$_2$ and ozone was investigated. Mass and ion concentrations of TSP and PM$_{2.5}$ were examined on selected episode days of positive and negative correlations between the two gaseous species in spring and winter. The effects of transport were pronounced on the days of positive correlation in spring with higher concentrations of ozone and PM$_{2.5}$. TSP concentrations were also high on these days because of high wind speeds. On the days of negative correlation in spring, frequent fog associated with low wind speeds facilitated SO$_2$ oxidation and increased sulfate accompanied with decrease in nitrate in PM$_{2.5}$ and chloride in TSP. This latter phenomena was noticeable since it showed that chemical composition of fine particles could be significantly altered not only during the transport but also by local environment.ronment.

Mixing Characteristics of Nonconservative Pollutants in Paldang Lake (팔당호에 유입된 비보존성 오염물질의 혼합거동)

  • Seo, Il Won;Choi, Nam Jeong;Jun, In Ok;Song, Chang Geun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.3B
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    • pp.221-230
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    • 2009
  • In Korea, many water intake plants are easily affected by effluents of sewage treatment plants because sewage treatment plants are usually located upstream or nearby the plants of the same riverine area. Furthermore, the inflow of harmful contaminants owing to pollutant spills or transportation accidents of vehicles using the roads and bridges intersecting the river causes significant impact on the management of water intake plants. Paldang lake, the main water intake plants in Korea, is especially exposed to various water pollution accidents, because the drainage basin area is significantly large compared to the water surface area of the lake. Therefore it is necessary to predict the possible pollutant spill in advance and consider measurements in case of water pollution. In this study, water quality prediction was performed in Paldang Lake in Korea durig the dry season using two-dimensional numerical models. In order to represent the cases of pollutant accidents, the difference of pollutant transport patterns with varying injection points was analyzed. Numerical simulations for hydrodynamics of water flow and water quality predictions were performed using RMA-2 and RAM4 respectively. As a result of simulation, the difference of pollutant transport with the injection points was analyzed. As a countermeasure against the pollutant accident, the augmentation of the flow rate is proposed. In comparison with the present state, the rapid dilution and flushing effects on the pollutant cloud could be expected with increase of flow rate. Thus, increase of flow rate can be used for operation of water intake plants in case of pollutant spill accidents.

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